Often lost in the debate over the validity of social construction is the question of what is being constructed. Particularly troublesome in this area is the status of the natural sciences, where there is conflict between biological and social approaches to mental illness, and in other areas. Ian Hacking looks at the issue of child abuse, and examines the ways in which advanced research on new weapons influences not the content but the form of science. In conclusion, Hacking comments on the "culture wars" in anthropology, in particular the spat between leading enthnographers over Hawaii and Captain Cook.
Identity, Conflict, and Violence in Former Yugoslavia
Author: Franke Wilmer
The Social Construction of Man, the State, and War is the fist book on conflict in the former Yugoslavia to look seriously at the issue of ethnic identity, rather than treating it as a given, an unquestionable variable. Combining detailed analysis with a close reading of historical narratives, documentary evidence, and first-hand interviews conducted in the former Yugoslavia, Wilmer sheds new light on how ethnic identity is constructed, and what that means for the future of peace and sovereignty throughout the world.
Intellectual disability is usually thought of as a form of internal, individual affliction, little different from diabetes, paralysis or chronic illness. This study, the first book-length application of discursive psychology to intellectual disability, shows that what we usually understand as being an individual problem is actually an interactional, or social, product. Through a range of case studies, which draw upon ethnomethodological and conversation analytic scholarship, the book shows how persons categorized as 'intellectually disabled' are produced, as such, in and through their moment-by-moment interaction with care staff and other professionals.
Published in Cooperation with Sociologists for Women in Society "Women are women and men are men"--this old aphorism is being challenged with ever increasing frequency as social researchers focus on the nature of constructed gender roles. Much of the recent work in this area has appeared in the journal Gender & Society, which is the genesis of most of the papers in The Social Construction of Gender. In their collection, Lorber and Farrell present the best of current research on how the constructivist approach has been applied to a number of variables, including family structure, the work place, social class, racial ethnic identity, and politics. Theoretical and methodological implications of the constructed nature of gender roles are highlighted, as well as the existing theories of gender deconstruction. The articles and introductory material in this volume reflect feminist social science theory in concrete ways that make the text accessible to scholars, professionals and students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. This resource is ideal for courses on feminist studies, sociology of gender, and social theory construction. "One of the strengths of this book is that it provides some conceptual tools that we may not have come across elsewhere. . . . A second strength of the book is the welcome addition of racial/ethnic identity and social class to the issue of gender. . . . All in all, the book is a rich offering of ideas, research, and experience. Each article can stand alone as a valuable contribution; as an anthology, the book insists that we look at the realities of gender." --Smith College Studies in Social Work "A fine collection of current research on one of the major topics of the day. Shows that sociology can be both lively and intellectually illuminating." --R. W. Connell, Macquarie University, Sydney "Psychologists have much to gain from attending to a sociological perspective. The Social Construction of Gender provides that perspective intertwined with an excellent integration of feminist theory and relevant psychological literature. Judith Lorber and Susan Farrell have compiled 18 articles that, like sociology, continually challenge the reader to reflect upon the broad structural issues that pervasively influence construction of reality. . . . well articulated. . . . chapters regarding masculinity consider points of view sometimes overlooked by feminist theorists. . . .provides a solid knowledge base for those feminists in psychology without a sociological background. The Social Construction of Gender was a pleasure to read. Informative, clear, and concise, it presents a view of women's position in Western society that bridges psychology, sociology, economics, management, anthropology, history, politics, religion, and public policy." --Association for Women in Psychology Newsletter
The classic work that redefined the sociology of knowledge and has inspired a generation of philosophers and thinkers In this seminal book, Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann examine how knowledge forms and how it is preserved and altered within a society. Unlike earlier theorists and philosophers, Berger and Luckmann go beyond intellectual history and focus on commonsense, everyday knowledge—the proverbs, morals, values, and beliefs shared among ordinary people. When first published in 1966, this systematic, theoretical treatise introduced the term social construction,effectively creating a new thought and transforming Western philosophy.
New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology
Author: Wiebe E. Bijker
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
This pioneering book, first published in 1987, launched the new field of social studies of technology. It introduced a method of inquiry--social construction of technology, or SCOT--that became a key part of the wider discipline of science and technology studies. The book helped the MIT Press shape its STS list and inspired the Inside Technology series. The thirteen essays in the book tell stories about such varied technologies as thirteenth-century galleys, eighteenth-century cooking stoves, and twentieth-century missile systems. Taken together, they affirm the fruitfulness of an approach to the study of technology that gives equal weight to technical, social, economic, and political questions, and they demonstrate the illuminating effects of the integration of empirics and theory. The approaches in this volume--collectively called SCOT (after the volume's title) have since broadened their scope, and twenty-five years after the publication of this book, it is difficult to think of a technology that has not been studied from a SCOT perspective and impossible to think of a technology that cannot be studied that way.
What is management and how do the people who become managers take on a managerial identity? How does text inform the manager's identity? From cultural studies we understand that the relationship between text and reader is not passive but that each one works upon the other, and that text is active in forming the identity of the reader. This books is the first to analyse how many management textbooks construct their readers. It analyses management textbooks published since the 1950s and shows they construct a world in which chaos is kept at bay only by strong management, and in which strong management is based upon the rationality of modernity. This book exposes and analyses such claims-to-truths, and theorizes their arguments using the work of Butler and Foucault, the sociology of scientific knowledge, critical legal studies, art history and queer theory. By revealing a postmodern turn in management textbooks, The Social Construction of Management is both a critical and empirical study that explores the constitution of managerial identities in the age of mass education in management. An exciting contribution to the growing body of knowledge within critical management studies, this book challenges the way we think about organizations and their management, and about management education as a whole. This is thought provoking reading for anyone studying management, or working in the managerial organization.
Based on in-depth interviews designed to determine what trust is, how it is built, and how it is destroyed, this important new resource provides extensive insight into the fundamental process of interpersonal trust in the day-to-day lives of average people. It furnishes qualitative data analysis and offers a detailed definition of trust in a sociological context. This unique text is a valuable reference for sociologists, social and clinical psychologists, and students in these disciplines.