Search Results: the-social-construction-of-what

The Social Construction of What?

Author: Ian Hacking

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674812000

Category: Philosophy

Page: 261

View: 7403

Often lost in the debate over the validity of social construction is the question of what is being constructed. Particularly troublesome in this area is the status of the natural sciences, where there is conflict between biological and social approaches to mental illness, and in other areas. Ian Hacking looks at the issue of child abuse, and examines the ways in which advanced research on new weapons influences not the content but the form of science. In conclusion, Hacking comments on the "culture wars" in anthropology, in particular the spat between leading enthnographers over Hawaii and Captain Cook.

The Social Construction of What?

Author: Ian Hacking

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780674004122

Category: Philosophy

Page: 261

View: 8481

Lost in the raging debate over the validity of social construction is the question of what, precisely, is being constructed. Facts, gender, quarks, reality? Ian Hacking's book explores an array of examples to reveal the deep issues underlying contentious accounts of reality. Especially troublesome in this dispute is the status of the natural sciences, and this is where Hacking finds some of his most telling cases, from the conflict between biological and social approaches to mental illness to vying accounts of current research in sedimentary geology.

The Social Construction of Reality

A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge

Author: Peter L. Berger,Thomas Luckmann

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1453215468

Category: Social Science

Page: 219

View: 3310

The classic work that redefined the sociology of knowledge and has inspired a generation of philosophers and thinkers In this seminal book, Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann examine how knowledge forms and how it is preserved and altered within a society. Unlike earlier theorists and philosophers, Berger and Luckmann go beyond intellectual history and focus on commonsense, everyday knowledge—the proverbs, morals, values, and beliefs shared among ordinary people. When first published in 1966, this systematic, theoretical treatise introduced the term social construction,effectively creating a new thought and transforming Western philosophy.

The Social Construction of Age

Adult Foreign Language Learners

Author: Patricia Andrew

Publisher: Multilingual Matters

ISBN: 1847696163

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 200

View: 9823

This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities as language learners. By approaching the topic from a social constructionist perspective and in light of recent work in sociolinguistics and cultural studies, it broadens the current second language acquisition focus on age as a fixed biological or chronological variable to encompass its social dimensions. What emerges is a more complex and nuanced understanding of age as it intersects with language learning in a way that links it fundamentally to other social phenomena, such as gender, ethnicity and social class.

The Social Construction of Diversity

Recasting the Master Narrative of Industrial Nations

Author: Christiane Harzig,Danielle Juteau,Irina Schmitt

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571813763

Category: Political Science

Page: 324

View: 2207

Though the composition of the populace of industrial nations has changed dramatically since the 1950s, public discourse and scholarship, however, often remain welded to traditional concepts of national cultures, ignoring the multicultural realities of most of today's western societies. Through detailed studies, this volume shows how the diversity affects the personal lives of individuals, how it shapes and changes private, national and international relations and to what extent institutions and legal systems are confronted with changing demands from a more culturally diverse clientele. Far from being an external factor of society, this volume shows, diversity has become an integral part of people's lives, affecting their personal, institutional, and economic interaction.

The Social Construction of Rationality

Policy Debates and the Power of Good Reasons

Author: Onno Bouwmeester

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317530764

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 204

View: 7488

There are many different forms of rationality. In current economic discourse the main focus is on instrumental rationality and optimizing, while organization scholars, behavioural economists and policy scientists focus more on bounded rationality and satisficing. The interplay with value rationality or expressive rationality is mainly discussed in philosophy and sociology, but never in an empirical way. This book shows that not one, but three different forms of rationality (subjective, social and instrumental) determine the final outcomes of strategic decisions executed by major organizations. Based on an argumentation analysis of six high-profile public debates, this book adds nuance to the concept of bounded rationality. The chapters show how it is socially constructed, and thus dependent on shared beliefs or knowledge, institutional context and personal interests. Three double case studies investigating the three rationalities illustrate how decision makers and stakeholders discuss the appropriateness of these rationalities for making decisions in different practice contexts. The first touches more on personal concerns, like wearing a niqab or looking at obscene art exposed in a public environment; the second investigates debates on improving the rights and position of specific minorities; and the third is based on the agreement on instrumental reasons for two kinds of investments, but the cost arguments are regarded less relevant when social norms or personal interests are violated. The Social Construction of Rationality is for those who study political economy, economic psychology and public policy, as well as economic theory and philosophy.

The Social construction of gender

Author: Judith Lorber

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 374

View: 7704

Published in Cooperation with Sociologists for Women in Society "Women are women and men are men"--this old aphorism is being challenged with ever increasing frequency as social researchers focus on the nature of constructed gender roles. Much of the recent work in this area has appeared in the journal Gender & Society, which is the genesis of most of the papers in The Social Construction of Gender. In their collection, Lorber and Farrell present the best of current research on how the constructivist approach has been applied to a number of variables, including family structure, the work place, social class, racial ethnic identity, and politics. Theoretical and methodological implications of the constructed nature of gender roles are highlighted, as well as the existing theories of gender deconstruction. The articles and introductory material in this volume reflect feminist social science theory in concrete ways that make the text accessible to scholars, professionals and students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. This resource is ideal for courses on feminist studies, sociology of gender, and social theory construction. "One of the strengths of this book is that it provides some conceptual tools that we may not have come across elsewhere. . . . A second strength of the book is the welcome addition of racial/ethnic identity and social class to the issue of gender. . . . All in all, the book is a rich offering of ideas, research, and experience. Each article can stand alone as a valuable contribution; as an anthology, the book insists that we look at the realities of gender." --Smith College Studies in Social Work "A fine collection of current research on one of the major topics of the day. Shows that sociology can be both lively and intellectually illuminating." --R. W. Connell, Macquarie University, Sydney "Psychologists have much to gain from attending to a sociological perspective. The Social Construction of Gender provides that perspective intertwined with an excellent integration of feminist theory and relevant psychological literature. Judith Lorber and Susan Farrell have compiled 18 articles that, like sociology, continually challenge the reader to reflect upon the broad structural issues that pervasively influence construction of reality. . . . well articulated. . . . chapters regarding masculinity consider points of view sometimes overlooked by feminist theorists. . . .provides a solid knowledge base for those feminists in psychology without a sociological background. The Social Construction of Gender was a pleasure to read. Informative, clear, and concise, it presents a view of women's position in Western society that bridges psychology, sociology, economics, management, anthropology, history, politics, religion, and public policy." --Association for Women in Psychology Newsletter

The Social Construction of Social Policy

Methodologies, Racism, Citizenship and the Environment

Author: Colin Samson,Nigel South

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349245453

Category: Social Science

Page: 230

View: 3060

This volume draws together an impressive series of papers that explore enduring and new problems in the construction and analysis of British social policy. Critical but accessible, the various chapters cover methodological issues and the nature of competing claims about social policy 'knowledge', racism and health services, citizenship and access to housing and other amenities, and the importance of the environment as an emerging area for social policy debate.

The Social Construction of Corruption in Europe

Author: Dirk Tänzler,Konstadinos Maras

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317015819

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 3073

The volume demonstrates the suitability of the theory of social constructivism in portraying and analyzing the diversity of the phenomenon of corruption. The approach of social constructivism taken in this volume is able to reconstruct the 'construction of corruption' both from a societal perspective, by assessing it as generally accepted or tolerated behaviour in more or less standardized rule-governed social situations, and from the perspective of actors who perceive corrupt behaviour as problem solving in everyday life. The volume proves the usefulness of a social construction perspective for empirical research. It contains case studies of social definitions of corruption in eleven European countries that contribute in different ways to establishing a grounded theory of the phenomenon of corruption.

The Social Construction of Nature

A Sociology of Ecological Enlightenment

Author: Klaus Eder

Publisher: SAGE Publications Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 243

View: 385

In this unique and agenda-setting examination of the relation between nature and culture, Klaus Eder demonstrates our ideas of nature are culturally determined, and explains how the relation between modern, industrial societies and nature is increasingly violent and destructive. Through an analysis of symbolism, ritual and taboo, Eder questions the view of nature as an object. Showing how nature is socially constructed, he presents a critique of Marx and Durkheim while offering a radical reinterpretation of the relationship among society, culture and nature. Eder concludes with an examination of the symbolic order of society and of the role of religion in modern culture. Using a culturalist interpretation,

The Social Construction of Dementia

Confused Professionals?

Author: Nancy M. Harding,Nancy Harding,Colin Palfrey

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9781853022579

Category: Medical

Page: 174

View: 9106

This text outlines the limited knowledge base about dementia and covers the effects which that has on the design of services for people with dementia. The authors have researched designs and methods for assessing the impact of services upon service receivers, including family carers.

The Social Construction of Death

Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Author: Leen Van Brussel,Nico Carpentier

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113739191X

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 278

View: 746

Chapter 12 of this book is open access under a CC BY license. Well-established scholars from a variety of disciplines - including sociology, anthropology, media and cultural studies, and political sciences – use the social construction of death and dying to analyse a wide variety of meaning-making practices in societal fields such as ethics, politics, media, medicine and family.

The Social Construction of Sexuality

Author: Steven Seidman

Publisher: W W Norton & Company Incorporated

ISBN: 9780393937800

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 5798

An affordable primer to sexuality written from a sociological perspective.

The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity in the United States

Author: Joan Ferrante-Wallace,Prince Brown

Publisher: Pearson College Division

ISBN: 9780130283238

Category: Social Science

Page: 525

View: 9284

This groundbreaking collection of classic and cutting edge sociological research gives special attention to the social construction of race and ethnicity in the United States. It offers an in-depth and eye-opening analysis of (a) the power of racial classification to shape our understanding of race and race relations, (b) the way in which the system came into being and remains, and (c) the real consequences this system has on life chances.The readings deal with five major themes: the personal experience of classification schemes; classifying people by race; ethnic classification; the persistence, functions, and consequences of social classification; and a new paradigm: transcending categories.For individuals who want to gain a fuller understanding of the impact the ideas of race has on a society that is consumed by it.

The Social Construction of the Person

Author: K.J. Gergen,K.E. Davis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461250765

Category: Psychology

Page: 276

View: 6364

This volume grew out of a discussion between the editors at the Society for Experimental Social Psychology meeting in Nashville in 1981. For many years the Society has played a leading role in encouraging rigorous and sophisticated research. Yet, our discussion that day was occupied with what seemed a major problem with this fmely honed tradition; namely, it was preoccupied with "accurate renderings of reality," while generally insensitive to the process by which such renderings are achieved. This tradition presumed that there were "brute facts" to be discovered about human interaction, with little consideration of the social processes through which "factuality" is established. To what degree are accounts of persons constrained by the social process of rendering as opposed to the features of those under scrutiny? This concern with the social process by which persons are constructed was hardly ours alone. In fact, within recent years such concerns have been voiced with steadily increasing clarity across a variety of disciplines. Ethno methodologists were among the first in the social sciences to puncture the taken-for-granted realities of life. Many sociologists of science have also turned their attention to the way social organizations of scientists create the facts necessary to sustain these organizations. Historians of science have entered a similar enterprise in elucidating the social, economic and ideological conditions enabling certain formulations to flourish in the sciences while others are suppressed. Many social anthropologists have also been intrigued by cross-cultural variations in the concept of the human being.

The Social Construction of Technological Systems

New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology

Author: Wiebe E. Bijker,Thomas P. Hughes,Trevor Pinch,Deborah G. Douglas

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262300877

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 472

View: 2817

This pioneering book, first published in 1987, launched the new field of social studies of technology. It introduced a method of inquiry--social construction of technology, or SCOT--that became a key part of the wider discipline of science and technology studies. The book helped the MIT Press shape its STS list and inspired the Inside Technology series. The thirteen essays in the book tell stories about such varied technologies as thirteenth-century galleys, eighteenth-century cooking stoves, and twentieth-century missile systems. Taken together, they affirm the fruitfulness of an approach to the study of technology that gives equal weight to technical, social, economic, and political questions, and they demonstrate the illuminating effects of the integration of empirics and theory. The approaches in this volume--collectively called SCOT (after the volume's title) have since broadened their scope, and twenty-five years after the publication of this book, it is difficult to think of a technology that has not been studied from a SCOT perspective and impossible to think of a technology that cannot be studied that way.

The Social Construction of Man, the State and War

Identity, Conflict, and Violence in Former Yugoslavia

Author: Franke Wilmer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135956219

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 587

The Social Construction of Man, the State, and War is the fist book on conflict in the former Yugoslavia to look seriously at the issue of ethnic identity, rather than treating it as a given, an unquestionable variable. Combining detailed analysis with a close reading of historical narratives, documentary evidence, and first-hand interviews conducted in the former Yugoslavia, Wilmer sheds new light on how ethnic identity is constructed, and what that means for the future of peace and sovereignty throughout the world.

The Social Construction of Intellectual Disability

Author: Mark Rapley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521005296

Category: Psychology

Page: 246

View: 3083

Intellectual disability is usually thought of as a form of internal, individual affliction, little different from diabetes, paralysis or chronic illness. This study, the first book-length application of discursive psychology to intellectual disability, shows that what we usually understand as being an individual problem is actually an interactional, or social, product. Through a range of case studies, which draw upon ethnomethodological and conversation analytic scholarship, the book shows how persons categorized as 'intellectually disabled' are produced, as such, in and through their moment-by-moment interaction with care staff and other professionals.

The Social Construction of the Ocean

Author: Philip E. Steinberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521010573

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 239

View: 6466

This 2001 book discusses the changing uses, regulations and representation of the sea from 1450 to now.

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