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Studies of the fear of crime have constituted what is undeniably the fastest growing research area within criminology in the last decade and this shows no sign of diminishing. The editors have a distinguished record of innovative research in the field, being responsible for a number of seminal empirical and theoretical articles. In this volume, they have collected together and for the first time, all the most significant contributions to the field. The collection includes an introductory essay by the editors and articles reflecting: an overview of the field; the causes of vulnerability; the sources of information on victimisation; the methods used to survey fear; the theoretical models employed to explain it; and the nature of policies designed to reduce fear.
As a subject area of inquiry and research, fear of crime and punitiveness have played an increasingly important role in criminology. Since the early 1990s, and emanating largely from within the United States, there has been a growing body of research as well as increased attention given to the subject by the media and policy-makers. In part, triggered by the fact that the Unites States has the highest imprisonment rate (approx. 780/100,000 in 2012) in the Western world and still has the death penalty in most states, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of peoples' perceptions of crime, their fear of possible victimization, and their sense of punitivity to-wards offenders. And although the body of literature on fear of crime and puntivity has been growing, there still remain many regions and countries of the world where there is a dearth of such research. This collection includes several of the countries where such research represents the first of its kind. The reader will be provided a broad overview of the subject and presented with varied observations about fear of crime and punitivity from different parts of the world. As the project represents a novel and exploratory venture into the subject area, the collective content provided in this collection will hopefully also serve to advance future research and inform sentencing policy and initiatives to address fear of crime. This volume includes seven comparable reports in which the contributors used a common standardized survey to collect data on fear of crime and punitivity among post-secondary students. The countries represent a cross-section of different legal, political, and cultural systems. The countries also vary in their degree of criminal justice development and in terms of the rights of victims. In each of the contribu-tions, the author(s) provide an overview of their country before discussing the results of the survey they administered. The articles are prepared in a manner that allow varying degrees of comparison as well as recommendations for the future di-rection of this relatively new area of international inquiry. - Cover.
This book provides an introduction to the key debates within the area of victims and victimology. While the mainstay of the text focuses on victim-centred criminal and social justice developments in England and Wales, examples from around the world are provided in order to explore the victims ¿place¿ in the context of wider political and policy debates. The book¿s eight chapters, together with its introduction and end comment, describe and comment on some of the most salient developments, in recent years, in so-called ¿victim-centred¿ justice. Victims and Victimology is suitable for courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate level.
At the outset of the twenty-first century, more than 9 million people are held in custody in over 200 countries around the world. --from the essay "Prisons and Jails" by Ron King The first comparative study of this increasingly integral social subject, International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice provides a comprehensive and balanced review of the philosophy and practicality of punishment. Drawn from the expertise of scholars and researchers from around the world, this book covers the theory, practice, history, and empirical evidence surrounding crime prevention, identification, retribution, and incarceration. It analyzes the efficacy of both traditional methods and thinking as well as novel concepts and approaches. Beginning with a study of the changing attitude of penal practice in Florida from one of offender transformation to one of risk-management, imprisonment, surveillance, and control, this volume embarks on an objective and sober appraisal of every aspect of the field. Contributions consider the sociology of incarcerated prisoners including the increasing prevalence of prison suicides. The book evaluates arguments regarding the world-wide abolition of capitol punishment from moral, utilitarian, and practical positions. It examines non-incarcerative and alternative punishments such as financial restoration and restrictions of liberty, as well as the positive effects of Victim Offender Mediation. It also considers several methods aimed at achieving measurable crime prevention including identifying at-risk juveniles and minimizing crimes of opportunity, as well as the pros and cons of employing the coercive power of police. Further essays consider subjects such as international policing, the roles of prosecution and defense attorneys, current discretionary sentencing practices, and the role and treatment of victims. The volume concludes with two chapters of case studies that provide a "hands-on" feel for the interplay of the concepts discussed. This volume is the first in a three-part trilogy. See also The International Handbook of Victimology and The International Handbook of Criminology.
The International library of Criminology, Criminal Justice and Penology is an important publishing initiative that brings together the most significant contemporary published journal essays in current criminology, criminal justice and penology. The series
Occupational crime is found in the whole range of occupations and at all levels and all professions. Yet despite the fact that these activities are widespread and well known, it is an area blurred by contradictory perceptions, denials and arguments over definition. Presenting the most influential essays on occupational law, this volume sheds valuable light on this widely contested field of law.
Violence is a collection, in a conveniently accessible form, of the most influential articles by leading authorities in the study of violence. It is organised in a unique way that enables readers to conceptualise violence and its explanations in a manner that itself interrogates the theme of the book, what is violence and how might it be understood. It provides an international reference work, combined with an authoritative introduction by the editor.