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An Introduction to the History of International Organizations
Author: David MacKenzie
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
This short and well-written overview provides essential information on the history of international organizations (IOs), with particular focus on the League of Nations, the development of the United Nations, and the UN system. Starting at the beginning of the twentieth century, when there were very few international organizations in existence, A World Beyond Borders traces the growth of IOs through to the close of the century, when there were literally thousands at the heart of the international system. Following this chronological order, the book examines how international organizations became the major legal, moral, and cultural forces that they are today, involved in all aspects of international relations including peacekeeping, disarmament, peace resolution, human rights, diplomacy, and environmentalism. This book is the first in the Canadian Historical Association / University of Toronto Press International Themes and Issues Series, which is dedicated to publishing concise, focused overviews of topics that are of international significance in the study of history.
International Human Rights and Its Impact on Libyan Law
Author: Naeima Faraj A.A. Al-Hadad
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
This book addresses women’s rights to work and motherhood in Libya from a legal and international human rights perspective. In an attempt to solve the problem posed by the perception that there is an unsolvable conflict between the right of women to work and their right to motherhood, the author considers how these two sets of rights, as protected under international human rights law, can and should be recognised and promoted within the Libyan legal system. Including first-hand accounts of experiences of Libyan women, the study voices their struggle for their rights as guaranteed by domestic law, international conventions and Islam. Providing a rare insight into a region striving to find its new identity, the author assesses the adequacy of existing Libyan laws and, where warranted, offers proposals for legislative amendments to Libyan policy makers and its new Parliament at such a crucial time in the nation’s history.
Beginning in the broken aftermath of the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles that made German recovery almost impossible, Whittock tells not just the account of the men who rose to the fore in the dangerous days of the Weimar republic, circling around the cult of personality generated by Adolf Hitler, but also a convincing and personality-driven overview of how ordinary Germans became seduced by the dreams of a new world order, the Third Reich. The book also gives a fascinating insight into the everyday life in Germany during the Second World War and explores key questions such as how much did the Germans know about the Holocaust and why did the regime eventually fail so disastrously?
The book asserts that human security derives from the experience and expectation of human well-being which depends on four essential conditions: a life sustaining environment, the meeting of essential physical needs, respect for the identity and dignity of persons and groups, protection from avoidable harm and expectations of remedy from them. The book demonstrates their integral relationship to human security. Patriarchy being the germinal paradigm from which most major human institutions such as the state, the economy, organised religions and social relations have evolved, the book argues that fundamental inequalities must be challenged for the sake of equality and security. The fundamental point raised is that expectation of human well-being is a continuing cause of armed conflict which constitutes a threat to peace and survival of all humanity and human security cannot exist within a militarised security system. The editors of the book bring together 14 essays which critically examine militarised security in order to find human security pathways, show ways in which to refute the dominant paradigm, indicate a clear gender analysis that challenges the current system, and suggests alternatives to militarised security. With a mix of female and male feminist scholar activists as contributors, the book makes an important contribution to a new discourse on human security.
In recent decades the debate on nuclear weapons has focused overwhelmingly on proliferation and nonproliferation dynamics. In a series of Wall Street Journal articles, however, George Shultz, William Perry, Henry Kissinger, and Sam Nunn called on governments to rid the world of nuclear weapons, helping to put disarmament back into international security discussions. More recently, U.S. president Barack Obama, prominent U.S. congressional members of both political parties, and a number of influential foreign leaders have espoused the idea of a world free of nuclear weapons. Turning this vision into reality requires an understanding of the forces driving disarmament forward and those holding it back. Slaying the Nuclear Dragon provides in-depth, objective analysis of current nuclear disarmament dynamics. Examining the political, state-level factors that drive and stall progress, contributors highlight the challenges and opportunities faced by proponents of disarmament. These essays show that although conditions are favorable for significant reductions, numerous hurdles still exist. Contributors look at three categories of states: those that generate momentum for disarmament; those with policies that are problematic for disarmament; and those that actively hinder progress--whether openly, secretly, deliberately, or inadvertently. Nuclear deterrence was long credited with preventing war between the two major Cold War powers, but with the spread of nuclear technology, threats have shifted to other state powers and to nonstate groups. Slaying the Nuclear Dragon addresses an urgent need to examine nuclear disarmament in a realistic, nonideological manner.
The Challenge of Post-Conflict Economic Reconstruction
Author: Graciana del Castillo
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Political Science
Post-conflict economic reconstruction is a critical part of the political economy of peacetime and one of the most important challenges in any peace-building or state-building strategy. After wars end, countries must negotiate a multi-pronged transition to peace: Violence must give way to public security; lawlessness, political exclusion, and violation of human rights must give way to the rule of law and participatory government; ethnic, religious, ideological, or class/caste confrontation must give way to national reconciliation; and ravaged and mismanaged war economies must be reconstructed and transformed into functioning market economies that enable people to earn a decent living. Yet, how can these vitally important tasks each be successfully managed? How should we go about rehabilitating basic services and physical and human infrastructure? Which policies and institutions are necessary to reactivate the economy in the short run and ensure sustainable development in the long run? What steps should countries take to bring about national reconciliation and the consolidation of peace? In all of these cases, unless the political objectives of peacetime prevail at all times, peace will be ephemeral, while policies that pursue purely economic objectives can have tragic consequences. This book argues that any strategy for post-conflict economic reconstruction must be based on five premises and examines specific post-conflict reconstruction experiences to identify not only where these premises have been disregarded, but also where policies have worked, and the specific conditions that have influenced their success and failure.
Human Rights and Disability Advocacy brings together perspectives from civil society representatives who played key roles in the drafting of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, shedding light on the emergent practices of a "new diplomacy" and the larger enterprise of human rights advocacy at the international level.