Search Results: the-great-naturalists-from-aristotle-to-darwin

The Great Naturalists

Author: Robert Huxley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 304

View: 1856

Traces the story of natural history as reflected by the lives, observations, and discoveries of some of the world's forefront naturalists, including Alexander von Humboldt, Charles Darwin, and Aristotle, in an account that is complemented by lavish paintings and drawings of animals and natural objects.

From Aristotle to Darwin and Back Again

A Journey in Final Causality, Species and Evolution

Author: Etienne Gilson

Publisher: Ignatius Press

ISBN: 1681491958

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 6362

Foreword by Christoph Cardinal Schönborn Darwin's theory of evolution remains controversial, even though most scientists, philosophers, and even theologians accept it, in some form, as an explanation for the variety of organisms. The controversy erupts when the theory is used to try to explain everything, including every aspect of human life, and to deny the role of a Creator or a purpose to life. The overreaching of many scientists into matters beyond the self-imposed limits of scientific method is perhaps explained in part by the loss of two important ideas in modern thinking—final causality or purpose, and formal causality. Scientists understandably bracket the idea out of their scientific thinking because they seek explanations on the level of material and efficient causes only. Yet many of them wrongly conclude from their selective study of the world that final and formal causes do not exist at all and that they have no place in the rational study of life. Likewise, many erroneously assume that philosophy cannot draw upon scientific findings, in light of final and formal causality, to better understand the world and man. The great philosopher and historian of philosophy, +tienne Gilson, sets out to show that final causality or purposiveness and formal causality are principles for those who think hard and carefully about the world, including the world of biology. Gilson insists that a completely rational understanding of organisms and biological systems requires the philosophical notion of teleology, the idea that certain kinds of things exist and have ends or purposes the fulfillment of which are linked to their natures—in other words, formal and final causes. His approach relies on philosophical reflection on the facts of science, not upon theology or an appeal to religious authorities such as the Church or the Bible. "The object of the present essay is not to make of final causality a scientific notion, which it is not, but to show that it is a philosophical inevitability and, consequently, a constant of biophilosophy, or philosophy of life. It is not, then, a question of theology. If there is teleology in nature, the theologian has the right to rely on this fact in order to draw from it the consequences which, in his eyes, proceed from it concerning the existence of God. But the existence of teleology in the universe is the object of a properly philosophical reflection, which has no other goal than to confirm or invalidate the reality of it. The present work will be concerned with nothing else: reason interpreting sensible experience—does it or does it not conclude to the existence of teleology in nature?" Etienne Gilson

Eternal quest

the story of the great naturalists

Author: Alexander B. Adams

Publisher: Constable & Company Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 509

View: 3887

The Lagoon

How Aristotle Invented Science

Author: Armand Marie Leroi

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0698170393

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 4304

A brilliant study of Aristotle as biologist The philosophical classics of Aristotle loom large over the history of Western thought, but the subject he most loved was biology. He wrote vast volumes about animals. He described them, classified them, told us where and how they live and how they develop in the womb or in the egg. He founded a science. It can even be said that he founded science itself. In The Lagoon, acclaimed biologist Armand Marie Leroi recovers Aristotle’s science. He revisits Aristotle’s writings and the places where he worked. He goes to the eastern Aegean island of Lesbos to see the creatures that Aristotle saw, where he saw them. He explores Aristotle’s observations, his deep ideas, his inspired guesses—and the things he got wildly wrong. He shows how Aristotle’s science is deeply intertwined with his philosophical system and reveals that he was not only the first biologist, but also one of the greatest. The Lagoon is both a travelogue and a study of the origins of science. And it shows how a philosopher who lived almost two millennia ago still has so much to teach us today. From the Hardcover edition.

Darwin, God and the Meaning of Life

How Evolutionary Theory Undermines Everything You Thought You Knew

Author: Steve Stewart-Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139490990

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6746

If you accept evolutionary theory, can you also believe in God? Are human beings superior to other animals, or is this just a human prejudice? Does Darwin have implications for heated issues like euthanasia and animal rights? Does evolution tell us the purpose of life, or does it imply that life has no ultimate purpose? Does evolution tell us what is morally right and wrong, or does it imply that ultimately 'nothing' is right or wrong? In this fascinating and intriguing book, Steve Stewart-Williams addresses these and other fundamental philosophical questions raised by evolutionary theory and the exciting new field of evolutionary psychology. Drawing on biology, psychology and philosophy, he argues that Darwinian science supports a view of a godless universe devoid of ultimate purpose or moral structure, but that we can still live a good life and a happy life within the confines of this view.

Mind and Cosmos

Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False

Author: Thomas Nagel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199919755

Category: Philosophy

Page: 130

View: 7165

The modern materialist approach to life has conspicuously failed to explain such central mind-related features of our world as consciousness, intentionality, meaning, and value. This failure to account for something so integral to nature as mind, argues philosopher Thomas Nagel, is a major problem, threatening to unravel the entire naturalistic world picture, extending to biology, evolutionary theory, and cosmology. Since minds are features of biological systems that have developed through evolution, the standard materialist version of evolutionary biology is fundamentally incomplete. And the cosmological history that led to the origin of life and the coming into existence of the conditions for evolution cannot be a merely materialist history, either. An adequate conception of nature would have to explain the appearance in the universe of materially irreducible conscious minds, as such. Nagel's skepticism is not based on religious belief or on a belief in any definite alternative. InMind and Cosmos, he does suggest that if the materialist account is wrong, then principles of a different kind may also be at work in the history of nature, principles of the growth of order that are in their logical form teleological rather than mechanistic. In spite of the great achievements of the physical sciences, reductive materialism is a world view ripe for displacement. Nagel shows that to recognize its limits is the first step in looking for alternatives, or at least in being open to their possibility.

Voyages of Discovery

A Visual Celebration of Ten of the Greatest Natural History Expeditions

Author: A. L. Rice,Tony Rice,David Bellamy

Publisher: Firefly Books Limited

ISBN: 9781554074143

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 3604

Recalls three centuries of natural history exploration, and includes maps and rare drawings, as well as the stories of Captain Cook, Charles Darwin, and other explorers.

Darwin's Dice

The Idea of Chance in the Thought of Charles Darwin

Author: Curtis Johnson,Curtis N. Johnson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 019936141X

Category: Science

Page: 253

View: 5240

"For evolutionary biologists, the concept of chance has always played a significant role in the formation of evolutionary theory. As far back as Greek antiquity, chance and "luck" were understood to be key factors in the evolution of the natural world. Emphasizing chance is an entire way of thinking about nature, and it is also one of the key ideas that separates Charles Darwin from other systematic biologists of his time. Studying the concept of chance in Darwin's writing reveals core ideas in his theory of evolution, as well as his reflections on design, purpose, and randomness in nature's progression over the course of history. In Darwin's Dice: The Idea of Chance in the Thought of Charles Darwin, Curtis Johnson does exactly that. He examines the workof Darwin in terms of his views on randomness and chance, and how the views changed as his work progressed. Randomness was a focal point for Darwin, and pursuing it as a theme helped significantly transform his research. Darwin's Dice shows us how Darwindefined "chance," and explores Darwin's influential architect metaphor in relation to the idea. Through the lens of randomness, Johnson reveals how Darwin's treatment of free will becomes more complex. This approach can shed light on many other quirks and points of interest in Darwin's work, including the curiously shifting presence of giraffes in subsequent drafts of On the Origin of Species. Johnson also reexamines Darwin's "Metaphysical Notebooks," and discusses the role Darwin felt that chance plays in morality and religion. Darwin's Dice presents a new way to look at Darwinist thought and the writings on Charles Darwin. Curtis Johnson reveals that chance and randomness play a large part in Darwinist thought, and that we can better understand Darwin's work by understanding that part"--

Deep Things Out of Darkness

A History of Natural History

Author: John G. T. Anderson

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520273761

Category: Nature

Page: 346

View: 8953

Natural history, the deliberate observation of the environment, is arguably the oldest science. From purely practical beginnings as a way of finding food and shelter, natural history evolved into the holistic, systematic study of plants, animals, and the landscape. Deep Things out of Darkness chronicles the rise, decline, and ultimate revival of natural history within the realms of science and public discourse. Ecologist John G. T. Anderson focuses his account on the lives and contributions of an eclectic group of men and women, from John Ray, John Muir, Charles Darwin, and Rachel Carson, who endured remarkable hardships and privations in order to learn more about their surroundings. Written in an engaging narrative style and with an extensive bibliography of primary sources, the book charts the journey of the naturalist’s endeavor from prehistory to the present, underscoring the need for natural history in an era of dynamic environmental change.

Darwin's Ghosts

In Search of the First Evolutionists

Author: Rebecca Stott

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1408831015

Category: Biologists

Page: 383

View: 6642

An electrifying account of the extraordinary untold history behind Darwin's theory of evolution

Voyages of Discovery

Three Centuries of Natural History Exploration

Author: A. L. Rice,David Bellamy

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781902686028

Category: Natural history

Page: 335

View: 9666

A visual record of some of the most significant and beautiful discoveries in the history of natural science exploration. Handpicked from the vast archives of the Natural History Museum in London, these are the stories and images of explorers, naturalists, artists and photographers the world over.

Encyclopedia of Time

Science, Philosophy, Theology, & Culture

Author: H. James Birx

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412941644

Category: Science

Page: 1541

View: 571

Surveying the major facts, concepts, theories, and speculations that infuse our present comprehension of time, the Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, Theology, and Culture explores the contributions of scientists, philosophers, theologians, and creative artists from ancient times to the present. By drawing together into one collection ideas from scholars around the globe and in a wide range of disciplines, this Encyclopedia will provide readers with a greater understanding of and appreciation for the elusive phenomenon experienced as time. Features · Surveys historical thought about time, including those that emerged in ancient Greece, early Christianity, the Italian Renaissance, the Age of Enlightenment, and other periods+ Covers the original and lasting insights of evolutionary biologist Charles Darwin, physicist Albert Einstein, philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, and theologian Pierre Teilhard de Chardin + Discusses the significance of time in the writings of Isaac Asimov, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Fyodor M. Dostoevsky, Francesco Petrarch, and numerous other authors+ Includes the contributions of naturalists, philosophers, physicists, theologians, astronomers, anthropologists, geologists, paleontologists, and psychologists+ Includes artists+ portrayals of the fluidity of time, including painter Salvador Dali+s The Persistence of Memory and The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, and writers Gustave Flaubert+s The Temptation of Saint Anthony and Henryk Sienkiewicz+s Quo Vadis+ Provides a truly interdisciplinary approach, with discussions of Aztec, Buddhist, Christian, Egyptian, Ethiopian, Islamic, Hindu, Navajo, and many other cultures+ conceptions of time

Art of Nature

Three Centuries of Natural History Art

Author: Judith Magee

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780565094423

Category:

Page: 256

View: 5280

Art of Nature is an astonishing visual record of the exploration of parts of the natural world that had never previously been documented. It features many of the greatest natural history artists of the last 300 years--Merian, Bartram, Ehret, the Bauer brothers, Audubon, and Gould. Some were seeking fame as scientists or artists, others sought financial gain or at least the prospect of earning a living in what they loved doing. For some it also provided them with the opportunity to present their view of nature to a wider community. Whatever the reasons, few would have contradicted Humboldt's comment that he was "spurred on by an uncertain longing for what is distant and unknown, for whatever excited my fantasy: danger at sea, the desire for adventures, to be transported from a boring daily life to a marvellous world." Continent by continent, Judith Magee draws on the unrivaled collections of the Library of the Natural History Museum in London to illustrate the development of natural history art through the centuries and its crucial role in furthering people's appreciation of nature all around the world.

Curative Properties of Honey and Bee Venom

Author: N. Yoirish

Publisher: The Minerva Group, Inc.

ISBN: 9780898754094

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 200

View: 6676

For centuries honey has been regarded as a wonderful gift of nature in which the properties of an excellent food, beneficial alike to adults and children, are combined with medicinal properties. Ancient Russian manuscripts attached great importance to honey as a medicine. Popular medicine has successfully used it for many diseases from time immemorial. The results of experiments and observations made by the medical science in recent decades have proved that honey is an important medicine possessing many-sided therapeutic properties.Honey is very effective in the treatment of some pathological conditions of the intestinal tract, the respiratory organs, the heart, and the nerves.The knowledge that bee venom possesses medicinal properties has come down to us from remote antiquity. Written evidence, as well as the observations of many beekeepers and our own long experience, confirm the effectiveness of been venom in the treatment of rheumatic fever, neuritis and some other diseases.Honey and bee venom treatment must be carried on under the supervision of a physician and can be made a component part in a complex of curative measures for many diseases.

The Wedge of Truth

Splitting the Foundations of Naturalism

Author: Phillip E. Johnson

Publisher: InterVarsity Press

ISBN: 9780830823956

Category: Religion

Page: 192

View: 4765

Phillip E. Johnson highlights the deficiencies in science and the philosophy (naturalism) that undergirds and outlines a cognitive revolution.

The Discovery of Evolution

Author: David Young

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521868033

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 3638

A compelling journey of discovery uncovering some of the mysteries of evolution.

Darwin's Backyard

How Small Experiments Led to a Big Theory

Author: James T. Costa

Publisher: W. W. Norton

ISBN: 9780393356304

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 464

View: 5836

James T. Costa takes readers on a journey from Darwin's childhood through his voyage on the HMS Beagle, where his ideas on evolution began, and on to Down House, his bustling home of forty years. Using his garden and greenhouse, the surrounding meadows and woodlands, and even the cellar and hallways of his home-turned-field-station, Darwin tested ideas of his landmark theory of evolution through an astonishing array of experiments without using specialized equipment. From those results, he plumbed the laws of nature and drew evidence for the revolutionary arguments of On the Origin of Species and other watershed works.This unique perspective introduces us to an enthusiastic correspondent, collaborator, and, especially, an incorrigible observer and experimenter. And it includes eighteen experiments for home, school, or garden.Finalist for the 2018 AAAS/Subaru SB&F Prizes for Excellence in Science Books.

21st Century Anthropology: A Reference Handbook

Author: H. James Birx

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412957389

Category: Social Science

Page: 1099

View: 3472

Via 100 entries or 'mini-chapters,' the SAGE 21st Century Reference Series volumes on Anthropology will highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates any student obtaining a degree in the field of anthropology ought to have mastered for effectiveness in the 21st century. The purpose is to provide undergraduate students with an authoritative reference source that will serve their research needs with more detailed information than encyclopedia entries but not so much jargon, detail or density as a journal article or a research handbook chapter.

Vikings

Author: Magnus Magnusson

Publisher: The History Press

ISBN: 075098077X

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 7138

The Vikings hold a particular place in the history of the West, both symbolically and in the significant impact they had on Northern Europe. Magnus Magnusson's indispensable study of this great period presents a rounded and fascinating picture of a people who, in modern eyes, would seem to embody striking contradictions. They were undoubtedly pillagers, raiders and terrifying warriors, but they were also great pioneers, artists and traders—a dynamic people, whose skill and daring in their exploration of the world has left an indelible impression a thousand years on.

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