Violence and Community in Cork, 1916-1923
Author: Peter Hart
Publisher: Oxford University Press
What is it like to be in the I.R.A. - or at their mercy? This fascinating study explores the lives and deaths of the enemies and victims of the County Cork I.R.A. between 1916 and 1923 - the most powerful and deadly branch of the I.R.A. during one of the most turbulent periods in twentieth-century Ireland. These years saw the breakdown of the British legal system and police authority, the rise of republican violence, and the escalation of the conflict into a full-scale guerilla war, leading to a wave of riots, ambushes, lootings, and reprisal killings, with civilians forming the majority of victims in this unacknowledged civil war. Religion may have provided the starting point for the conflict, but class prejudice, patriotism, and personal grudges all fuelled the development and continuation of widespread violence. Using an unprecedented range of sources - many of them only recently made public - Peter Hart explores the motivation behind such activity. His conclusions not only reveal a hidden episode of Ireland's troubled past but provide valuable insights into the operation of similar terrorist groups today.
The Final Reports
Author: Peter Hart
Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC.
The Irish revolution of 1920-1921 ended in a military and political stalemate, resolved only through the mutual compromise incorporated in the Anglo-Irish Treaty. Historians have long accepted that the one conflict in which there was a clear winner was that of Intelligence, where British ineptitude was painfully exposed by the organizational genius of Michael Collins. This judgement is challenged by the recent release of two confidential self-assessments prepared for the army and the police in 1922. Through many setbacks and inefficiencies, the police report indicates a marked improvement in operations superintended by that "wicked little white snake", Sir Ormonde de l'Epee Winter (1875-1962). His report, though self-serving and flawed, provides a uniquely detailed and personal account of Intelligence from the inside. The editor's introduction assesses the purpose, reliability and significance of these reports. Their publication is a significant contribution to the study of Irish revolutionary history.
'In the Heart of Enemy Lines'
Author: Gerard Noonan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Between 1919 and 1923, Ireland was engulfed by violence as the Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought a guerrilla campaign against the British state and later fellow Irishmen and women in pursuit of an Irish Republic. Police barracks and government offices were attacked and burned, soldiers and policemen were killed and the economic and social life of the country was dislocated. Britain itself was a theatre in the war too. 'In the heart of enemy lines', as one IRA leader put it, cities such as London, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Glasgow and their environs saw the establishment of IRA companies, Irish Republican Brotherhood circles, Cumann na mBan branches and Na Fianna Éireann troops. Composed of Irish emigrants and the descendants of emigrants, these organizations worked to help their comrades across the Irish Sea. Their most important activity was gunrunning, acquiring and smuggling weapons to Ireland. In November 1920, setting fire to warehouses and timber yards in Liverpool, they launched a campaign of violence. Meanwhile, mass-membership organizations such as the Irish Self-Determination League of Great Britain and Sinn Féin sought to persuade the British public of Ireland's right to independence. Republican leaders such as Michael Collins, Rory O'Connor and Liam Mellows took a keen interest in these exploits. Making extensive use of archival sources and memoirs, The IRA in Britain is the first book to study this little known aspect of the Irish Revolutionary period. Tracing the history of the Irish Volunteers in Britain from their establishment in 1914 and participation in the Easter Rising two years later, through the weapons' smuggling activities and violent operations of the War of Independence to the bitter divisions of the Civil War and the response of the authorities, The IRA in Britain highlights the important role played by those outside of Ireland in the Revolution.
Author: Brian Hughes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This book examines the grass-roots relationship between the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the civilian population during the Irish Revolution. It is primarily concerned with the attempts of the militant revolutionaries to discourage, stifle, and punish dissent among the local populations in which they operated, and the actions or inactions by which dissent was expressed or implied. Focusing on the period of guerilla war against British rule from c. 1917 to 1922, it uncovers the acts of 'everyday' violence, threat, and harm that characterized much of the revolutionary activity of this period. Moving away from the ambushes and assassinations that have dominated much of the discourse on the revolution, the book explores low-level violent and non-violent agitation in the Irish town or parish. The opening chapter treats the IRA's challenge to the British state through the campaign against servants of the Crown - policemen, magistrates, civil servants, and others - and IRA participation in local government and the republican counter-state. The book then explores the nature of civilian defiance and IRA punishment in communities across the island before turning its attention specifically to the year that followed the 'Truce' of July 1921. This study argues that civilians rarely operated at either extreme of a spectrum of support but, rather, in a large and fluid middle ground. Behaviour was rooted in local circumstances, and influenced by local fears, suspicions, and rivalries. IRA punishment was similarly dictated by community conditions and usually suited to the nature of the perceived defiance. Overall, violence and intimidation in Ireland was persistent, but, by some contemporary standards, relatively restrained.
Author: Alvin Jackson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
The study of Irish history, once riven and constricted, has recently enjoyed a resurgence, with new practitioners, new approaches, and new methods of investigation. The Oxford Handbook of Modern Irish History represents the diversity of this emerging talent and achievement by bringing together 36 leading scholars of modern Ireland and embracing 400 years of Irish history, uniting early and late modernists as well as contemporary historians. The Handbook offers a set of scholarly perspectives drawn from numerous disciplines, including history, political science, literature, geography, and the Irish language. It looks at the Irish at home as well as in their migrant and diasporic communities. The Handbook combines sets of wide thematic and interpretative essays, with more detailed investigations of particular periods. Each of the contributors offers a summation of the state of scholarship within their subject area, linking their own research insights with assessments of future directions within the discipline. In its breadth and depth and diversity, The Oxford Handbook of Modern Irish History offers an authoritative and vibrant portrayal of the history of modern Ireland.
The Fight for Irish Independence, 1918-1923
Author: Charles Townshend
Publisher: Penguin UK
A gripping narrative of the most critical years in modern Ireland's history, from Charles Townshend The protracted, terrible fight for independence pitted the Irish against the British and the Irish against other Irish. It was both a physical battle of shocking violence against a regime increasingly seen as alien and unacceptable and an intellectual battle for a new sort of country. The damage done, the betrayals and grim compromises put the new nation into a state of trauma for at least a generation, but at a nearly unacceptable cost the struggle ended: a new republic was born. Charles Townshend's Easter 1916 opened up the astonishing events around the Rising for a new generation and in The Republic he deals, with the same unflinchingly wish to get to the truth behind the legend, with the most critical years in Ireland's history. There has been a great temptation to view these years through the prisms of martyrology and good-and-evil. The picture painted by Townshend is far more nuanced and sceptical - but also never loses sight of the ordinary forms of heroism performed by Irish men and women trapped in extraordinary times. Reviews: 'Electric ... [a] magisterial and essential book' Irish Times About the author: Charles Townshend is the author of the highly praised Easter 1916:The Irish Rebellion. His other books include The British Campaigns in Ireland, 1919-21 and When God Made Hell: The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Making of Iraq, 1914-21.
The History of the IRA
Author: Richard English
Publisher: Pan Macmillan
A timely work of major historical importance, examining the whole spectrum of events from the 1916 Easter Rising to the current and ongoing peace process, fully updated with a new afterword for the paperback edition. ‘An essential book ... closely-reasoned, formidably intelligent and utterly compelling ... required reading across the political spectrum ... important and riveting’ Roy Foster, The Times ‘An outstanding new book on the IRA ... a calm, rational but in the end devastating deconstruction of the IRA’ Henry McDonald, Observer ‘Superb ... the first full history of the IRA and the best overall account of the organization. English writes to the highest scholarly standards ... Moreover, he writes with the common reader in mind: he has crafted a fine balance of detail and analysis and his prose is clear, fresh and jargon-free ... sets a new standard for debate on republicanism’ Peter Hart, Irish Times 'The one book I recommend for anyone trying to understand the craziness and complexity of the Northern Ireland tragedy.’ Frank McCourt, author of Angela’s Ashes
The Irish Revolution 1913–23
Author: Diarmaid Ferriter
Publisher: Profile Books
Packed with violence, political drama and social and cultural upheaval, the years 1913-1923 saw the emergence in Ireland of the Ulster Volunteer Force to resist Irish home rule and in response, the Irish Volunteers, who would later evolve into the IRA. World War One, the rise of Sinn Fin, intense Ulster unionism and conflict with Britain culminated in the Irish war of Independence, which ended with a compromise Treaty with Britain and then the enmities and drama of the Irish Civil War. Drawing on an abundance of newly released archival material, witness statements and testimony from the ordinary Irish people who lived and fought through extraordinary times, A Nation and not a Rabble explores these revolutions. Diarmaid Ferriter highlights the gulf between rhetoric and reality in politics and violence, the role of women, the battle for material survival, the impact of key Irish unionist and republican leaders, as well as conflicts over health, land, religion, law and order, and welfare.
National Symbols and Political Conflict in Twentieth-century Ireland
Author: Ewan Morris
National symbols have long been highly contentious in Ireland, and they remain so today. While there have been a number of studies which have examined the role of symbols in the contemporary conflict in Northern Ireland, as yet there has been no detailed study of debates about national symbols in twentieth-century Ireland. This book fills that gap, outlining the historical background to the continuing controversy about national symbols in Ireland and shedding new light on the deep political divisions which have marked Irish society throughout this century. Our Own Devices focuses on the crucial period from 1922 to 1939 which saw the creation and consolidation of new governments in the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland. It also examines in detail the selection of official symbols of state by governments in both parts of Ireland, and public responses to those symbols. Having discussed the conflicts over symbols which took place in the early decades of the two states, the book concludes by bringing the story up-to-date and relating earlier controversies about national symbols to current debates about the role of symbols in conflict and peacemaking in Northern Ireland. This study is a pioneering work in this relatively new area of Irish history, and is based on extensive original research, using many sources which have not previously been cited in published works.
Author: Jonathan Gantt
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Using a transnational approach, this volume surveys the origins of Irish terrorism and its impact on the Anglo-Saxon community during an era of intense imperialism. While at times it posed sharp disagreements between Britain and the United States, their ideological repulsion to terrorism later led to cooperation in counter-terrorism strategies.
Author: Sinéad Joy
Publisher: Collins Press
A study of the guerrilla war in Kerry during the Irish War of Independence.
Author: Peter Hart
Category: Sports & Recreation
Combine the thrill, freedom and exhilaration of surfing, skiing and sailing, and you have an understanding of the attraction of windsurfing. This book is the ultimate guide to windsurfing; packed full of information and with photographs by John Carter, it offers a full explanation of equipment, a detailed description of the basic as well as intermediate and advanced techniques, and has specific chapters on planing, sailing smaller boards, gybing, wave sailing and much more. With over 200 great photographs, informative diagrams, a glossary and list of useful addresses, this is the complete guide to the sport.
Author: Brian Griffin
Publisher: Four Courts Pr Ltd
This book provides a summary of the contents of the documentary and published sources for the study of crime held in Irish and British repositories, offers suggestions on how to utilize these materials, and also discusses some of the practical problems and limitations in their use. The main focus is on material in Chief Secretary's Office Registered Papers, Outrage Reports, State of the Country Papers, Crown Files at Assizes, Chief Crown Solicitor's Papers, Crime Branch Special Papers and British Parliamentary Papers.
the Royal Flying Corps and the Battle of the Somme, 1916
Author: Peter Hart
Publisher: Pen & Sword
High above the blood soaked trenches of the Somme during the Summer and Autumn of 1916, the Royal Flying Corps were acting out - and winning - one of the first great aerial battles of history. Even in those pioneering days of flying, primitive aircraft flown by brave young men were of significant military value. Before the battle, photographic reconnaissance aircraft from both sides were desperately trying to map the opposition's deployment. Artillery spotting aircraft were proving invaluable in directing devastating fire onto otherwise hidden targets. Bombing raids became a normal routine. Somme Success is a highly effective description of all facets of air operations of the period. It uses the voices and accounts of those who were there. It describes how the RFC met the Fokker scourge head on using DH2 single seaters and, later, the ubiquitous FE2B two seaters, of the type that German 'Ace' Max Immelmann was shot down by. Having conceded air supremacy to the RFC early in the offensive, the German Air Service launched an aerial counter-attack during August and September. The elite scout squadron led by Oswald Boelcke raised the stakes and their Albatross single seaters proved superior to any allied aircraft. Richthofen then appeared on the scene and a new period of German supremacy began. This is a thrilling account of the dramatic events of the period and an insight into the 'glamorous' world of the Great Aces. Selling Points * A fresh and exciting perspective on the Battle of the Somme * The RFC's contribution to the Allied Victory has arguably been under-rated * Widespread use of first person accounts from the First World War * The use of aircraft was far wider than originally portrayed Author Profile Peter Hart is an oral historian with the Imperial War Museum Sound Archive in London. His first book To the Last Round launched the Regimental Action Series in 1996, followed by At The Sharp End, and most recently Heat Of The Battle.
Irish Culture and Society Under the Act of Union
Author: Bruce Stewart
Publisher: Colin Smythe Limited
The Princess Grace Irish Library's 2000 symposium brought together Irish critics and historians to assess the state of culture and society in the 'long nineteenth century' -- 1800-1922 -- during which the Act of Union defined the form of government and representation in Ireland as well as, to a great extent, the forms of opposition. Besides investigating the nature of the Union -- its strengths and weaknesses, its character and progress -- this bicentenary collection considers questions of private conscience and popular consciousness, language and iconography, science and evangelism, Diaspora and disempowerment, terro and consent, memory and amnesia, separation and adherence in the connected spheres of society, politics and culture. It is the thirteenth publication in the Princess Grace Irish Library Literary series.
Author: Brian Hanley
Publisher: Four Courts PressLtd
Although many books have been written about the IRA, little attention has been paid to the rank and file of the organization as well as the movement in 1930s Ireland. Thanks to the availability of records keep by Moss Twomey, leader from 1926 to 1936, much is now known. Twomey, as chief of staff, kept in his possession a vast quantity of correspondence, orders, and minutes from this particular period. Allied with the papers of such luminaries such as Sighle Humphreys, SÃ©an MacEntee, Desmond FitzGerald, as well as a host of other people, a broad picture can be pieced together. Despite its military defeat in 1923 and the subsequent departure of members to Fianna FÃ¡il, by its very existence through the period as an armed political force, dedicated to the overthrow of both states, the IRA remained a significant factor in Irish political life. As a result of this activity and the records that remain, we now know who was involved and at what level: membership numbers throughout Ireland (and in particular the Ulster counties) and to what degree these people were active for the cause, are discussed. We learn about Brian Corrigan in Mayo, Terry Ward in Derry, David Matthews in Belfast, and SeÃ¡n McGuinness in Offaly, among many others. With many interesting facts and figures, this book could become the definitive account of the IRA in the 1930s.
among the nations
Author: Ruán O'Donnell
Publisher: Irish Academic Pr
This book is a collection of fresh research on neglected aspects of the 1916 Rising by established and fresh scholars. It examines the impact of the Rising within the United Kingdom, the British Empire, North America and Australasia and provides a fresh context to recently published work on key figures such as James Connolly and Padraig Pearse. Book jacket.
The Intelligence War in Cork City, 1920-1921
Author: John Borgonovo
This volume presents a study of the shooting of suspected civilian informers by the Cork city IRA in 1920-1921. IRA sources claim some of the civilians were members of an Anti-Sinn Fein Society. The author analyses the existence of such a network, alleged IRA persecution of ex-soldiers, and other related issues.
Author: Brian Hanley
Publisher: Four Courts PressLtd
This guide is designed to help those conducting research in all aspects of Irish military history. Commissioned by the Military Heritage of Ireland Trust, which was established in 2000 to foster knowledge of this heritage, it lists the institutions, archives, public bodies and organizations that specifically hold relevant information on military heritage, relating from the earliest times to the present day. Also included is a listing of fortifications, battle sites and places in Ireland relevant to military events in its broadest sense. Where possible, email, website and telephone details are also included, as are museum and archival depositories opening times. The guide is completed with an extensive bibliography listing books and articles that have been published on military history, particularly those in the last twenty years.
Sinn Féin and the crown courts in Ireland and Britain, 1916-1923
Author: David Foxton
Publisher: Four Courts Pr Ltd
This book considers the use made by Irish Republicans of British courts in the struggle for independence, over the period between the Easter Rising and the Civil War. It examines the complex relationship between the Republican movement and the British legal order: Republican ideology demanded a boycott of British legal institutions in Ireland and committed Republicans to refuse to recognize the authority of British courts. The Republican movement established its own revival court structure - yet Republicans were simultaneously able to make effective use of British courts to promote a separatist agenda. This book offers new insight, from original sources, into Sinn Fein's most celebrated use of British courts - the challenges to death sentences imposed by martial law courts in 1921 - as well as lesser-known aspects of Sin Fein's legal strategy: the use of coroner's inquests and claims for compensation; legal challenges in the English courts to the policy of court-material and internment; and the co-ordinated defence of those captured in the course of the Republican military campaign in Britain 1920-1.