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The Sociology of the Professions

Lawyers, Doctors and Others

Author: Robert Dingwall,Philip Lewis

Publisher: Quid Pro Books

ISBN: 1610272323

Category: Social Science

Page: 276

View: 7283

Robert Dingwall and Philip Lewis’s renowned compilation of diverse studies—written by internationally recognized theorists and empirical researchers into the sociology of the professions—was groundbreaking when first published in 1983 and has influenced scholars, practitioners, and professionals since. Not limited to one occupation or field, as are most such works, this collection examines across traditional fields the idea and practice of professions and professionals. The 2014 digital edition features a substantive new Foreword by Professor Sida Liu of the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He notes that this book “is a rare effort to fully compare the two classic cases of doctors and lawyers in the professions literature. The contributors of the book include a number of prominent authors on the professions in Britain and the United States. Until today, it remains a vitally important volume for scholars and students interested in various aspects of professional life.” “Looking back,” Liu adds, “one must be struck by the extent to which theorists of professions and empirical researchers on doctors and lawyers from both the UK and US fully engage with one another throughout the book.” He concludes that the reemergence of “this excellent book three decades after its initial publication will reconfirm its status as a classic collection of essays on the professions.” The Sociology of the Professions brings together enduring work by some of the most influential writers on the sociology of the professions. It is a deliberate attempt to extend the theoretical basis of the specialty by a comparative approach, using data and interviews on medicine and law. Recognized advances in understanding the professions resulted from the work of medical sociologists on the division of labor in health care and on the relation between health services and society. Their foundation, though, appeared uncertain in the absence of comparable material on other sectors. At the same time, the sociology of law has tended to neglect the study of the profession in favor of the analysis of statutes and their effects. But law is not just what is written in legislation; it is people’s work. Our understanding of the social organization of legal services is incomplete without that perspective. The contributors to this volume are recognized authorities from a variety of fields, from the UK and US. They include Dingwall and Lewis, as well as Paul Atkinson, Maureen Cain, John Eekelaar, Eliot Freidson, Marc Galanter, Gordon Horobin, Malcolm Johnson, Geoff Mungham, Topsy Murray, Alan Paterson, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, P.M. Strong, and Philip Thomas. Their studies fall into three categories: “Professions, Knowledge and Power,” “Professional Work,” and “Professional Careers.” The volume retains a comprehensive bibliography of relevant British and US sources on the study of the professions in law, medicine, and beyond. Reviews of the original edition include: “Dingwall and Lewis have provided an exemplar of what an edited volume can be. Its comparativism, its span of European and American scholarship, its internal debates, its efforts to press into new theoretical terrain, all add to a refreshing and challenging collection. In fact, this volume would be a far better entree to the enduring questions of professions in modern societies than the limp alternatives too frequently served in its place.” — Terence Halliday in Social Forces “This anthology provides an exceptionally literate assessment of past research and a coherent statement of the research agenda for the future.” — Eve Spangler in Contemporary Sociology “There is a ... sense of excitement, as many of the contributors attempt to mark out new subjects for future research, or try out new strategies of investigation and invite the reader, or reviewer, to participate in their debates.” — Michael Burrage in Modern Law Review Also available in new paperback edition.

The Sociology of the Professions

SAGE Publications

Author: Keith M Macdonald

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446266087

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 9988

This much-needed book provides a systematic introduction, both conceptual and applied, to the sociology of the professions. Keith Macdonald guides the reader through the chief sociological approaches to the professions, addressing their strengths and weaknesses. The discussion is richly illustrated by examples from and comparisons between the professions in Britain, the United States and Europe, relating their development to their cultural context. The social exclusivity that professions aim for is discussed in relation to social stratification, patriarchy and knowledge, and is thoroughly illustrated by reference to examples from medicine and other established professions, such as law and architecture. The themes of the book are drawn together in a final chapter by means of a case study of accountancy.

Professions and Metaphors

Understanding professions in society

Author: Andreas Liljegren,Mike Saks

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317371984

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 186

View: 2060

Professions and Metaphors: Understanding Professions in Society explores the way that two traditions have contributed to our understanding of both theory and society over recent decades. In the first tradition, the growing literature on metaphors has helped to guide thinking, providing insights into such phenomena as the study of organizations. In the second, there has been an increased interest in professions, from lawyers and university academics to doctors and social workers. This edited collection brings together these two traditions for the first time, providing a unique and systematic overview, at macro and micro level, of the use of metaphors in the sociology of professions. A range of professional fields are explored, from law and medicine to social work and teaching, showing how metaphors can enhance our understanding of the operation of professional groups. By demonstrating how metaphors can add to our understanding of professions in society, as well as in professional practice, this ground-breaking book makes an invaluable contribution to advanced students and researchers in fields such as the sociology of professions and work and organization – as well as informing professionals and policy makers themselves.

Death of the Guilds

Professions, States, and the Advance of Capitalism, 1930 to the Present

Author: Elliott A. Krause

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300078664

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 9489

In a uniquely wide-ranging analysis of modern professional group power, Elliott A. Krause looks at four traditional professions; medicine, law, university teaching, and engineering. His richly detailed comparison of the autonomy and leverage these professions wield in five countries - the United States, Britain, France, Italy, and Germany - reveals many differences among the countries and the professions. Yet in the past three decades each professional group in each country has experienced a marked decline in its powers in relation to the state and to capitalist institutions. With a shift toward capitalist control, Krause contends, the professions operate more on a for-profit basis, and increased rationing of services becomes more likely.

Chicago Lawyers

The Social Structure of the Bar

Author: John P. Heinz,Edward O. Laumann

Publisher: Northwestern University Press

ISBN: 9780810111899

Category: Law

Page: 222

View: 6517

The legal profession is stratified primarily by the character of the clients served, not by the type of legal service rendered, as John P. Heinz and Edward O. Laumann convincingly demonstrate. In their classic study of the Chicago bar, the authors draw on interviews with nearly 800 lawyers to show that the profession is divided into two distinct hemispheres--corporate and individual--and that this dichotomy is reflected in the distribution of prestige among lawyers.

An Introduction to the Sociology of Work and Occupations

Author: Rudi Volti

Publisher: Pine Forge Press

ISBN: 1412924960

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 276

View: 1859

"Connecting work and occupations to the key subjects of sociological inquiry - social and technological change, race, ethnicity, gender, social class, education, social networks, and modes of organization - An Introduction to the Sociology of Work and Occupations introduces students to highly relevant analyses of today's industrial and postindustrial society. Succinct yet comprehensive, this text provides useful analysis of a broad range of topics, covering the changes in the world of work from hunting and gathering to today's Information Age. Featuring a broad range of topics, this unique text provides crucial insight into how life and work are evolving in the 21st century." "This text is valuable for upper-level undergraduate courses such as Sociology of Work and related courses in departments of sociology, organizational behavior, economics, human resource management, and organizational studies."--Jacket.

The Protection of Children (Second Edition)

State Intervention and Family Life

Author: Robert Dingwall,John Eekelaar,Topsy Murray

Publisher: Quid Pro Books

ISBN: 161027220X

Category: Law

Page: 296

View: 5546

This classic study of law and social work in action is based on the most extensive investigation of child abuse and neglect ever carried out in Great Britain. The authors followed the course of numerous cases from the first detection of ill-treatment to the resolution (or otherwise) of the problem. Famous for coining the much-used (and often misunderstood or misused) phrase "the rule of optimism," this book is updated with an extensive Postscript from 1995 and a new, 2014 Preface that explains the uneven history of the optimism principle, in both the UK and US -- and in both social work practice and sociological scholarship.

Professional Powers

A Study of the Institutionalization of Formal Knowledge

Author: Eliot Freidson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226262253

Category: Social Science

Page: 241

View: 5910

Freidson guides his analysis by finding what power may be ascribed to formal, codified knowledge. He focuses on the institutions that provide intellectual workers with their knowledge, a regular living, organized political resources, and other means with which to translate formal knowledge into human activity. Surveying professionals, he establishes a basic foundation for tracing the sources and means of professional power. Key issues are discussed as to whether they exercise power in the workplace, in government policy-making, and in the shaping of our physical and social world.

Children and Young People's Nursing

Principles for Practice

Author: Ruth Davies,Alyson Davies

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1444107844

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 8476

Children and Young People's Nursing provides a comprehensive overview of the issues facing children's nurses today. It focuses on developing best practice and implementing high quality care. This book covers the wide range of general and specialist care settings in which children and young people's nurses work, including schools, the community and mental health. Written by a team of experts from across the UK, it emphasizes throughout the fundamental principles of contemporary children's nursing, such as family-centred care, safeguarding and the need for a culturally sensitive and rights-based approach to care. This is an essential text for all children's nursing students, as well as a useful reference for qualified nurses looking to update their practice. Key features All chapters are underpinned by current policies and the latest research Key points, reflection points, principles for practice boxes and cas studies to aid learning Concludes with a section on building your portfolio and advancing your practice and career

Perioperative Nursing - E-Book

An Introductory Text

Author: Lois Hamlin,Marilyn Richardson-Tench,Menna Davies

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0729578879

Category: Medical

Page: 850

View: 9621

This new text discusses the roles and responsibilities of those working within the perioperative environment in Australia and New Zealand. It highlights the changing face of perioperative nursing and gives an overview of key concepts including anaesthetic, intraoperative and postanaesthesia recovery care; day surgery and endoscopy. Professional development and medico-legal aspects are also discussed. This is an introductory text which will appeal to a broad market from trainee enrolled nurses; to undergraduate nursing students doing a perioperative clinical placement; to postgraduate students of perioperative nursing. Registered nurses working within or preparing to work within this area, as well as other operating room staff such as anaesthetic technicians will also find this text invaluable.

Blue Juice

Euthanasia in Veterinary Medicine

Author: Patricia Morris

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 1439907072

Category: Medical

Page: 244

View: 9985

Offering a candid behind-the-scenes look at small-animal veterinary practices, Blue Juice explores the emotional and ethical conflicts involved in providing a "good death" for companion animals. Patricia Morris presents a nuanced ethnographic account of how veterinarians manage patient care and client relations when their responsibility shifts from saving an animal's life to negotiating a decision to end it. Using her own experiences and observations in veterinary settings as well as the voices of seasoned and novice vets, Morris reveals how veterinarians think about euthanasia and why this "dirty work" often precipitates "burnout," moral quandaries, and even tense or emotional interactions with clients. Closely observing these interactions, Morris illuminates the ways in which euthanasia reflects deep and unresolved tension in human-animal relationships. Blue Juice seeks to understand how practitioners, charged with the difficult task of balancing the interests of animals and their humans, deal with the responsibility of ending their patients' lives.

From General Estate to Special Interest

German Lawyers 1878-1933

Author: Kenneth F. Ledford

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521030205

Category: History

Page: 392

View: 9718

The history of German lawyers in private practice from 1878 to 1933 helps answer questions about the inability of German liberalism to withstand National Socialism in 1933. They won free entry and self-government for their profession in 1878, thinking these would lead to civic leadership and expanded liberty, but the changes that were unleashed revealed the limits of professional influence. Exaggerated expectations for the legal profession in public life exposed the limitations of procedural liberalism, with tragic consequences.

Actions of Architecture

Architects and Creative Users

Author: Jonathan Hill

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134437048

Category: Architecture

Page: 232

View: 5929

Drawing on the work of a wide range of architects, artists and writers, this book considers the relations between the architect and the user, which it compares to the relations between the artist and viewer and the author and reader. The book's thesis is informed by the text 'The Death of the Author', in which Roland Barthes argues for a writer aware of the creativity of the reader. Actions of Architecture begins with a critique of strategies that define the user as passive and predictable, such as contemplation and functionalism. Subsequently it considers how an awareness of user creativity informs architecture, architects and concepts of authorship in architectural design. Identifying strategies that recognize user creativity, such as appropriation, collaboration, disjunction, DIY, montage, polyvalence and uselessness, Actions of Architecture states that the creative user should be the central concern of architectural design.

Medical Professionals and the Organization of Knowledge

Author: Eliot Freidson,Judith Lorber

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 0202362086

Category: Medical

Page: 482

View: 2523

Medical Professionals and the Organization of Knowledge conveys how medical people shape and organize the knowledge, perception, and experience of illness, as well as the substance of illness behavior, its management, and treatment. It is now well established that the unique symbolic equipment of the human animal is intimately connected with the functioning of the body. Freidson and Lorber believe that the proper understanding of specifically human rather than generally "animal" illness requires careful and systematic study of the social meanings surrounding illness. The content of social meanings varies from culture to culture and from one historical period to another. As important as the content of those social meanings, is the organization of groups who serve as carriers and, sometimes, creators. In the case of illness, a critical difference exists between those considered to be competent to diagnose and treat the sick and those excluded from this special privilege--a separation as old as the shaman or medicine-man. Such differences become solidified when the expert healer becomes a member of an organized, full-time occupation, sustained in monopoly over the work of diagnosis and treatment by the force of the state and invested with the authority to make official designation of the social meanings to be ascribed to physical states. The medical profession in advanced nations is in a vise between professional needs and political demands. Its organization and its knowledge establish many of the conditions for being recognizably and legitimately ill, and the professional controls for many of the circumstances of treatment. It thus plays a central role in shaping the experience of being ill. With this fact of modern life in mind, this collection on the character of experts or professionals in general and of medicine as a profession in particular is uniquely fashioned. Eliot Freidson was professor emeritus of sociology in the Graduate School of Arts and Science of New York University. He served on scientific advisory boards for the Social Security Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the National Center for Health Services Research. Judith Lorber is a professor emerita of sociology at Brooklyn College and the City College of New York Graduate Center. She is author of Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics, Breaking the Bowls: Degendering and Feminist Change, and Gender and the Social Construction of Illness.

From Vocational to Professional Education

Educating for social welfare

Author: Jens-Christian Smeby,Molly Sutphen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317632257

Category: Education

Page: 176

View: 2222

One of the most important routes to employment within the social welfare sector worldwide is higher education, which equips students not only with the knowledge for employment, but with the tools to use and build on this knowledge. During the last few decades there has been an academic drift in professional education, especially for many shorter professional programmes. Many of these shorter programmes have left the realm of vocational education to enter higher education. On the one hand, graduates are confronted by an increased demand for research and evidence-based knowledge, and on the other, they are criticised for lacking the knowledge and skills relevant for professional work. From Vocational to Professional Education presents new research into programmes suggesting how best to prepare students for professional work and addresses the challenges facing the education of professionals for social welfare. The book identifies and clarifies key problems, as well as outlining the political and historical context in which they are embedded. Chapters discuss theoretical and analytical ways to address these challenges and suggest recommendations for the further development of education for professional practice. Based on comprehensive longitudinal research data, the book will appeal to policy makers, leaders of higher education, and teachers and researchers involved in programmes qualifying students for professional work.

The Future of the Professions

How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts

Author: Richard Susskind,Daniel Susskind

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191022411

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 6630

This book predicts the decline of today's professions and describes the people and systems that will replace them. In an Internet society, according to Richard Susskind and Daniel Susskind, we will neither need nor want doctors, teachers, accountants, architects, the clergy, consultants, lawyers, and many others, to work as they did in the 20th century. The Future of the Professions explains how 'increasingly capable systems' - from telepresence to artificial intelligence - will bring fundamental change in the way that the 'practical expertise' of specialists is made available in society. The authors challenge the 'grand bargain' - the arrangement that grants various monopolies to today's professionals. They argue that our current professions are antiquated, opaque and no longer affordable, and that the expertise of the best is enjoyed only by a few. In their place, they propose six new models for producing and distributing expertise in society. The book raises important practical and moral questions. In an era when machines can out-perform human beings at most tasks, what are the prospects for employment, who should own and control online expertise, and what tasks should be reserved exclusively for people? Based on the authors' in-depth research of more than ten professions, and illustrated by numerous examples from each, this is the first book to assess and question the relevance of the professions in the 21st century.

The ISA Handbook in Contemporary Sociology

Author: Ann Denis,Devorah Kalekin-Fishman

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1849205124

Category: Social Science

Page: 504

View: 1980

"Representing the fruit of in-depth dynamics it invites us to give all necessary attention to the concepts of conflict, cooperation and competition. By reflecting on the possible articulations of these concepts and attempting to apply them in diverse fields of social science the editors give voice to those who are studying the world as it is and perform the service of returning a set of concepts, approaches or paradigms to their legitimate place." - Michel Wieviorka, President, International Sociological Association This ISA Handbook presents and tracks the transformation of the societies and social relations that characterize the twenty-first century. The volume is organized around a conceptualization of three processes that are fundamental to the analyses of micro, meso and macro social relations: conflict, competition, and cooperation. In addition to chapters that delve into sociological theory, case studies and overviews of subfields discuss and contextualize debates from an international perspective, incorporating relevant material about North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa and Asia. Chapters on topics and fields crucial to the experience of people around the world include, among others: childhood studies, consumption, hunger, labour studies, peace-keeping, law, health, sport, and welfare. Systematic and informed, the handbook will serve readers in all branches of the social sciences, providing both experienced researchers and novices with the materials to explore the different domains of contemporary life.

Invitation to Law and Society, Second Edition

An Introduction to the Study of Real Law

Author: Kitty Calavita

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022629661X

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 4713

Law and society is a rapidly growing field that turns the conventional view of law as mythical abstraction on its head. Kitty Calavita brilliantly brings to life the ways in which law is found not only in statutes and courtrooms but in our institutions and interactions, while inviting readers into conversations that introduce the field’s dominant themes and most lively disagreements. Deftly interweaving scholarship with familiar examples, Calavita shows how scholars in the discipline are collectively engaged in a subversive exposé of law’s public mythology. While surveying prominent issues and distinctive approaches to both law as it is written and actual legal practices, as well as the law’s potential as a tool for social change, this volume provides a view of law that is more real but just as compelling as its mythic counterpart. With this second edition of Invitation to Law and Society, Calavita brings up to date what is arguably the leading introduction to this exciting, evolving field of inquiry and adds a new chapter on the growing law and cultural studies movement.

From Higher Aims to Hired Hands

The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management as a Profession

Author: Rakesh Khurana

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400830862

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 568

View: 7487

Is management a profession? Should it be? Can it be? This major work of social and intellectual history reveals how such questions have driven business education and shaped American management and society for more than a century. The book is also a call for reform. Rakesh Khurana shows that university-based business schools were founded to train a professional class of managers in the mold of doctors and lawyers but have effectively retreated from that goal, leaving a gaping moral hole at the center of business education and perhaps in management itself. Khurana begins in the late nineteenth century, when members of an emerging managerial elite, seeking social status to match the wealth and power they had accrued, began working with major universities to establish graduate business education programs paralleling those for medicine and law. Constituting business as a profession, however, required codifying the knowledge relevant for practitioners and developing enforceable standards of conduct. Khurana, drawing on a rich set of archival material from business schools, foundations, and academic associations, traces how business educators confronted these challenges with varying strategies during the Progressive era and the Depression, the postwar boom years, and recent decades of freewheeling capitalism. Today, Khurana argues, business schools have largely capitulated in the battle for professionalism and have become merely purveyors of a product, the MBA, with students treated as consumers. Professional and moral ideals that once animated and inspired business schools have been conquered by a perspective that managers are merely agents of shareholders, beholden only to the cause of share profits. According to Khurana, we should not thus be surprised at the rise of corporate malfeasance. The time has come, he concludes, to rejuvenate intellectually and morally the training of our future business leaders.

Hollowing Out the Middle

The Rural Brain Drain and What It Means for America

Author: Patrick J. Carr,Maria J. Kefalas

Publisher: Beacon Press

ISBN: 0807042390

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 1750

In 2001, with funding from the MacArthur Foundation, sociologists Patrick J. Carr and Maria J. Kefalas moved to Iowa to understand the rural brain drain and the exodus of young people from America’s countryside. They met and followed working-class “stayers”; ambitious and college-bound “achievers”; “seekers,” who head off to war to see what the world beyond offers; and “returners,” who eventually circle back to their hometowns. What surprised them most was that adults in the community were playing a pivotal part in the town’s decline by pushing the best and brightest young people to leave. In a timely, new afterword, Carr and Kefalas address the question “so what can be done to save our communities?” They profile the efforts of dedicated community leaders actively resisting the hollowing out of Middle America. These individuals have creatively engaged small town youth—stayers and returners, seekers and achievers—and have implemented a variety of programs to combat the rural brain drain. These stories of civic engagement will certainly inspire and encourage readers struggling to defend their communities. From the Trade Paperback edition.

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