Search Results: transcendental-arguments-and-science

Transcendental Arguments and Science

Essays in Epistemology

Author: P. Bieri,Lorenz Krüger,R.-P. Horstmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400994109

Category: Philosophy

Page: 326

View: 4201

The goal of the present volume is to discuss the notion of a 'conceptual framework' or 'conceptual scheme', which has been dominating much work in the analysis and justification of knowledge in recent years. More specifi cally, this volume is designed to clarify the contrast between two competing approaches in the area of problems indicated by this notion: On the one hand, we have the conviction, underlying much present-day work in the philosophy of science, that the best we can hope for in the justifi cation of empirical knowledge is to reconstruct the conceptual means actually employed by science, and to develop suitable models for analyzing conceptual change involved in the progress of science. This view involves the assumption that we should stop taking foundational questions of epistemology seriously and discard once and for all the quest for uncontrovertible truth. The result ing program of justifying epistemic claims by subsequently describing patterns of inferentially connected concepts as they are at work in actual science is closely connected with the idea of naturalizing epistemology, with concep tual relativism, and with a pragmatic interpretation of knowledge. On the other hand, recent epistemology tends to claim that no subsequent reconstruction of actually employed conceptual frameworks is sufficient for providing epistemic justification for our beliefs about the world. This second claim tries to resist the naturalistic and pragmatic approach to epistemology and insists on taking the epistemological sceptic seriously.

Transcendental Arguments and Justified Christian Belief

Author: Ronney Mourad

Publisher: University Press of America

ISBN: 9780761830320

Category: Religion

Page: 159

View: 5805

Transcendental Arguments and Justified Christian Belief offers an extended discussion of the characteristics of transcendental arguments and the philosophical objections that have been leveled against them. Author Ronney Mourad provides a comprehensive review of the recent philosophical literature concerning the definition and possibility of transcendental arguments and defends original positions on these issues. One function of transcendental arguments is to identify beliefs or propositions implied by any possible act of assertion. Anyone who denies the conclusions of a sound transcendental argument, defined in this way, simultaneously implies the truth of those conclusions by asserting the denial. Therefore, a sound transcendental argument produces conclusions that are distinctively universal and resistant to criticism. This book also applies transcendental argumentation to epistemological questions in Christian theology. Can Christians justify their religious beliefs? Do they even need to try? The work of Karl-Otto Apel and Franklin Gamwell serves as the starting point for the development of a transcendentally grounded conception of epistemic justification. The final chapters argue, in conversation with Schubert Ogden and Alvin Plantinga, that the obligations of epistemic justification revealed by transcendental arguments bear several implications for theological method.

Kant und die Berliner Aufklärung

Akten des IX. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Bd. I: Hauptvorträge. Bd. II: Sektionen I-V. Bd. III: Sektionen VI-X: Bd. IV: Sektionen XI-XIV. Bd. V: Sektionen XV-XVIII

Author: Volker Gerhardt,Rolf-Peter Horstmann,Ralph Schumacher

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110874121

Category: Philosophy

Page: 3314

View: 7448

The five volumes contain the edited versions of all the plenary papers and the papers delivered to the sections at the IX. International Kant Congress, which was held in March 2000 at the Humboldt University in Berlin. The contributions are divided into the following sections: Kant before the Critiques, Kant's theoretical philosophy, Kant's practical philosophy; Kant's aesthetics; Kant's philosophy of religion; Kant's philosophy of history; Kant's philosophy of law, state and politics; Kant's anthropology; Kant's nature philosophy and the opus postumum; Kant's logic; Kant and the Enlightenment; Kant, German Idealism and Neo-Kantianism; Kant and the consequences. Among the authors are Manfred Baum, Mario Caimi, Konrad Cramer, Jean Ferrari, Eckhardt Förster, Michael Friedman, Simone Goyard-Fabre, Paul Guyer, Gary Hatfield, Agnes Heller, Dieter Henrich, Otfried Höffe, Wolfgang Kersting, Béatrice Longuenesse, Onora O’Neill, Robert Pippin, Gerold Prauss und Michael Wolff.

Beiträge zur Philosophie von Stephan Körner

Author: Rudolf Haller

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9789062035762

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 305

View: 4169

From Kant to Davidson

Philosophy and the Idea of the Transcendental

Author: Jeff Malpas

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134468059

Category: Philosophy

Page: 272

View: 4475

Recent philosophy has seen the idea of the transcendental, first introduced in its modern form in the work of Kant, take on a new prominence. Bringing together an international range of younger philosophers and established thinkers, this volume opens up the idea of the transcendental, examining it not merely as a mode of argument, but as naming a particular problematic and a philosophical style. With contributions engaging with both analytic and continental approaches, this book will be of essential interest to philosophers and philosophy students interested in the idea of the transcendental and the part that it plays in modern and contemporary philosophy.

Bedingungen der Möglichkeit

"Transcendental Arguments" und Transzendentales Denken

Author: Eva Schaper,Wilhelm Vossenkuhl

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Knowledge, Theory of

Page: 286

View: 2123

Philosophie als Denkwerkzeug

zur Aktualität transzendentalphilosophischer Argumentation : Festschrift für Albert Mues zum 60. Geburtstag

Author: Martin Götze

Publisher: Königshausen & Neumann

ISBN: 9783826013638

Category:

Page: 305

View: 4011

Relativism Refuted

A Critique of Contemporary Epistemological Relativism

Author: H. Siegel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401577463

Category: Science

Page: 217

View: 2035

Justice, Law, and Argument

Essays on Moral and Legal Reasoning

Author: Ch. Perelman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400990103

Category: Philosophy

Page: 194

View: 9989

This collection contains studies on justice, juridical reasoning and argumenta tion which contributed to my ideas on the new rhetoric. My reflections on justice, from 1944 to the present day, have given rise to various studies. The ftrst of these was published in English as The Idea of Justice and the Problem of Argument (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1963). The others, of which several are out of print or have never previously been published, are reunited in the present volume. As justice is, for me, the prime example of a "confused notion", of a notion which, like many philosophical concepts, cannot be reduced to clarity without being distorted, one cannot treat it without recourse to the methods of reasoning analyzed by the new rhetoric. In actuality, these methods have long been put into practice by jurists. Legal reasoning is fertile ground for the study of argumentation: it is to the new rhetoric what mathematics is to formal logic and to the theory of demonstrative proof. It is important, then, that philosophers should not limit their methodologi cal studies to mathematics and the natural sciences. They must not neglect law in the search for practical reason. I hope that these essays lead to be a better understanding of how law can enrich philosophical thought. CH. P.

Kant’s Second Critique and the Problem of Transcendental Arguments

Author: R.J. Benton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400997000

Category: Philosophy

Page: 172

View: 4359

This work is in no way intended as a commentary on the second Cri tique, or even on the Analytic of that book. Instead I have limited myself to the attempt to extract the essential structure of the argument of the Analytic and to exhibit it as an instance of a transcendental argument (namely, one establishing the conditions of the possibility of a practical cognitive viewpoint). This limitation of scope has caused me, in some cases, to ignore or treat briefly concrete questions of Kant's practical philosophy that deserve much closer consideration; and in other cases it has led me to relegate questions that could not be treated briefly to appendixes ,in order not to distract from the development of the argu ment. As a result, it is the argument-structure itself that receives pri mary attention, and I think some justification should be offered for this concentration on what may seem to be a purely formal concern. One of the most common weaknesses of interpretations of Kant's works is a failure to distinguish the level of generality at which Kant's argument is being developed. This failure is particularly fatal in dealing with the Critiques, since in interpreting them it is important to keep clearly in mind that it is not this or that cognition that is at stake, but the possibility of (a certain kind of) knowledge as such.

Kant's transcendental arguments

disciplining pure reason

Author: Scott Stapleford

Publisher: Continuum Intl Pub Group

ISBN: 9780826499288

Category: Philosophy

Page: 151

View: 7865

A new monograph offering the first focused study of the place of transcendental arguments within Kant's system as a whole.

Concept Formation in the Humanities and the Social Sciences

Author: T. Pawlowski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400990197

Category: Philosophy

Page: 236

View: 6189

Uniqueness of style versus plurality of styles: in terms of these aesthetic categories one of the most important differences between the recent past and the present can be described. This difference manifests itself in all spheres of life - in fashion, in everyday life, in the arts, in science. What is of interest for my purposes in this book are its manifestations in the processes of con cept formation as they occur in the humanities, broadly conceived. Here the following methodological approaches seem to dominate the scene. 1. A tendency to apply semiotic concepts in various fields of research. 2. Attempts to introduce metrical concepts and measurement, even into disciplines tra ditionally considered as unamenable to mathematical treatment, like aesthetics and theory of art. 3. Efforts to fmd ways of formulating empirically testable, operational criteria for the application of concepts, especially concepts which refer to objects directly not observable, like dispositions, attitudes, character or personality traits. Care is also taken to take advantage of the conceptual apparatus of methodology to express problems in the humanities with the highest possible degree of clarity and precision. 4. Analysis of the p~rsuasive function oflanguage and its possible uses in science and in everyday life. The above tendencies are present in this book. It is divided into two parts: I. Methods of Concept Formation, and II. Applications. In the first part some general methods of concept formation are presented and their merits discussed.

Unbegründbarkeit Gottes?

Tillichs und Barths Erkenntnistheorien im Horizont der gegenwärtigen Philosophie

Author: Dirk-Martin Grube

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783770811083

Category: God

Page: 278

View: 445

Kant Studien

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 1297

Self and Others

A Study of Ethical Egoism

Author: Jan Österberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400928793

Category: Philosophy

Page: 272

View: 6109

1. The Aim of This Essay Ethical Egoism, the doctrine that, roughly speaking, one should promote one's own good, has been a live issue since the very beginnings of moral philosophy. Historically, it is the most widely held normative theory, and, next to Utilitarianism, it is the most intensely debated one. What is at stake in this debate is a fundamental question of ethics: 'Is there any reason, except self-interest, for considering the interests of other people?' The ethical egoist answers No to this question, thus rejecting the received conception of morality. Is Ethical Egoism an acceptable position? There are many forms of Ethical Egoism, and each may be interpreted in several different ways. So the relevant question is rather, 'Is there an acceptable version of Ethical It is the main aim of this essay to answer this question. This Egoism?' means that I will be confronted with many other controversial questions, for example, 'What is a moral principle?', 'Is value objective or subjec tive?', 'What is the nature of the self?' For the acceptability of most ver sions of Ethical Egoism, it has been alleged, depends on what answers are given to questions such as these. (I will show that in some of these cases there is in fact no such dependence. ) It is, of course, impossible to ad equately discuss all these questions within the compass of my essay.

Culture and Cultural Entities

Toward a New Unity of Science

Author: Joseph Margolis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401576947

Category: Science

Page: 177

View: 549

viii choice and these include efforts to provide logical frameworks within which wecan make senseof these notions. This series will attempt to bring together work from allof these approaches to the history and philosophy of science and technology in the belief that each has something to add to our understanding. The volumes of this series have emerged either from lectures given by an author while serving as an honorary visiting professor at The City Collegeof New York or from a conference sponsored by that institution. The City College Program in the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology oversees and directs these lectures and conferences with the financial aid of the Association for Philosophy ofScience, Psychotherapy, and Ethics. MARTIN TAMNY RAPHAEL STERN TABLE OF CONTENTS EDITO RS' PR EFACE vii PR EFACE xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii I. NATUR E, CULTUR E, AND PERSONS 2. THE CONCEPT OF CONSCIOUSNESS 20 3. ANIMAL AND HUMAN MINDS 42 4 . ACTION AND CAUSALITY 64 5. PUZZLES ABOUT TH E CAUSAL EXPLANATION OF HUMAN ACTIONS 83 6. COGNITIVISM AND THE PROBLEM OF EXPLAINING HUMAN INTELLIGENCE 101 7. WITTGENSTEIN AND NATURAL LANGUAGES : AN ALTERNATIV E TO RATIONALIST AND EMPIRICIST THEO RIE S 133 INDEX 163 PREFACE I have tried to make a fresh beginning on the theory of cultural phenomena, largely from the perspectives of Anglo-American analytic philosophy.

Mechanism, Mentalism and Metamathematics

An Essay on Finitism

Author: J. Webb

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940157653X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 285

View: 8494

This book grew out of a graduate student paper [261] in which I set down some criticisms of J. R. Lucas' attempt to refute mechanism by means of G6del's theorem. I had made several such abortive attempts myself and had become familiar with their pitfalls, and especially with the double edged nature of incompleteness arguments. My original idea was to model the refutation of mechanism on the almost universally accepted G6delian refutation of Hilbert's formalism, but I kept getting stuck on questions of mathematical philosophy which I found myself having to beg. A thorough study of the foundational works of Hilbert and Bernays finally convinced me that I had all too naively and uncritically bought this refutation of formalism. I did indeed discover points of surprisingly close contact between formalism and mechanism, but also that it was possible to under mine certain strong arguments against these positions precisely by invok ing G6del's and related work. I also began to realize that the Church Turing thesis itself is the principal bastion protecting mechanism, and that G6del's work was perhaps the best thing that ever happened to both mechanism and formalism. I pushed these lines of argument in my dis sertation with the patient help of my readers, Raymond Nelson and Howard Stein. I would especially like to thank the latter for many valuable criticisms of my dissertation as well as some helpful suggestions for reor ganizing it in the direction of the present book.

Communication and Meaning

An Essay in Applied Modal Logic

Author: A.J Jones

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400970692

Category: Philosophy

Page: 167

View: 4687

This essay contains material which will hopefully be of interest not only to philosophers, but also to those social scientists whose research concerns the analysis of communication, verbal or non-verbal. Although most of the topics taken up here are central to issues in the philosophy of language, they are, in my opinion, indistinguishable from topics in descriptive social psychology. The essay aims to provide a conceptual framework within which various key aspects of communication can be described, and it presents a formal language, using techniques from modern modal logic, in which such descriptions can themselves be formulated. It is my hope that this framework, or parts of it, might also turn out to be of value in future empirical work. There are, therefore, essentially two sides to this essay: the development of a framework of concepts, and the construction of a formal language rich enough to express the elements of which that framework is composed. The first of these two takes its point of departure in the statement quoted from Lewis (1972) on the page preceding this introduction. The distinction drawn there by Lewis is accepted as a working hypothesis, and in one sense this essay may be seen as an attempt to explore some of the consequences of that hypothesis.

Theory and Experiment

Recent Insights and New Perspectives on Their Relation

Author: Diderik Batens,Jean-Paul van Bendegem

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400928750

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 6549

This is not "another collection of contributions on a traditional subject." Even more than we dared to expect during the preparatory stages, the papers in this volume prove that our thinking about science has taken a new turn and has reached a new stage. The progressive destruction of the received view has been a fascinating and healthy experience. At present, the period of destruction is over. A richer and more equilibrated analysis of a number of problems is possible and is being cru'ried out. In this sense, this book comes right on time. We owe a lot to the scholars of the Kuhnian period. They not only did away with obstacles, but in several respects instigated a shift in attention that changed history and philosophy of science in a irreversible way. A c1earcut example - we borrow it from the paper by Risto Hilpinen - concerns the study of science as a process, Rnd not only as a result. Moreover, they apparently reached several lasting results, e.g., concerning the tremendous impact of theoretical conceptions on empirical data. Apart from baffling people for several decades, this insight rules out an other return to simple-minded empiricism in the future.

Language, Mind, and Art

Essays in Appreciation and Analysis, in Honor of Paul Ziff

Author: D. Jamieson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401583137

Category: Philosophy

Page: 220

View: 2011

This book is a collection of essays in honor of Paul Ziff written by his col leagues, students, and friends. Many of the authors address topics that Ziff has discussed in his writings: understanding, rules and regularities, proper names, the feelings of machines, expression, and aesthetic experience. Paul Ziff began his professional career as an artist, went on to study painting with J. M. Hanson at Cornell, and then studied for the Ph. D. in philosophy, also at Cornell, with Max Black. Over the next three decades he produced a series of remarkable papers in philosophy of art, culminating in 1984 with the publica tion of Antiaesthetics: An Appreciation of the Cow with the Subtile Nose. In 1960 he published Semantic Analysis, his masterwork in philosophy of lan guage. Throughout his career he made important contributions to philosophy of mind in such papers as "The Simplicity of Other Minds" (1965) and "About Behaviourism" (1958). In addition to his work in these areas, his lec tures at Harvard on philosophy of religion are an underground classic; and throughout his career he has continued to make art and to search for the meaning of life in the properties of prime numbers. Although his interests are wide and deep, questions about language, art, and mind have dominated his philosophical work, and it is problems in these areas that provide the topics of most of the essays in this volume.

Find eBook