Finally, you can learn computation theory and programming language design in an engaging, practical way. Understanding Computation explains theoretical computer science in a context you’ll recognize, helping you appreciate why these ideas matter and how they can inform your day-to-day programming. Rather than use mathematical notation or an unfamiliar academic programming language like Haskell or Lisp, this book uses Ruby in a reductionist manner to present formal semantics, automata theory, and functional programming with the lambda calculus. It’s ideal for programmers versed in modern languages, with little or no formal training in computer science. Understand fundamental computing concepts, such as Turing completeness in languages Discover how programs use dynamic semantics to communicate ideas to machines Explore what a computer can do when reduced to its bare essentials Learn how universal Turing machines led to today’s general-purpose computers Perform complex calculations, using simple languages and cellular automata Determine which programming language features are essential for computation Examine how halting and self-referencing make some computing problems unsolvable Analyze programs by using abstract interpretation and type systems
The World Wide Web is truly astounding. It has changed the way we interact, learn and innovate. It is the largest sociotechnical system humankind has created and is advancing at a pace that leaves most in awe. It is an unavoidable fact that the future of the world is now inextricably linked to the future of the Web. Almost every day it appears to change, to get better and increase its hold on us. For all this we are starting to see underlying stability emerge. The way that Web sites rank in terms of popularity, for example, appears to follow laws with which we are familiar. What is fascinating is that these laws were first discovered, not in fields like computer science or information technology, but in what we regard as more fundamental disciplines like biology, physics and mathematics. Consequently the Web, although synthetic at its surface, seems to be quite 'natural' deeper down, and one of the driving aims of the new field of Web Science is to discover how far down such ’naturalness’ goes. If the Web is natural to its core, that raises some fundamental questions. It forces us, for example, to ask if the central properties of the Web might be more elemental than the truths we cling to from our understandings of the physical world. In essence, it demands that we question the very nature of information. Understanding Information and Computation is about such questions and one possible route to potentially mind-blowing answers.
Connecting Text Features, Task Demands, and Respondent Skills
Author: Sheida White
"This is a genuinely scholarly work ... It is based on [analysis of] the most up-to-date quantitative surveys that we have on adult literacy. These surveys are the gold standard in terms of documenting adult literacy in the United States ...The author analyzes these extensive surveys and puts them into a theoretical context in a way that has not been done before." – Rosemary J. Park, University of Minnesota "I don’t know of any book providing the same information. There is a shortage of literature in this area and the book is an excellent contribution." – Dolores Perin, Teachers College, Columbia University "The contribution of the theory is important – not only to adult literacy but to our understanding of the reading process at nearly every level ... Additionally, the application of multidimensional item response modeling to the new TTR theory offers a tantalizing view of how the predictive validity of a theory might be tested and used to provide practical results." – Larry Mikulecky, Indiana University Very often, individual differences in literacy performance are understood exclusively in terms of the characteristics of the reader. Drawing on a rich array of empirical research, the author presents a detailed and highly integrative new theory of functional literacy. The text-task-respondent (TTR) theory of functional literacy offers improved understanding of how successful performance on everyday literacy tasks involves a dynamic relationship among the text, the task, and the reader. This book will appeal primarily to assessment developers who wish to select tasks and texts of varying difficulty to yield more precise estimates of adult literacy; to researchers who study cognitive, linguistic, and discourse processes; and to teachers who want to find new ways to increase text comprehension among students, including English language learners and struggling readers. The text is appropriate for an advanced course in adult education, discourse analysis, educational measurement, educational psychology, literacy, or linguistics – or as a reference work for those interested in literacy.
The CNS needs to be understood at four nearly independent levels of description: (1) that at which the nature of a computation is expressed; (2) that at which the algorithms that implement a computation are characterized; (3) that at which an algorithm is committed to particular mechanisms; and (4) that at which the mechanisms are realized in hardware. In general, the nature of a computation is determined by the problem to be solved, the mechanisms that are used depend upon the available hardware, and the particular algorithms chosen depend on the problem and on the available mechanisms. Examples are given of theories at each level. (Author).
Third Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2007, Siena, Italy, June 18-23, 2007, Proceedings
Author: S. Barry Cooper
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
CiE2007:ComputationandLogicintheRealWorld Siena,Italy,June18-23,2007 Computability in Europe (CiE) is an informal network of European scientists working on computability theory, including its foundations, technical devel- ment, and applications. Among the aims of the network is to advance our t- oretical understanding of what can and cannot be computed, by any means of computation. Its scienti'c vision is broad: computations may be performed with discrete or continuous data by all kinds of algorithms, programs, and - chines. Computations may be made by experimenting with any sort of physical system obeying the laws of a physical theory such as Newtonian mechanics, quantum theory, or relativity. Computations may be very general, depending upon the foundations of set theory; or very speci'c, using the combinatorics of ?nite structures. CiE also works on subjects intimately related to computation, especially theories of data and information, and methods for formal reasoning about computations. The sources of new ideas and methods include practical developments in areas such as neural networks, quantum computation, natural computation, molecular computation, computational learning. Applications are everywhere,especially, in algebra,analysisand geometry, or data types and p- gramming. Within CiE there is general recognition of the underlying relevance of computability to physics and a broad range of other sciences, providing as it does a basic analysis of the causal structure of dynamical systems.
This Festschrift volume, published in honour of Peter Buneman, contains contributions written by some of his colleagues, former students, and friends. In celebration of his distinguished career a colloquium was held in Edinburgh, Scotland, 27-29 October, 2013. The articles presented herein belong to some of the many areas of Peter's research interests.
This book highlights cutting-edge research relevant to the building of a computational model of reading comprehension, as in the processing and understanding of a natural language text or story. The book takes an interdisciplinary approach to the study of reading, with contributions from computer science, psychology, and philosophy. Contributors cover the theoretical and psychological foundations of the research in discussions of what it means to understand a text, how one builds a computational model, and related issues in knowledge representation and reasoning. The book also addresses some of the broader issues that a natural language system must deal with, such as reading in context, linguistic novelty, and information extraction.
The world is ever changing, and a comprehensive understanding of the world will not be achieved without theoretical and methodological advances to decode complex dynamics in human and environmental systems. Computation and Visualization for the Understanding of Dynamics in Geographic Domains: A Research Agenda synthesizes key ideas and issues discussed during the UCGIS hosted workshop on computation. It expands upon popular discussions to provide a comprehensive overview of geographic dynamics and new approaches to advance our understanding of geographic dynamics through computation and visualization. The text gives an overview of the state of research and how this research relates to intelligence analysis. It addresses broad issues and challenges in areas, such as spatiotemporal analysis and modeling, spatiotemporal visual analytics; spatiotemporal data mining, spatiotemporal reasoning, and spatiotemporal ontologies. The book also fuses suggestions from workshop participants with literature reviews to propose new research agendas and recommendations for future developments and collaboration. With full coverage on current developments and probably challenges, Computation and Visualization for the Understanding of Dynamics in Geographic Domains: A Research Agenda establishes a foundation to promote further studies in geographic dynamics and provides a springboard for the next big scientific and technological breakthrough.