Search Results: toward-a-criminology-of-disaster-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-find-out-disaster-studies

Toward a Criminology of Disaster

What We Know and What We Need to Find Out

Author: Kelly Frailing,Dee Wood Harper

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137469145

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 4839

This book puts forward a comprehensive criminology of disaster by drawing - and building - upon existing theories which attempt to explain disaster crime. Although antisocial behaviour in disasters has long been viewed as a rarity, the authors present ample evidence that a variety of crime occurs in the wake of disaster. Frailing and Harper's explorations of property crime, interpersonal violence and fraud during disaster reveal the importance of methodological approaches to understanding these phenomena. They highlight the need for the application of social disorganization, routine activity and general strain theories of crime in the development of disaster crime prevention strategies. An accessible and detailed study, this book will have particular appeal for both students and scholars of criminology, sociology, disaster studies and emergency management.

Crime and Criminal Justice in Disaster

Author: Dee Wood Harper,Kelly Frailing

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781611630268

Category: Social Science

Page: 442

View: 2296

"Crime and Criminal Justice in Disaster aims to answer two questions: Why do some people take advantage of the disruption that disaster causes and commit crime, and what can be done about it? The second edition of Crime and Criminal Justice in Disaster focuses on crime in the wake of recent disasters, including the Haiti and Chile earthquakes, the earthquake and tsunami in Japan and the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The authors of the essays in this volume, all talented sociologists, criminologists and law enforcement officials who have had direct experience researching and working in disaster conditions, have updated their original work to investigate the longer term effects that disaster can have on crimes such as rape, fraud and looting. They have also worked to explain the actions criminal justice and other systems can take in the short and longer-term disaster aftermaths to combat and prevent crime. Entirely new essays in this edition focus on hate crime in the aftermath of 9/11 and the role that local NGOs can play in the recovery process.The new additions to the revised edition of Crime and Criminal Justice in Disaster help bring us closer to a criminology of disaster and set the stage for new theorizing and research that can help us more fully understand the criminogenic effects of disaster and the best practices for criminal justice and other systems in preventing these effects."

The Consequences of Global Disasters

Author: Anthony Elliott,Eric L. Hsu

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317505883

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 1649

Disasters of the 21st century differ substantially from other kinds of hazards that previous societies have had to cope with because of the twin forces of globalization and the communications revolution. But what makes today’s disasters—industrial, technological, environmental, and socio-cultural—so different in scope and impact? What are the possible disasters of the future? And how can we, as collective humanity, best manage and respond to the globalization of disasters? The Consequences of Global Disasters makes a distinctive contribution to the ever-expanding field of disaster research by developing a multi-contextual, multi-disciplinary and multi-methodological approach to the social analysis of disasters. Anthony Elliott and Eric L. Hsu have brought together a highly distinguished group of international contributors to focus on how people react to the unsettling effects of disasters, which come in a multitude of forms. Numerous contributors concentrate on the cultural, political and psychological ramifications of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, but disasters in other contexts, such as Australia, China and Haiti, are considered as well. By offering unique empirical, methodological and theoretical insights, The Consequences of Global Disasters sets an agenda for future developments in the field of disaster research and will be a key resource for students and scholars working in social science disciplines such as sociology, cultural studies, international relations, psycho-social studies, social work, Japanese studies and social theory.

Asian Law in Disasters

Toward a Human-Centered Recovery

Author: Yuka KANEKO,Katsumi MATSUOKA,Toshihisa TOYODA

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317396839

Category: Social Science

Page: 334

View: 5767

This book is a critical analysis of several of the most disaster-prone regions in Asia. Its unique focus is on the legal issues in the phase of disaster recovery, the most lengthy and difficult stage of disaster response that follows the conclusion of initial emergency stage of humanitarian aid. In the stage of disaster recovery, the law decides the fate of reconstruction for the individual houses and livelihoods of the disaster-affected people and sets the limit of governmental support for them during the lengthy period of suspension of normal living until full recovery is obtained. Researchers who were participant-observers in the difficult recovery phase after the mega-disasters in Asia analyse the reality of the functions of law which often hinder, rather than foster, efforts to restore disaster victims’ lives. The book collects research conducted with an emphasis on empirical approaches to legal sociology, including direct interviews with people affected by the disaster. It offers a holistic approach beyond the traditional sectionalism of legal studies by starting with a historical review and incorporating both spheres of public law and private law, in order to obtain a new perspective that can concurrently achieve disaster risk reductions and human-centered recoveries. With particular emphasis on the unexplored area of law in the post-disaster recovery phase, this book will attract the attention of students and scholars of disaster studies, legal studies, Asian studies, as well as those who work in the practice of disaster management.

Designing to Avoid Disaster

The Nature of Fracture-critical Design

Author: Thomas Fisher

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 041552735X

Category: Architecture

Page: 253

View: 1979

Recent catastrophic events, such as the I-35W bridge collapse, New Orleans flooding, the BP oil spill, Port au Prince's destruction by earthquake, Fukushima nuclear plant's devastation by tsunami, the Wall Street investment bank failures, and the housing foreclosure epidemic and the collapse of housing prices, all stem from what author Thomas Fisher calls fracture-critical design. This is design in which structures and systems have so little redundancy and so much interconnectedness and misguided efficiency that they fail completely if any one part does not perform as intended. If we, as architects, planners, engineers, and citizens are to predict and prepare for the next disaster, we need to recognize this error in our thinking and to understand how design thinking provides us with a way to anticipate unintended failures and increase the resiliency of the world in which we live. In Designing to Avoid Disaster, the author discusses the context and cultural assumptions that have led to a number of disasters worldwide, describing the nature of fracture-critical design and why it has become so prevalent. He traces the impact of fracture-critical thinking on everything from our economy and politics to our educational and infrastructure systems to the communities, buildings, and products we inhabit and use everyday. And he shows how the natural environment and human population itself have both begun to move on a path toward a fracture-critical collapse that we need to do everything possible to avoid. We designed our way to such disasters and we can design our way out of them, with a number of possible solutions that Fisher provides.

Courting Disaster, intimate Stalking, Culture, and Criminal Justice

Intimate Stalking, Culture, and Criminal Justice

Author: Jennifer L. Dunn

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202365220

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 3723

This book is about women who are coerced, intimidated, and stalked by former intimates. It is about the things these women do to manage this situation, and what happens to them as a consequence. Stalking is a behavior that has relatively recently been defined as problematic, and as criminal when violence or the threat of violence occurs. This new category of crime has created a new type of victim. How such victims come into being, interact with their former partners, and seek help, is the subject of this book. It is also about living through what some women consider a form of secondary victimization by the criminal justice system. The definition of someone as a victim is not self-evident, but is contingent upon interpretation. Thus this book is also an account of how women come to decide they are victims of stalking and seek to convince others of this. It uses a variety of data and methods to examine this phenomenon from the perspectives of both victims and law enforcement agents, and adds to our understanding of responsibility and blame when violence occurs between intimates. By examining social constructions of this particular type of victimization and the choices stalking victims make, the readers learn more about the forces constraining human decisions. Stalking victimization is complicated because it is an ongoing process. It often does not stop once the criminal justice system is involved. Women who are being stalked by their former partners face a profound dilemma in their efforts to manage their pursuers and to pursue their cases through the criminal justice system. Dunn offers a wide-ranging, thought-provoking, and sensitive examination of the lived experience of intimate stalking victimization. In exploring the ways in which we socially construct and confer meaning upon intimate violence, the author draws upon interviews with stalkers and victims, courtroom testimony, analyses of case reports, and an independent survey instrument that reveals ambivalence of the prevailing culture to the problem. Courting Disaster will be valuable in women's studies and counseling courses and a useful text in sociology and criminology.

Children, Law, and Disasters

What We Have Learned from Katrina and the Hurricanes of 2005

Author: N.A

Publisher: American Bar Association

ISBN: 9781604422498

Category: Law

Page: 348

View: 9182

Learning and Calamities

Practices, Interpretations, Patterns

Author: Heike Egner,Marén Schorch,Martin Voss

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134475810

Category: Social Science

Page: 314

View: 6222

It is widely assumed that humanity should be able to learn from calamities (e.g., emergencies, disasters, catastrophes) and that the affected individuals, groups, and enterprises, as well as the concerned (disaster-) management organizations and institutions for prevention and mitigation, will be able to be better prepared or more efficient next time. Furthermore, it is often assumed that the results of these learning processes are preserved as "knowledge" in the collective memory of a society, and that patterns of practices were adopted on this base. Within history, there is more evidence for the opposite: Analyzing past calamities reveals that there is hardly any learning and, if so, that it rarely lasts more than one or two generations. This book explores whether learning in the context of calamities happens at all, and if learning takes place, under which conditions it can be achieved and what would be required to ensure that learned cognitive and practical knowledge will endure on a societal level. The contributions of this book include various fields of scientific research: history, sociology, geography, psychoanalysis, psychiatry, development studies and political studies, as well as disaster research and disaster risk reduction research.

Companions in Crime

The Social Aspects of Criminal Conduct

Author: Mark Warr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521009164

Category: Psychology

Page: 172

View: 7795

The principal thesis of Companions in Crime is that deviant behavior is predominantly social behavior.

Nuclear Disaster at Fukushima Daiichi

Social, Political and Environmental Issues

Author: Richard Hindmarsh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135910898

Category: Political Science

Page: 222

View: 9997

Nuclear Disaster at Fukushima Daiichi is a timely and groundbreaking account of the disturbing landscape of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear meltdown amidst an earthquake and tsunami on Japan’s northeast coastline on March 11, 2011. It provides riveting insights into the social and political landscape of nuclear power development in Japan, which significantly contributed to the disaster; the flawed disaster management options taken; and the political, technical, and social reactions as the accident unfolded. In doing so, it critically reflects on the implications for managing future nuclear disasters, for effective and responsible regulation and good governance of controversial science and technology, or technoscience, and for the future of nuclear power itself, both in Japan and internationally. Informed by a leading cast of international scholars in science, technology and society studies, the book is at the forefront of discussing the Fukushima Daiichi disaster at the intersection of social, environmental and energy security and good governance when such issues dominate global agendas for sustainable futures. Its powerful critique of the risks and hazards of nuclear energy alongside poor disaster management is an important counterbalance to the plans for nuclear build as central to sustainable energy in the face of climate change, increasing extreme weather events and environmental problems, and diminishing fossil fuel, peak oil, and rising electricity costs. Adding significantly to the consideration and debate of these critical issues, the book will interest academics, policy-makers, energy pundits, public interest organizations, citizens and students engaged variously with Fukushima itself, disaster management, political science, environmental/energy policy and risk, public health, sociology, public participation, civil society activism, new media, sustainability, and technology governance.

Disasters, Vulnerability, and Narratives

Writing Haiti’s Futures

Author: Kasia Mika

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351403036

Category: Science

Page: 234

View: 1124

This book uses narrative responses to the 2010 Haiti earthquake as a starting point for an analysis of notions of disaster, vulnerability, reconstruction and recovery. The turn to a wide range of literary works enables a composite comparative analysis, which encompasses the social, political and individual dimensions of the earthquake. This book focuses on a vision of an open-ended future, otherwise than as a threat or fear. Mika turns to concepts of hinged chronologies, slow healing and remnant dwelling. Weaving theory with attentive close-readings, the book offers an open-ended framework for conceptualising post-disaster recovery and healing. These processes happen at different times and must entail the elimination of compound vulnerabilities that created the disaster in the first place. Challenging characterisations of the region as a continuous catastrophe this book works towards a bold vision of Haiti’s and the Caribbean’s futures. The study shows how narratives can extend some of the key concepts within discipline-bound approaches to disasters, while making an important contribution to the interface between disaster studies, postcolonial ecocriticism and Haitian Studies.

Law and the Management of Disasters

The Challenge of Resilience

Author: Alexia Herwig,Marta Simoncini

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317273699

Category: Law

Page: 280

View: 9043

Disasters raise serious challenges for contemporary legal orders: they demand significant management, but usually amidst massive disruption to the normal functioning of state authority and society. When dealing with disasters, law has traditionally focused on contingency planning and recovery. More recently, however, ‘resilience’ has emerged as a key concept in effective disaster management policies and strategies, aiming at minimising the impact of events, so that the normal functioning of society and the state can be preserved. This book analyses the contribution of law to resilience building by looking at law’s role in the different phases of the disaster regulatory process: risk assessment, risk management, emergency intervention, and recovery. More specifically, it addresses how law can effectively contribute to resilience-oriented distaster management policies, and what legal instruments can support effective resilience-building.

Natural Disaster and Nuclear Crisis in Japan

Response and Recovery after Japan's 3/11

Author: Jeff Kingston

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136343474

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 3480

The March 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan plunged the country into a state of crisis. As the nation struggled to recover from a record breaking magnitude 9 earthquake and a tsunami that was as high as thirty-eight meters in some places, news trickled out that Fukushima had experienced meltdowns in three reactors. These tragic catastrophes claimed some 20,000 lives, initially displacing some 500,000 people and overwhelming Japan's formidable disaster preparedness. This book brings together the analysis and insights of a group of distinguished experts on Japan to examine what happened, how various institutions and actors responded and what lessons can be drawn from Japan’s disaster. The contributors, many of whom experienced the disaster first hand, assess the wide-ranging repercussions of this catastrophe and how it is already reshaping Japanese culture, politics, energy policy, and urban planning.

Historical Disasters in Context

Science, Religion, and Politics

Author: Andrea JANKU,Gerrit Schenk,Franz Mauelshagen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136476253

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 8218

Growing concerns about climate change and the increasing occurrence of ever more devastating natural disasters in some parts of the world and their consequences for human life, not only in the immediately affected regions, but for all of us, have increased our desire to learn more about disaster experiences in the past. How did disaster experiences impact on the development of modern sciences in the early modern era? Why did religion continue to play such an important role in the encounter with disasters, despite the strong trend towards secularization in the modern world? What was the political role of disasters? Historical Disasters in Context illustrates how past societies coped with a threatening environment, how societies changed in response to disaster experiences, and how disaster experiences were processed and communicated, both locally and globally. Particular emphasis is put on the realms of science, religion, and politics. International case studies demonstrate that while there are huge differences across cultures in the way people and societies responded to disasters, there are also many commonalities and interactions between different cultures that have the potential to alter the ways people prepare for and react to disasters in future. To explain these relationships and highlight their significance is the purpose of this volume.

Men, Masculinities and Disaster

Author: Elaine Enarson,Bob Pease

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317390245

Category: Science

Page: 246

View: 6660

In the examination of gender as a driving force in disasters, too little attention has been paid to how women’s or men’s disaster experiences relate to the wider context of gender inequality, or how gender-just practice can help prevent disasters or address climate change at a structural level. With a foreword from Kenneth Hewitt, an afterword from Raewyn Connell and contributions from renowned international experts, this book helps address the gap. It explores disasters in diverse environmental, hazard, political and cultural contexts through original research and theoretical reflection, building on the under-utilized orientation of critical men’s studies. This body of thought, not previously applied in disaster contexts, explores how men gain, maintain and use power to assert control over women. Contributing authors examine the gender terrain of disasters 'through men's eyes,' considering how diverse forms of masculinities shape men’s efforts to respond to and recover from disasters and other climate challenges. The book highlights both the high costs paid by many men in disasters and the consequences of dominant masculinity practices for women and marginalized men. It concludes by examining how disaster risk can be reduced through men's diverse efforts to challenge hierarchies around gender, sexuality, disability, age and culture.

Don't Shoot

One Man, a Street Fellowship, and the End of Violence in Inner-City America

Author: David M. Kennedy

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1408828898

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 1662

Gang- and drug-related inner-city violence, with its attendant epidemic of incarceration, is the defining crime problem in our country. In some neighborhoods in America, one out of every two hundred young black men is shot to death every year, and few initiatives of government and law enforcement have made much difference. But when David Kennedy, a self-taught and then-unknown criminologist, engineered the "Boston Miracle" in the mid-1990s, he pointed the way toward what few had imagined: a solution. Don't Shoot tells the story of Kennedy's long journey. Riding with beat cops, hanging with gang members, and stoop-sitting with grandmothers, Kennedy found that all parties misunderstood each other, caught in a spiral of racialized anger and distrust. He envisioned an approach in which everyone-gang members, cops, and community members-comes together in what is essentially a huge intervention. Offenders are told that the violence must stop, that even the cops want them to stay alive and out of prison, and that even their families support swift law enforcement if the violence continues. In city after city, the same miracle has followed: violence plummets, drug markets dry up, and the relationship between the police and the community is reset. This is a landmark book, chronicling a paradigm shift in how we address one of America's most shameful social problems. A riveting, page-turning read, it combines the street vérité of The Wire, the social science of Gang Leader for a Day, and the moral urgency and personal journey of Fist Stick Knife Gun. But unlike anybody else, Kennedy shows that there could be an end in sight.

Disaster Resiliency

Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Author: Naim Kapucu,Christopher V. Hawkins,Fernando I. Rivera

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136239952

Category: Political Science

Page: 436

View: 6916

Natural disasters in recent years have brought the study of disaster resiliency to the forefront. The importance of community preparedness and sustainability has been underscored by such calamities as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Japanese tsunami in 2011. Natural disasters will inevitably continue to occur, but by understanding the concept of resiliency as well as the factors that lead to it, communities can minimize their vulnerabilities and increase their resilience. In this volume, editors Naim Kapucu, Christopher V. Hawkins, and Fernando I. Rivera gather an impressive array of scholars to provide a much needed re-think to the topic disaster resiliency. Previous research on the subject has mainly focused on case studies, but this book offers a more systematic and empirical assessment of resiliency, while at the same time delving into new areas of exploration, including vulnerabilities of mobile home parks, the importance of asset mapping, and the differences between rural and urban locations. Employing a variety of statistical techniques and applying these to disasters in the United States and worldwide, this book examines resiliency through comparative methods which examine public management and policy, community planning and development, and, on the individual level, the ways in which culture, socio-economic status, and social networks contribute to resiliency. The analyses drawn will lead to the development of strategies for community preparation, response, and recovery to natural disasters. Combining the concept of resiliency, the factors that most account for the resiliency of communities, and the various policies and government operations that can be developed to increase the sustainability of communities in face of disasters, the editors and contributors have assembled an essential resource to scholars in emergency planning, management, and policy, as well as upper-level students studying disaster management and policy.

Criminology

Author: Freda Adler,Gerhard O. W. Mueller,William S. Laufer

Publisher: McGraw-Hill College

ISBN: 9780070004986

Category: Social Science

Page: 411

View: 3044

Let's Get Free

A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice

Author: Paul Butler

Publisher: The New Press

ISBN: 1595585109

Category: Law

Page: 224

View: 738

Drawing on his personal fascinating story as a prosecutor, a defendant, and an observer of the legal process, Paul Butler offers a sharp and engaging critique of our criminal justice system. He argues against discriminatory drug laws and excessive police power and shows how our policy of mass incarceration erodes communities and perpetuates crime. Controversially, he supports jury nullification—or voting “not guilty” out of principle—as a way for everyday people to take a stand against unfair laws, and he joins with the “Stop Snitching” movement, arguing that the reliance on informants leads to shoddy police work and distrust within communities. Butler offers instead a “hip hop theory of justice,” parsing the messages about crime and punishment found in urban music and culture. Butler’s argument is powerful, edgy, and incisive.

Disaster Risk Reduction for Economic Growth and Livelihood

Investing in Resilience and Development

Author: Ian Davis,Kae Yanagisawa,Kristalina Georgieva

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317578538

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 294

View: 7623

The prevalence of natural disasters in recent years has highlighted the importance of preparing adequately for disasters and dealing efficiently with their consequences. This book addresses how countries can enhance their resilience against natural disasters and move towards economic growth and sustainable development. Covering a wide range of issues, it shows how well thought-out measures can be applied to minimize the impacts of disasters in a variety of situations. Starting with the need for coping with a rapidly changing global environment, the book goes on to demonstrate ways to strengthen awareness of the effectiveness of preventive measures, including in the reconstruction phase. The book also covers the roles played by different actors as well as tools and technologies for improved disaster risk reduction. It focuses on a variety of case studies from across Asia, Africa and Latin America, drawing out lessons that can be applied internationally. This book will be of great interest to professionals in disaster management, including national governments, donors, communities/citizens, NGOs and private sector. It will also be a highly valuable resource for students and researchers in disaster management and policy, development studies and economics.

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