Human Rights, Humanitarian Law, and Private Contractors
Author: Francesco Francioni,Natalino Ronzitti
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The conduct of armed conflict is increasingly being outsourced to private military and security companies, whose legal position remains unclear. This book identifies and analyses the human rights and humanitarian law framework applicable to these companies, examining how they can be held to account and how victims can obtain remedies.
Responsibility and the Modern Private Military Company
Author: Hin-Yan Liu
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
When faced with those who act with impunity, we seek the protection of law. We rely upon the legal system for justice, from international human rights law that establishes common standards of protection, to international criminal law that spearheads efforts to end impunity for the most heinous atrocities. While legal processes are perceived to combat impunity, and despite the ready availability of the law, accountability often remains elusive. What if the law itself enables impunity? Law's Impunity asks this question in the context of the modern Private Military Company (PMC), examining the relationship between law and the concepts of responsibility and impunity. This book proposes that ordinary legal processes do not neutralise, but rather legalise impunity. This radical idea is applied to the abysmal record of human rights violations perpetrated by the modern PMC and the shocking absence of accountability. This book demonstrates how the law organises, rather than overcomes, impunity by detailing how the modern PMC exploits ordinary legal processes to systematically exclude itself from legal responsibility. Thus, Law's Impunity offers an alternative to conventional thinking about the law, providing an innovative approach to assess and refine the rigour of legal processes in the ongoing quest to end impunity.
Author: Akrivopoulou, Christina
Publisher: IGI Global
Category: Political Science
The era of technology in which we reside has ushered in a more globalized and connected world. While many benefits are gained from this connectivity, possible disadvantages to issues of human rights are developed as well. Defending Human Rights and Democracy in the Era of Globalization is a pivotal resource for the latest research on the effects of a globalized society regarding issues relating to social ethics and civil rights. Highlighting relevant concepts on political autonomy, migration, and asylum, this book is ideally designed for academicians, professionals, practitioners, and upper-level students interested in the ongoing concerns of human rights.
The Interplay between International, European and Domestic Norms
Author: Christine Bakker,Mirko Sossai
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The outsourcing of military and security services is the object of intense legal debate. States employ private military and security companies (PMSCs) to perform functions previously exercised by regular armed forces, and increasingly international organisations, NGOs and business corporations do the same to provide security, particularly in crisis situations. Much of the public attention on PMSCs has been in response to incidents in which PMSC employees have been accused of violating international humanitarian law. Therefore initiatives have been launched to introduce uniform international standards amidst what is currently very uneven national regulation. This book analyses and discusses the interplay between international, European, and domestic regulatory measures in the field of PMSCs. It presents a comprehensive assessment of the existing domestic legislation in EU Member States and relevant Third States, and identifies implications for future international regulation. The book also addresses the crucial questions whether and how the EU can potentially play a more active future role in the regulation of PMSCs to ensure compliance with human rights and international humanitarian law.
Author: Stuart Casey-Maslen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
International human rights law offers an overarching international legal framework to help determine the legality of the use of any weapon, as well as its lawful supply. It governs acts of States and non-State actors alike. In doing so, human rights law embraces international humanitarian law regulation of the use of weapons in armed conflict and disarmament law, as well as international criminal justice standards. In situations of law enforcement (such as counterpiracy, prisons, ordinary policing, riot control, and many peace operations), human rights law is the primary legal frame of reference above domestic criminal law. This important and timely book draws on all aspects of international weapons law and proposes a new view on international law governing weapons. Also included is a specific discussion on armed drones and cyberattacks, two highly topical issues in international law and international relations.
Author: Panos Koutrakos
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Political Science
Presenting the first analytical overview of the legal foundations of the EU's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), this book provides a detailed examination of the law and practice of the EU's security policy. The European Union's security and defence policy has long been the focus of political scientists and international relations experts. However, it has more recently become of increasing relevance to lawyers too. Since the early 2000s, the EU has carried out more than two dozen security and defence missions in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The EU institutions are keen to stress the security dimension of other external policies also, such as development cooperation, and the Lisbon Treaty introduces a more detailed set of rules and procedures which govern the CSDP. This book provides a legal analysis of the Union's CSDP by examining the nexus of its substantive, institutional, and economic dimensions. Taking as its starting point the historical development of security and defence in the context of European integration, it outlines the legal framework created by the rules and procedures introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon. It examines the military operations and civilian missions undertaken by the Union, and looks at the policy context within which they are carried out. It analyses the international agreements concluded in this field and explores the links between the CSDP and other external policies of the Union.
Private Military and Security Companies Under Public International Law
Author: Lindsey Cameron,Vincent Chetail
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
A comprehensive and detailed analysis of the international legal framework applying to private military and security companies in armed conflict.
The Implications Under International Law of Doing Business in War
Author: Erika Calazans
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
This book’s primary concern is the application of International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law in addressing the business conduct of Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs) during armed conflicts, as well as state responsibility for human rights violations and current attempts at international regulation. The book discusses four interconnected themes. First, it differentiates private contractors from mercenaries, presenting an historical overview of private violence. Second, it situates PMSCs’ employees under the legal status of civilian or combatant in accordance with the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions of 1949. It then investigates the existing law on state responsibility and what sort of responsibility companies and their employees can face. Finally, the book explores current developments on regulation within the industry, on national, regional and international levels. These themes are connected by the argument that, in order to find gaps in the existing laws, it is necessary to establish what they are, what law is applicable and what further developments are needed.
Risk, Law, and Ethics
Author: Kateri Carmola
This book addresses the ambiguities of the growing use of private security contractors and provides guidance as to how our expectations about regulating this expanding ‘service’ industry will have to be adjusted. In the warzones of Iraq and Afghanistan many of those who carry weapons are not legally combatants, nor are they protected civilians. They are contracted by governments, businesses, and NGOs to provide armed security. Often mistaken as members of armed forces, they are instead part of a new protean proxy force that works alongside the military in a multitude of shifting roles, and overseen by a matrix of contracts and regulations. This book analyzes the growing industry of these private military and security companies (PMSCs) used in warzones and other high risk areas. PMSCs are the result of a unique combination of circumstances, including a change in the idea of soldiering, insurance industry analyses that require security contractors, and a need for governments to distance themselves from potentially criminal conduct. The book argues that PMSCs are a unique type of organization, combining attributes from worlds of the military, business, and humanitarian organizations. This makes them particularly resistant to oversight. The legal status of these companies and those they employ is also hard to ascertain, which weakens the multiple regulatory tools available. PMSCs also fall between the cracks in ethical debates about their use, seeming to be both justifiable and objectionable. This transformation in military operations is a seemingly irreversible product of more general changes in the relationship between the individual citizen and the state. This book will be of much interest to students of private security companies, war and conflict studies, security studies and IR in general. Kateri Carmola is the Christian A. Johnson Professor of Political Science at Middlebury College in Vermont. She received her Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley.
Die Rechtsstellung des Individuums im Völkerrecht
Author: Anne Peters
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
Grundthese des Buches ist, dass ein Paradigmenwechsel stattgefunden hat, der den Menschen zum primaren Volkerrechtssubjekt macht. Diese These wird vor dem Hintergrund der Ideengeschichte und Dogmatik der Volkerrechtspersonlichkeit des Menschen entfaltet und auf die Rechtspraxis in zahlreichen Teilrechtsgebieten, angefangen vom Recht der internationalen Verantwortung uber das Recht des bewaffneten Konflikts, das Recht der Katastrophenhilfe, das internationale Strafrecht, das internationale Umweltrecht, das Konsularrecht und das Recht des diplomatischen Schutzes, das internationale Arbeitsrecht, das Fluchtlingsrecht bis hin zum internationalen Investitionsschutzrecht gestutzt. Der neue Volkerrechtsstatus des Menschen wird mit dem Begriff des subjektiven internationalen Rechts auf den Punkt gebracht.
Globalization, Transnational Crimes and Victim Rights
Author: Rianne Letschert,Jan van Dijk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Besides generating wealth, globalization makes victims, including victims of new forms of crime. In this edited book of scholarly essays, international lawyers and criminologists reflect on the legal challenges posed by these dark sides of globalization. Examples include transnational organised crime, human trafficking and corruption, cyber crimes, international terrorism, global corporate crime and cross-border environmental crimes. The authors reflect on the limits of domestic systems of justice in providing protection, empowerment and redress to the victims of these emerging forms of global insecurity. They argue for the need of better international or supra-national institutional arrangements such as legal instruments and actions of the United Nations or regional organizations such as the European Union. In part I Jan Van Dijk and Rianne Letschert present an overview of trends in criminal victimization against the backdrop of globalization using a unique set of statistical indicators. By placing this issue in the framework of the human security concept, the authors draw out its broader political and normative implications. Theologist Ralf Bodelier explains how modern communication technologies have heightened sensitivities among the general public for human insecurities anywhere in the world. In his view, a new global conscience is in the making that may become the cornerstone of international solidarity and action. Marc Groenhuijsen and Rianne Letschert describe the emergence of national and international legal and institutional arrangements to offer remedies to victims of crime in an era of globalization. In part II a selection of experts analyse the specific issues surrounding the protection and empowerment of victims of different types of international crimes such as human trafficking, organised crime/corruption, terrorism, global corporate crime and cross border environmental crimes. In part III focused attention is given to the special challenges and opportunities of protecting and assisting crime victims in cyberspace. Part IV deals with emerging victim issues in humanitarian law such as the accountability of private military companies and the implementation of the ambitious victim provisions in the statute of the International Criminal Court including the establishment of a global fund for reparations. In the final part of the book some of its core authors formulate their ideas about the international institutional arrangements that should be put in place to offer justice to the victims of globalization. A concrete proposal is made for the transformation of the United Nations 1985 Declaration on the Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power into a full-fledged UN convention. In the final chapter further proposals are made for the increased involvement of regional organisations such as the European Union in the protection of victims of global crime.
Author: Jennifer K. Elsea
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
The use of private security contractors (PSCs) to protect personnel and property in Iraq and Afghanistan has been a subject of debate. While PSCs are viewed as being vital to U.S. efforts in the region, many are concerned about transparency, accountability, and legal issues raised by the use of armed civilians to perform security tasks formerly performed by the mil. Contents of this report: Legal Status and Authorities: (a) Internat. Law: Can Contractors be Combatants?; Are They Mercenaries?; (b) Iraqi Law, and Afghan Law, and Status of U.S. Forces; (c) U.S. Law; ¿Inherently Gov¿t. Functions¿ and Other Restrictions on Gov¿t. Contracts; Prosecution of Contractor Personnel in U.S. Fed. or Mil. Courts; Uniform Code of Mil. Justice.
Author: Phil Shiner,Andrew Williams
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The decision by the US and UK governments to use military force against Iraq in 2003 and the subsequent occupation and administration of that State, has brought into sharp focus fundamental fault lines in international law. The decision to invade, the conduct of the war and occupation and the mechanisms used to administer the country all challenge the international legal community placing it at a crossroads. When can the use of force be justified? What are the limits of military operations? What strength does international criminal law possess in the face of such interventions? How effective is the international regime of human rights in these circumstances? What role does domestic law have to play? How the law now responds and develops in the light of these matters will be of fundamental global importance for the 21st century and an issue of considerable political and legal concern. This book explores this legal territory by examining a number of issues fundamental to the future direction of international law in the War's aftermath. Consideration is also given to the impact on UK law. Both practical and academic perspectives are taken in order to scrutinise key questions and consider the possible trajectories that international law might now follow.
Author: Andrew Lakoff
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
Government plays a critical role in mitigating individual and collective vulnerability to disaster. Through measures such as disaster relief, infrastructure development, and environmental regulation, public policy is central to making societies more resilient. However, the recent drive to replace public institutions with market mechanisms has challenged governmental efforts to manage collective risk. The contributors to this volume analyze the respective roles of the public and private sectors in the management of catastrophic risk, addressing questions such as: How should homeland security officials evaluate the risk posed by terrorist attacks and natural disasters? Are market-based interventions likely to mitigate our vulnerability to the effects of climate change? What is the appropriate relationship between non-governmental organizations and private security firms in responding to humanitarian emergencies? And how can philanthropic efforts to combat the AIDS crisis ensure ongoing access to life-saving drugs in the developing world? More generally, these essays point to the way thoughtful policy intervention can improve our capacity to withstand catastrophic events. Additional Columbia / SSRC books on the Privatization of Risk and its Implications for Americans Bailouts: Public Money, Private ProfitEdited by Robert E. Wright Health at Risk: America's Ailing Health System-and How to Heal ItEdited by Jacob S. Hacker Laid Off, Laid Low: Political and Economic Consequences of Employment InsecurityEdited by Katherine S. Newman Pensions, Social Security, and the Privatization of RiskEdited by Mitchell A. Orenstein
Der Aufstieg der mächtigsten Privatarmee der Welt
Author: Jeremy Scahill
Publisher: Antje Kunstmann
Kaum jemand hatte von der Firma Blackwater gehört, als am 16. September 2007 im Irak 17 Zivilisten erschossen wurden – von einem Söldnertrupp. Schnell stellte sich heraus, dass sie zu einer Art Privatarmee gehörten, die im Irak und anderswo für die USA Krieg führt, unbemerkt von der Öffentlichkeit und immun gegen Strafverfolgung. Blackwater: die mächtigste militärische Dienstleistungsfirma der Welt. Ihr Gründer Erik Prince, Multimillionär und christlicher Fundamentalist, hat beste Kontakte zur Regierung. Und erkennt nach dem 11. September 2001, wie viel Geld sich mit dem »Outsourcing« militärischer Leistungen verdienen lässt: Bushs »Krieg gegen den Terror« ist die Steilvorlage für den kometenhaften Aufstieg der Firma. Blackwaters Elitesoldaten schützen US-Politiker und Geschäftsleute im Irak – gegen ein Gehalt, von dem GIs nur träumen können. Blackwater kann bei Bedarf Truppen und eine Flugzeugflotte zur Verfügung stellen, groß genug, Regierungen zu stürzen. Blackwaters Söldner bewachen Öl-Pipelines, seine »Sicherheitskräfte« patrouillierten nach Katrina in den Straßen von New Orleans. Doch erst jetzt fällt dem US-Kongress auf, dass die martialischen Rambos keinerlei parlamentarischer Kontrolle, keiner Gerichtsbarkeit unterliegen. Mit seiner glänzend recherchierten Geschichte der Firma Blackwater zeigt Jeremy Scahill überzeugend auf, welche Gefahren der Demokratie drohen, wenn die Regierung ihr Gewaltmonopol privatisiert.
Author: Andrew Clapham
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Political Science
The threats to human rights posed by non-state actors are of increasing concern. Human rights activists increasingly address the activity of multinational corporations, the policies of international organizations such as the World Bank and the World Trade Organization, and international crimes committed by entities such as armed opposition groups and terrorists. This book presents an approach to human rights that goes beyond the traditional focus on states and outlines the human rights obligations of non-state actors. Furthermore, it addresses some of the ways in which these entities can be held legally accountable for their actions in various jurisdictions. The political debate concerning the appropriateness of expanding human rights scrutiny to non-state actors is discussed and dissected. For some, extending human rights into these spheres trivializes human rights and allows abusive governments to distract us from ongoing violations. For others such an extension is essential if human rights are properly to address the current concerns of women and workers. The main focus of the book, however, is on the legal obligations of non-state actors. The book discusses how developments in the fields of international responsibility and international criminal law have implications for building a framework for the human rights obligations of non-state actors in international law. In turn these international developments have drawn on the changing ways in which human rights are implemented in national law. A selection of national jurisdictions, including the United States, South Africa and the United Kingdom are examined with regard to the application of human rights law to non-state actors. The book's final part includes suggestions with regard to understanding the parameters of the human rights obligations of non-state actors. Key to understanding the legal obligations of non-state actors are concepts such as dignity and democracy. While neither concept can unravel the dilemmas involved in the application of human rights law to non-state actors, a better understanding of the tensions surrounding these concepts can help us to understand what is at stake.