The Impact of International Organizations on International Law by Jose Alvarez addresses how international organizations, particularly those within the UN system, have changed the forms, contents, and effects of international law
This 2004 book aims at advancing our understanding of the influences international norms and international institutions have over the incentives of states to cooperate on issues such as environment and trade. Contributors adopt two different approaches in examining this question. One approach focuses on the constitutive elements of the international legal order, including customary international law, soft law and framework conventions, and on the types of incentives states have, such as domestic incentives and reputation. The other approach examines specific issues in the areas of international environment protection and international trade. The combined outcome of these two approaches is an understanding of the forces that pull states toward closer cooperation or prevent them from doing so, and the impact of different types of international norms and diverse institutions on the motivation of states. The insights gained suggest ways for enhancing states' incentives to cooperate through the design of norms and institutions.
International Organizations as Law-makers addresses how international organizations with a global reach, such as the UN and the WTO, have changed the mechanisms and reasoning behind the making, implementation, and enforcement of international law. Alvarez argues that existing descriptions of international law and international organizations do not do justice to the complex changes resulting from the increased importance of these institutions after World War II, and especially from changesafter the end of the Cold War. In particular, this book examines the impact of the institutions on international law through the day to day application and interpretation of institutional law, the making of multilateral treaties, and the decisions of a proliferating number of institutionalized dispute settlers. The introductory chapters synthesize and challenge the existing descriptions and theoretical frameworks for addressing international organizations. Part I re-examines the law resulting from the activity of political organs, such as the UN General Assembly and Security Council, technocratic entities within UN specialized agencies, and international financial institutions such as the IMF, and considers their impact on the once sacrosanct 'domestic jurisdiction' of states, as well as on traditional conceptions of the basic sources of international law. Part II assesses the impact of the move towards institutions on treaty-making. It addresses the interplay between negotiating venues and procedures and interstate cooperation and asks whether the involvement of international organizations has made modern treaties 'better'. Part III examines the proliferation of institutionalized dispute settlers, from the UN Secretary General to the WTO's dispute settlement body, and re-examines their role as both settlers of disputes and law-makers. The final chapter considers the promise and the perils of the turn to formal institutions for the making of the new kinds of 'soft' and 'hard' global law, including the potential for forms of hegemonic international law.
When Wolfgang Friedmann died there was a great outpouring of grief, affection and admiration from his friends all over the world. These deeply felt sentiments were soon channelled into a number of projects to honor him. The initiative towards the preparation of this volume in tribute to Wolfgang Friedmann was taken by his colleague, Hans Smit, of Columbia University, who also arranged for its publication. Judge Philip C. Jessup was the chairman, and Professors John N. Hazard, Louis Henkin, Oliver Lissitzyn, Willis L. M. Reese and Hans Smit of Columbia University Law School, A. A. Fatouros of Indiana University Law School (Bloomington), and Gabriel M. Wilner of the University of Georgia Law School were members of the editorial committee. The authors of the essays are a group of distinguished legal scholars from many countries and who hold widely diverse views. All of them had many ties with Professor Friedmann, including those of friendship and shared interest in problems that were of the greatest concern to him. The number of eminent jurists from countries around the world, and particularly from the United States, who would have wished to participate in this tribute to Wolfgang Friedmann is large; however, several important considerations made it necessary to limit the number of contributions. Thus, for example, the work of several members of the editorial committee is not represented in the volume.
This pioneering Research Handbook with contributions from renowned experts, provides an overview of the general doctrines making up the law of international organizations.The approach of this book is taken from a novel perspective: that of the tension between functionalism and constitutionalism. In doing so, this Handbook presents not only practically relevant information, but also provides a tool for understanding the ways in which internationalorganizations work. It has separate chapters on specific 'constitutional' topics and on two specific organizations: the EU and the UN. Research Handbook on the Law of international Organizations will be of particular interest to academics and graduate students in the fields ofinternational law, international politics and international relations.
This book offers a comparative analysis of the institutional law of public international organizations, covering issues such as membership, institutional structure, decisions and decision-making, legal status, privileges and immunities. It has been designed to appeal to both academics and practitioners.
This book brings a fresh perspective on the emerging field of international food law with the first detailed analysis of the process and implications of domestic compliance with the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement. It investigates the influence of WTO disciplines on the domestic policy-making process and examines the extent to which international trade law determines European Union (EU) food regulations. Following controversial WTO rulings on genetically-modified foods and growth hormones in beef, awareness and criticism of global rules governing food has grown considerably. Yet the real impact of this international legal meta-framework on domestic regulations has remained obscure to practitioners and largely unexplored by legal commentators. This book examines the emergence of transnational governance practices set in motion by the SPS Agreement and their role in facilitating agricultural trade. In so doing, it complements and challenges conventional accounts of the SPS regime dominated by analysis of WTO disputes. It reviews legal commentary of the SPS Agreement to understand why WTO rules are so commonly characterised as a significant threat to domestic food policy preferences. It then takes on these assumptions through an in-depth review of food policies and decision-making practices in the EU, revealing both the potential and limits of WTO law to shape EU policies. It finally examines two important venues for the generation of global food norms – the WTO SPS Committee and Codex Alimentarius – to evaluate the practice and significance of transnational governance in this domain. Through detailed case studies including novel foods, food additives, vitamin and mineral supplements and transparency and equivalence procedures, this book provides a richer account of compliance and exposes the subtle, but important influence of WTO obligations.
Sovereignty in the Age of Global Terrorism: The Role of International Organisations analyses the role of international organisations in adopting counterterrorism measures after 9/11 and the impact of these measures on the sovereignty of their Member States.