Author: Daniel Brower
The central argument of this book is that the half-century of Russian rule in Central Asia was shaped by traditions of authoritarian rule, by Russian national interests, and by a civic reform agenda that brought to Turkestan the principles that informed Alexander II's reform policies. This civilizing mission sought to lay the foundations for a rejuvenated, 'modern' empire, unified by imperial citizenship, patriotism, and a shared secular culture. Evidence for Brower's thesis is drawn from major archives in Uzbekistan and Russia. Use of these records permitted him to develop the first interpretation, either in Russian or Western literature, of Russian colonialism in Turkestan that draws on the extensive archival evidence of policy-making, imperial objectives, and relations with subject peoples.
Taxes and Citizenship in the Russian Empire and Early Soviet Republic
Author: Yanni Kotsonis
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Category: Business & Economics
Beginning in the 1860s, the Russian Empire replaced a poll tax system that originated with Peter the Great with a modern system of income and excise taxes. Russia began a transformation of state fiscal power that was also underway across Western Europe and North America. States of Obligation is the first sustained study of the Russian taxation system, the first to study its European and transatlantic context, and the first to expose the essential continuities between the fiscal practices of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Using a wealth of materials from provincial and local archives across Russia, Yanni Kotsonis examines how taxation was simultaneously a revenue-raising and a state-building tool, a claim on the person and a way to produce a new kind of citizenship. During successive political, wartime, and revolutionary crises between 1855 and 1928, state fiscal power was used to forge social and financial unity and fairness and a direct relationship with individual Russians. State power eventually overwhelmed both the private sector economy and the fragile realm of personal privacy. States of Obligation is at once a study in Russian economic history and a reflection on the modern state and the modern citizen.
The Politics of Schooling Russia's Eastern Nationalities, 1860-1917
Author: Wayne Dowler
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
The central challenge to imperial powers entering the modern era was the schooling of their peoples. How could they insure the literacy that modernity required without providing a foundation for nationalism among the colonized? In Russia's eastern empire in the late nineteenth century, Orthodox Christianity vied with Islam for people's souls; Russian language competed with Tatar and local vernaculars in market squares, peasant cottages, and schoolrooms; Arabic and Cyrillic alphabets clashed in school textbooks; and western secularism undermined traditional religious authority among both Muslim and Orthodox faithful. Russian nationalism peaked in the early twentieth century and public support for policies of the russification of non-Russian minorities increased. The inevitable clash with local languages shook the stability of the empire.
Borderland Colonization in Eurasian History
Author: Nicholas Breyfogle,Abby Schrader,Willard Sunderland
Though usually forgotten in general surveys of European colonization, the Russians were among the greatest colonizers of the Old World, eventually settling across most of the immense expanse of Northern Europe and Asia, from the Baltic and the Pacific, and from the Arctic Ocean to Central Asia. This book makes a unique contribution to our understanding of the Eurasian past by examining the policies, practices, cultural representations, and daily-life experiences of Slavic settlement in non-Russian regions of Eurasia from the time of Ivan the Terrible to the nuclear era. The movement of tens of millions of Slavic settlers was a central component of Russian empire-building, and of the everyday life of numerous social and ethnic groups and remains a crucial regional security issue today, yet it remains relatively understudied. Peopling the Russian Periphery redresses this omission through a detailed exploration of the varied meanings and dynamics of Slavic settlement from the sixteenth century to the 1960s. Providing an account of the different approaches of settlement and expansion that were adopted in different periods of history, it includes detailed case studies of particular episodes of migration. Written by upcoming and established experts in Russian history, with exceptional geographical and chronological breadth, this book provides a thorough examination of the history of Slavic settlement and migration from the Muscovite to the Soviet era. It will be of great interest to students and scholars of Russian history, comparative history of colonization, migration, interethnic contact, environmental history and European Imperialism.
Strategies of Power, Dilemmas of Development
Author: Sebastien Peyrouse
Category: Social Science
This book is the first comprehensive introduction to contemporary Turkmenistan in English.
Author: Alex Marshall
This new book examines the role of the Tsarist General Staff in studying and administering Russia’s Asian borderlands. It considers the nature of the Imperial Russian state, the institutional characteristics of the General Staff, and Russia’s relationship with Asia. During the nineteenth century, Russia was an important player in the so-called ‘Great Game’ in central Asia. Between 1800 and 1917 officers of the Russian General Staff travelled extensively through Turkey, central Asia and the Far East, gathering intelligence that assisted in the formation of future war plans. It goes on to consider tactics of imperial expansion, and the role of military intelligence and war planning with respect to important regions including the Caucasus, central Asia and the Far East. In the light of detailed archival research, it investigates objectively questions such as the possibility of Russia seizing the Bosphorus Straits, and the probability of an expedition to India. Overall, this book provides a comprehensive account of the Russian General Staff, its role in Asia, and of Russian military planning with respect to a region that remains highly strategically significant today.
Global Issues, Sociological Perspectives
Author: Melissa M. Wilcox
Category: Social Science
Religion is a major force in contemporary society. It is also one of the least understood social and political influences on individuals and communities. In this innovative collection of original essays and classic readings, experts explore the significance of contemporary religiosity: as a source of meaning and motivation, how it unites and divides us, and how it is used politically and culturally. Readers will be introduced to the broad debates in ways that will equip them to analyze, discuss, and make their own judgments about religion and society. This book should be read by anyone interested in understanding religion as a central source of meaning and politics, and is ideally suited for undergraduate teaching on religion and social issues and from a global perspective.
Critical Perspectives on Western Agency and Eastern Re-appropriations
Author: François Pouillion,Jean-Claude Vatin
This book offers an exciting new landscape in which to situate research on cultures and societies of the non-European world, with a road-map that leads us beyond the restrictive dichotomy of Occident/Orient.
Author: Alan Palmer
Publisher: Faber & Faber
Like Charles II, the sick man of Europe was 'an unconscionable time dying.' Time and time again from the seventeenth century observers predicted the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, yet it outlived all its rivals. As late as 1910 it straddled three continents. Unlike the Romanovs, Hohenzollerns or Habsburgs, the House of Osman was still recognised as an imperial dynasty during the peacemaking which followed the First World War. This book offers a fascinating overview of the Ottoman Empire's decline from the failure to take Vienna in 1683 to the abolition of the Sultanate in 1922 by Mustafa Kemal, after a revolutionary upsurge of Turkish national pride. It deals with constantly recurring problems: competing secular and religious authority; acceptance or rejection of Western ideas; greedy neighbours; population movements; and the strength or weakness of successive Sultans. The book also emphasises the challenges of the early twentieth century, when railways and oilfields gave new importance to Ottoman lands in the Middle East. Recent events have put the problems that faced the later Sultans back upon the world agenda. Names like Basra and Mosul again make the headlines. So, too, do the old empire's outposts in Albania and Macedonia in the west and the mountainous Caucasus in the east. Alan Palmer's narrative reminds us of the long, sad continuity of conflict in the Lebanon. We read of the Kurdish struggle for survival, of Armenian aspirations for independence, of the lingering interests of the Ottomans in their Libyan provinces, and of the Muslim character of Sarajevo in the troubled country that was once Yugoslavia. The Ottoman past has great relevance to the changing patterns of eastern Europe and western Asia in the twentieth century.
A History of the Nationalities Problem in the USSR
Author: Bohdan Nahaylo,Victor Swoboda
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Provides an historical overview of the serious nationalism crisis within the Soviet Union, and argues that it could easily undermine Gorbachev's recent reforms.
Author: Сергей Абашин
Publisher: Новое Литературное Обозрение
Исследование профессора Европейского университета в Санкт-Петербурге Сергея Абашина посвящено истории преобразований в Средней Азии с конца XIX века и до распада Советского Союза. Вся эта история дана через описание одного селения, пережившего и завоевание, и репрессии, и бурное экономическое развитие, и культурную модернизацию. В книге приведено множество документов и устных историй, рассказывающих о завоевании региона, становлении колониального и советского управления, борьбе с басмачеством, коллективизации и хлопковой экономике, медицине и исламе, общине-махалле и брачных стратегиях. Анализируя собранные в поле и архивах свидетельства, автор обращается к теориям постколониализма, культурной гибридности, советской субъективности и с их помощью объясняет противоречивый характер общественных отношений в Российской империи и СССР
der Aufstand in Zentralasien 1916
Author: Jörn Happel
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden gmbh
English summary: In the summer of 1916, Russian colonial rule failed in Central Asia. In particular, the nomads defended themselves through an uprising and revolted against the rule of the Tsar. They fought against their conscription, against their loss of rights and against the seizure of their land by Russian colonists families. It is likely that up to 200,000 Central Asians and about 10,000 Russians and Ukrainians were killed in those bloody months. Jorn Happel illuminates the conflict from the perspective of intervening actors. The life-oriented approach puts humans at the center of the description and makes it possible to newly explain colonial rule and colonial history. At the center of the presentation lies the story of two men during the time of the uprising: as a tsarist secret police officer, Vladimir Aeleznjakov was responsible for the suppression of the uprising; the Kazakh-Kyrgyz nomad leader Kanat Abukin was one of his main opponents. Yet they shared astonishingly similar views, which came to light once they finally met. German text. German description: Im Sommer 1916 scheiterte die russische Kolonialherrschaft in Zentralasien. Besonders die Nomaden, die sich in einem Aufstand zur Wehr setzten, revoltierten gegen die Zarenmacht. Sie kampften gegen ihre Einberufung, gegen ihre Entrechtung und gegen die Wegnahme ihres Landes durch russlandische Kolonistenfamilien. Wohl bis zu 200.000 Zentralasiaten und etwa 10.000 Russen und Ukrainer kamen in jenen blutigen Monaten ums Leben.Jorn Happel beleuchtet die Auseinandersetzungen aus der Perspektive der handelnden Akteure. Der lebensweltlich orientierte Ansatz rueckt die Menschen ins Zentrum der Beschreibung und ermoglicht es so, Kolonialherrschaft und Kolonialgeschichte neu zu deuten. Im Mittelpunkt der Darstellung steht die Geschichte zweier Manner wahrend der Zeit des Aufstands: Vladimir Aeleznjakov war als zarischer Geheimpolizist fuer die Niederschlagung des Aufstands zustandig; der kasachisch-kirgisische Nomadenfuehrer Kanat Abukin war einer seiner Hauptgegner. Und doch hatten sie in erstaunlich vielen Lebensbereichen sehr ahnliche Ansichten, wie sie spatestens bei ihrem Aufeinandertreffen feststellen mussten.