Search Results: the-politics-of-diplomacy-revolution-war-peace-1989-1992

The Politics of Diplomacy

Revolution, War, and Peace, 1989-1992

Author: James Addison Baker

Publisher: Putnam Adult

ISBN: 9780399140877

Category: Political Science

Page: 687

View: 6021

The Secretary of State for the Bush administration recounts his efforts at diplomacy during his time in office, from the fall of the U.S.S.R. to the Israeli-Palestinian peace accord

Realizing Peace

A Constructive Conflict Approach

Author: Louis Kriesberg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190266422

Category: Political Science

Page: 416

View: 8069

Early work in conflict resolution and peace research focused on why wars broke out, why they persisted, and why peace agreements failed to endure. Later research has focused on what actions and circumstances have actually averted destructive escalations, stopped the perpetuation of destructive conduct, produced a relatively good conflict transformation, or resulted in an enduring and relatively equitable relationship among former adversaries. This later research, which began in the 1950s, recognizes that conflict is inevitable and is often waged in the name of rectifying injustice. Additionally, it argues that damages can be minimized and gains maximized for various stakeholders in waging and settling conflicts. This theory, which is known as the constructive conflict approach, looks at how conflicts can be waged and resolved so they are broadly beneficial rather than mutually destructive. In this book, Louis Kriesberg, one of the major figures in the school of constructive conflict, looks at major foreign conflict episodes in which the United States has been involved since the onset of the Cold War to analyze when American involvement in foreign conflicts has been relatively effective and beneficial and when it has not. In doing so he analyzes whether the US took constructive approaches to conflict and whether the approach yielded better consequences than more traditional coercive approaches. Realizing Peace helps readers interested in engaging or learning about foreign policy to better understand what has happened in past American involvement in foreign conflicts, to think freshly about better alternatives, and to act in support of more constructive strategies in the future.

Routledge Handbook of Diplomacy and Statecraft

Author: B.J.C. McKercher

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113666436X

Category: Political Science

Page: 524

View: 3985

Despite post-Cold War arguments about their demise, ‘Great Powers’ not only continue to thrive, with lesser Powers they form the basis of the constellation of global politics. This topical new Handbook illustrates how and why the new international order has evolved – and is still evolving – since the end of the Cold War, through the application of diplomacy and statecraft. Including cutting edge contributions from over 40 scholars, the handbook is structured around seven sections: Context of Diplomacy Great Powers Middle Powers Developing Powers International Organisations and Military Alliances International Economy Issues of Conflict and Co-operation Through analysis of a wide range of case studies, the Handbook assesses the diplomacy and statecraft of individual powers, offering insights into how they function, their individual perception of national interests and the roles they play in modern statecraft. The contributors also seek to evaluate the organizations and contemporary issues that continue to influence the shaping of the new international order. A comprehensive survey of diplomacy across the world, this work will be essential reading for scholars and professionals alike.

The Triumph of Improvisation

Gorbachev's Adaptability, Reagan's Engagement, and the End of the Cold War

Author: James Graham Wilson

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801470218

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 9995

In The Triumph of Improvisation, James Graham Wilson takes a long view of the end of the Cold War, from the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 to Operation Desert Storm in January 1991. Drawing on deep archival research and recently declassified papers, Wilson argues that adaptation, improvisation, and engagement by individuals in positions of power ended the specter of a nuclear holocaust. Amid ambivalence and uncertainty, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, George Shultz, George H. W. Bush, and a host of other actors engaged with adversaries and adapted to a rapidly changing international environment and information age in which global capitalism recovered as command economies failed. Eschewing the notion of a coherent grand strategy to end the Cold War, Wilson paints a vivid portrait of how leaders made choices; some made poor choices while others reacted prudently, imaginatively, and courageously to events they did not foresee. A book about the burdens of responsibility, the obstacles of domestic politics, and the human qualities of leadership, The Triumph of Improvisation concludes with a chapter describing how George H. W. Bush oversaw the construction of a new configuration of power after the fall of the Berlin Wall, one that resolved the fundamental components of the Cold War on Washington's terms.

The Demilitarization of American Diplomacy

Two Cheers for Striped Pants

Author: L. Pope

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137298553

Category: Political Science

Page: 83

View: 2419

Laurence Pope describes the contemporary dysfunction of the State Department and its Foreign Service. He contends that in the information age diplomacy is more important than ever, and that, as President Obama has stressed, without a "change of thinking" the U.S. may be drawn into more wars it does not need to fight.

Intelligence and U.S. Foreign Policy

Iraq, 9/11, and Misguided Reform

Author: Paul R. Pillar

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231527802

Category: Political Science

Page: 416

View: 2602

A career of nearly three decades with the CIA and the National Intelligence Council showed Paul R. Pillar that intelligence reforms, especially measures enacted since 9/11, can be deeply misguided. They often miss the sources that underwrite failed policy and misperceive our ability to read outside influences. They also misconceive the intelligence-policy relationship and promote changes that weaken intelligence-gathering operations. In this book, Pillar confronts the intelligence myths Americans have come to rely on to explain national tragedies, including the belief that intelligence drives major national security decisions and can be fixed to avoid future failures. Pillar believes these assumptions waste critical resources and create harmful policies, diverting attention away from smarter reform, and they keep Americans from recognizing the limits of obtainable knowledge. Pillar revisits U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War and highlights the small role intelligence played in those decisions, and he demonstrates the negligible effect that America's most notorious intelligence failures had on U.S. policy and interests. He then reviews in detail the events of 9/11 and the 2003 invasion of Iraq, condemning the 9/11 commission and the George W. Bush administration for their portrayals of the role of intelligence. Pillar offers an original approach to better informing U.S. policy, which involves insulating intelligence management from politicization and reducing the politically appointed layer in the executive branch to combat slanted perceptions of foreign threats. Pillar concludes with principles for adapting foreign policy to inevitable uncertainties.

The Emergency State

America's Pursuit of Absolute Security at All Costs

Author: David C. Unger

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101560320

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 3946

Editor’s Choice, NEW YORK TIMES BOOK REVIEW “Ambitious and valuable” --WASHINGTON POST America is trapped in a state of war that has consumed our national life since before Pearl Harbor. Over seven decades and several bloody wars, Democratic and Republican politicians alike have assembled an increasing complicated—and increasingly ineffective—network of security services. Trillions of tax dollars have been diverted from essential domestic needs while the Pentagon created a worldwide web of military bases, inventing new American security interests where none previously existed. Yet this pursuit has not only damaged our democratic institutions and undermined our economic strength—it has fundamentally failed to make us safer. In The Emergency State, senior New York Times journalist David C. Unger reveals the hidden costs of America’s obsessive pursuit of absolute national security, showing how this narrow-minded emphasis on security came to distort our political life. Unger reminds us that in the first 150 years of the American republic the U.S. valued limited military intervention abroad, along with the checks and balances put in place by the founding fathers. Yet American history took a sharp turn during and just after World War II, when we began building a vast and cumbersome complex of national security institutions and beliefs. Originally designed to wage hot war against Germany and cold war against the Soviet Union, our security bureaucracy has become remarkably ineffective at confronting the elusive, non-state sponsored threats we now face. The Emergency State traces a series of missed opportunities—from the end of World War II to the election of Barack Obama—when we could have paused to rethink our defense strategy and didn’t. We have ultimately failed to dismantle our outdated national security state because both parties are equally responsible for its expansion. While countless books have exposed the damage wrought by George W. Bush's "war on terror," Unger shows it was only the natural culmination of decades of bipartisan emergency state logic—and argues that Obama, along with many previous Democratic presidents, has failed to shift course in any meaningful way. The Emergency State: America’s Pursuit of Absolute Security At All Costs reveals the depth of folly into which we’ve fallen, as Americans eagerly trade away the country’s greatest strengths for a fleeting illusion of safety. Provocative, insightful, and refreshingly nonpartisan, The Emergency State is the definitive untold story of how America became this vulnerable—and how it can build true security again.

Nahost Jahrbuch 2002

Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft in Nordafrika und dem Nahen und Mittleren Osten

Author: Hanspeter Mattes

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322809404

Category: Political Science

Page: 247

View: 4697

Das Jahrbuch bietet über zwanzig Länderanalysen mit Informationen zu den politischen, ökonomischen und sozialen Veränderungen und Entwicklungen innerhalb des Berichtsjahres, ergänzt durch eine ausführliche Chronologie. Dazu wird in einem zweiten Abschnitt auf wichtige regionalpolitische Konflikte, Ereignisse und Entwicklungen eingegangen. Zusammen mit der umfangreichen Bibliographie mit den neuesten Publikationen zum Berichtszeitraum entsteht so ein Nachschlagewerk, das Studenten und Lehrern ebenso wie Journalisten einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Ereignisse in die Hand gibt und die Informationen zur Tagespolitik in den strukturellen Kontext stellt.

The Decline and Fall of the United States Information Agency

American Public Diplomacy, 1989–2001

Author: Nicholas J. Cull

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137105364

Category: Political Science

Page: 257

View: 2879

Using newly declassified archives and interviews with practitioners, Nicholas J. Cull has pieced together the story of the final decade in the life of the United States Information Agency, revealing the decisions and actions that brought the United States' apparatus for public diplomacy into disarray.

The Wisdom of Syria's Waiting Game

Foreign Policy Under the Assads

Author: Bente Scheller

Publisher: Hurst

ISBN: 1849045011

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 5477

Syrian foreign policy, always opaque, has become an even greater puzzle during the Syrian revolt. Irrespective of the regime's international isolation in the wake of its violent response to domestic protest, it has paid lip-service to international peace plans while unperturbedly crushing the rebellion. The rare televised appearances of President Assad have shown a leader detached from reality. Has he-in his own words-'gone crazy'? In this book long- time Syria analyst and former diplomat Bente Scheller contends that Bashar Assad's deadly waiting game is following its own logic: whatever difficulties the Syrian regime has faced, its previous experience has been that it can simply sit out the current crisis. The difference this time is that Syria faces a double crisis-internal and external. While Hafez Assad, renowned as an astute politician, adapted to new challenges, his son, Bashar, seems to have no alternative plan of action. Scheller's timely book analyses Syrian foreign policy after the global upheavals of 1989, which was at the time a glorious new beginning for the regime. She shows how Bashar Assad, by ignoring change both inside Syria and in the region, has sacrificed his father's focus on national security in favour of a policy of regime survival and offers a candid analysis of the successes and shortcomings of Syrian foreign policy in recent years.

The Ties That Divide

Ethnic Politics, Foreign Policy, and International Conflict

Author: Stephen M. Saideman

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231506279

Category: Political Science

Page: 348

View: 7481

Ethnic conflicts have created crises within NATO and between NATO and Russia, produced massive flows of refugees, destabilized neighboring countries, and increased the risk of nuclear war between Pakistan and India. Interventions have cost the United States, the United Nations, and other actors billions of dollars. While scholars and policymakers have devoted considerable attention to this issue, the question of why states take sides in other countries' ethnic conflicts has largely been ignored. Most attention has been directed at debating the value of particular techniques to manage ethnic conflict, including partition, prevention, mediation, intervention, and the like. However, as the Kosovo dispute demonstrated, one of the biggest obstacles to resolving ethnic conflicts is getting the outside actors to cooperate. This book addresses this question. Saideman argues that domestic political competition compels countries to support the side of an ethnic conflict with which constituents share ethnicities. He applies this argument to the Congo Crisis, the Nigerian Civil War, and Yugoslavia's civil wars. He then applies quantitative analyses to ethnic conflicts in the 1990s. Finally, he discusses recent events in Kosovo and whether the findings of these case studies apply more broadly.

At Cross Purposes: U.S.-Taiwan Relations Since 1942

U.S.-Taiwan Relations Since 1942

Author: Richard C. Bush

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317476298

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 3733

Written by the former chairman and managing director of the American Institute in Taiwan, this book sheds new light on key topics in the history of U.S.-Taiwan relations. It fills an important gap in our understanding of how the U.S. government addressed Taiwan and the Taiwan Strait issue from the early 1940s to the present. One theme that runs through these essays is the series of obstacles erected that denied the people of Taiwan a say in shaping their own destiny: Franklin Roosevelt chose to return Taiwan to mainland China for geopolitical reasons; there was little pressure on the Kuomintang to reform its authoritarian rule until Congress got involved in the early 1980s; Chiang Kai-shek spurned American efforts in the 1960s to keep Taiwan in international organizations; and behind the ROC's back, the Nixon, Carter, and Reagan administrations negotiated agreements with the PRC that undermined Taiwan's position. In addition to discussing how the United States reacted to key human rights cases from the 1940s to the 1980s, the author also discusses the Bush and Clinton administrations' efforts to preserve U.S. interests while accommodating new forces in the region. All these episodes have an enduring relevance for the people of Taiwan, and in his conclusion the author discusses where the relationship stands today. The book includes related documents that helped shape the U.S.-Taiwan relationship.

Special Providence

American Foreign Policy and How It Changed the World

Author: Walter Russell Mead

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136758666

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 5789

"God has a special providence for fools, drunks and the United States of America."--Otto von Bismarck America's response to the September 11 attacks spotlighted many of the country's longstanding goals on the world stage: to protect liberty at home, to secure America's economic interests, to spread democracy in totalitarian regimes and to vanquish the enemy utterly. One of America's leading foreign policy thinkers, Walter Russell Mead, argues that these diverse, conflicting impulses have in fact been the key to the U.S.'s success in the world. In a sweeping new synthesis, Mead uncovers four distinct historical patterns in foreign policy, each exemplified by a towering figure from our past. Wilsonians are moral missionaries, making the world safe for democracy by creating international watchdogs like the U.N. Hamiltonians likewise support international engagement, but their goal is to open foreign markets and expand the economy. Populist Jacksonians support a strong military, one that should be used rarely, but then with overwhelming force to bring the enemy to its knees. Jeffersonians, concerned primarily with liberty at home, are suspicious of both big military and large-scale international projects. A striking new vision of America's place in the world, Special Providence transcends stale debates about realists vs. idealists and hawks vs. doves to provide a revolutionary, nuanced, historically-grounded view of American foreign policy.

Routledge Handbook of American Foreign Policy

Author: Steven W. Hook,Christopher M. Jones

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135967342

Category: Political Science

Page: 480

View: 7780

No nation has maintained such an immense stature in world politics as the United States has since the Cold War’s end. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks, prompting the global war on terrorism and the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, along with American economic and "soft power" primacy, there has been increased interest in and scrutiny of American foreign policy. The Routledge Handbook of American Foreign Policy brings together leading experts in the field to examine current trends in the way scholars study the history and theories of American conduct in the world, analysis of state and non-state actors and their tools in conducting policy, and the dynamics of a variety of pressing transnational challenges facing the United States. This volume provides a systematic overview of all aspects of American foreign policy and drives the agenda for further, cutting edge research. Contributors bring analytic depth and breadth to both the ways in which this subject is approached and the substance of policy formulation and process. The Handbook is an invaluable resource to students, researchers, scholars, and journalists trying to make sense of the broader debates in international relations.

While America Sleeps

Self-Delusion, Military Weakness, and the Threat to Peace Today

Author: Donald Kagan,Frederick W. Kagan

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1466882549

Category: History

Page: 480

View: 6853

In While England Slept Winston Churchill revealed in 1938 how the inadequacy of Britain's military forces to cope with worldwide responsibilities in a peaceful but tense era crippled its ability to deter or even adequately prepare for World War II. In While America Sleeps, historians Donald and Frederick Kagan retrace Britain's international and defense policies during the years after World War I leading up to World War II, showing in persuasive detail how self-delusion and an unwillingness to face the inescapable responsibilities on which their security and the peace of the world depended cost the British dearly. The Kagans then turn their attention to America and argue that our nation finds itself in a position similar to that of Britain in the 1920s. For all its emergency interventions the U.S. has not yet accepted its unique responsibility to take the lead in preserving the peace. Years of military cutbacks-the "peace dividend" following the buildup and triumph over Communism of the Reagan years-have weakened our armed forces and left us with too few armed forces to cover too many possible threats. This has caused us to bank everything on high tech "smart" weapons - some of which have not yet been invented and others that we are not acquiring or deploying - as opposed to the long-term commitment of money, fighting men and women, and planning that the deterrence of a major war would require. This failure to shape a policy and to commit the resources needed to maintain peace has cost valuable time in shaping a peaceful world and has placed America's long-term security in danger. The policies of the Bush and Clinton administrations have left us in a position where we cannot avoid war and keep the peace in areas vital to our security. Neither have the post-Cold War policies sent clear signals to would-be aggressors that the U.S. can and will resist them. Tensions in the Middle East, instability in eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, the nuclear confrontation between India and Pakistan, the development of nuclear weapons and missiles by North Korea, and the menacing threats and actions of China, with its immense population, resentful sense of grievance and years of military buildup, all hint that the current peaceful era will not last forever. Can we make it last as long as possible? Are we prepared to face its collapse? While America Sleeps is a sobering, fascinating work of history that poses a thoughtful challenge to policy-makers and will interest military buffs as well as readers interested in history and international relations.

Democratization and Revolution in the USSR, 1985-91

Author: Jerry F. Hough

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815791492

Category: Political Science

Page: 560

View: 841

Democratization and Revolution in the USSR, 1985-91 presents a strikingly new view of the Gorbachev era and the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union. Written by one of America's most distinguished specialists on the former Soviet Union, this is the first comprehensive overview of the Gorbachev period and describes it as a real revolution, not mere "reform." According to Hough, despite Mikhail Gorbachev's talk of a regulated market, he never understood that a market must be created on a solid institutional and legal base. He was determined to use democratization to free himself from party control, but he saw democracy as a way of achieving near- universal consensus, not a mechanism for forcing through difficult choices. The many memoirs that have become available in the last few years, including those of Gorbachev himself, show that Premier Nikolai Ryzhkov and the "bureaucrats" in his government actually were the serious economic reformers in the leadership. Gorbachev opposed the key transitional steps at every stage and was far closer to the assumptions of shock therapy than he or his opponents ever recognized. Hough explains that Gorbachev was not alone in thinking that the destruction of old institutions was enough to unleash a market. Westerners also talked of leaping a chasm in a single jump as if democratic and market institutions existed pre-created on the other side. But, precisely because Gorbachev (and later Boris Yeltsin) was encouraged in all his worst mistakes by Western advice, his failure has crucial implications for Western thinking about the process of democratization and marketization. This unprecedented book explores those implications in depth. Selected by Choice as an Outstanding Book for 1998

In the Shadow of Russia

Reform in Kazakahstan and Uzbekistan

Author: Pamela Blackmon

Publisher: MSU Press

ISBN: 1628951419

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 3980

In the twenty years since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the fifteen new independent republics have embarked on unprecedented transitions from command economies into market-oriented economies. Important motivating factors for their reform efforts included issues of geographic and economic proximity to Europe and the influence of the pre-Soviet era histories in those countries. In the Shadow of Russia builds upon the conceptual frameworks that include geography and policy choices about economic integration in an analysis of the reform efforts of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Blackmon's book addresses such central questions as: How and in what areas has a republic's previous level of integration with Soviet-era Russia influenced its present economic orientation? What are the contributing factors that explain the differences in how leaders ( of a similar regime type) developed economic reform policies? To answer these questions, the author utilizes information from both the economic and the political literature on post-communist transitions, as well from political speeches.

Israel in the Middle East

Documents and Readings on Society, Politics, and Foreign Relations, Pre-1948 to the Present

Author: Itamar Rabinovich,Jehuda Reinharz

Publisher: UPNE

ISBN: 9780874519624

Category: History

Page: 626

View: 1002

An anthology of the most important documents on the domestic and foreign policy of the modern state of Israel, in relation to the rest of the Middle East

Jerusalem in America's Foreign Policy

1947 - 1997

Author: Shlomo Slonim

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9789041110398

Category: Political Science

Page: 421

View: 6713

A comprehensive and innovative examination of US policy on the Jerusalem issue over the past half-century, this study analyzes the complex political and legal factors, both domestic and international, which have shaped executive decisions. The book provides a unique entry into the variations in policy from administration to administration, and the increasingly assertive role of Congress. Based on insights garnered from the past, the author offers useful suggestions for a reality-bound future approach to a problem which is central to resolution of the protracted Arab-Israeli dispute, and thus to security throughout the Middle East.

Jerusalem in America's Foreign Policy, 1947-1997

Author: S. Slonim

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9789041112552

Category: Law

Page: 421

View: 1260

A comprehensive and innovative examination of US policy on the Jerusalem issue over the past half-century, this study analyzes the complex political and legal factors, both domestic and international, which have shaped executive decisions. The book provides a unique entry into the variations in policy from administration to administration, and the increasingly assertive role of Congress. Based on insights garnered from the past, the author offers useful suggestions for a reality-bound future approach to a problem which is central to resolution of the protracted Arab-Israeli dispute, and thus to security throughout the Middle East.

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