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This book highlights various topics on measure theory and vividly demonstrates that the different questions of this theory are closely connected with the central measure extension problem. Several important aspects of the measure extension problem are considered separately: set-theoretical, topological and algebraic. Also, various combinations (e.g., algebraic-topological) of these aspects are discussed by stressing their specific features. Several new methods are presented for solving the above mentioned problem in concrete situations. In particular, the following new results are obtained: the measure extension problem is completely solved for invariant or quasi-invariant measures on solvable uncountable groups; non-separable extensions of invariant measures are constructed by using their ergodic components; absolutely non-measurable additive functionals are constructed for certain classes of measures; the structure of algebraic sums of measure zero sets is investigated. The material presented in this book is essentially self-contained and is oriented towards a wide audience of mathematicians (including postgraduate students). New results and facts given in the book are based on (or closely connected with) traditional topics of set theory, measure theory and general topology such as: infinite combinatorics, Martin's Axiom and the Continuum Hypothesis, Luzin and Sierpinski sets, universal measure zero sets, theorems on the existence of measurable selectors, regularity properties of Borel measures on metric spaces, and so on. Essential information on these topics is also included in the text (primarily, in the form of Appendixes or Exercises), which enables potential readers to understand the proofs and follow the constructions in full details. This not only allows the book to be used as a monograph but also as a course of lectures for students whose interests lie in set theory, real analysis, measure theory and general topology.
For more than a century, the study of various types of inequalities has been the focus of great attention by many researchers, interested both in the theory and its applications. In particular, there exists a very rich literature related to the well known Cebysev, Gruss, Trapezoid, Ostrowski, Hadamard and Jensen type inequalities. The present monograph is an attempt to organize recent progress related to the above inequalities, which we hope will widen the scope of their applications. The field to be covered is extremely wide and it is impossible to treat all of these here. The material included in the monograph is recent and hard to find in other books. It is accessible to any reader with a reasonable background in real analysis and an acquaintance with its related areas. All results are presented in an elementary way and the book could also serve as a textbook for an advanced graduate course. The book deserves a warm welcome to those who wish to learn the subject and it will also be most valuable as a source of reference in the field. It will be invaluable reading for mathematicians and engineers and also for graduate students, scientists and scholars wishing to keep abreast of this important area of research.