Search Results: warless-societies-and-the-origin-of-war

Warless Societies and the Origin of War

Author: Raymond Case Kelly

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472067381

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 6324

A concise study using archeological and ethnographic evidence to refute current theories about the origin of war

Warless societies and the origin of war

Author: Raymond Case Kelly

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780472097388

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 3457

A concise study using archeological and ethnographic evidence to refute current theories about the origin of war

War Before Civilization

Author: Lawrence H. Keeley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199761531

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 6415

The myth of the peace-loving "noble savage" is persistent and pernicious. Indeed, for the last fifty years, most popular and scholarly works have agreed that prehistoric warfare was rare, harmless, unimportant, and, like smallpox, a disease of civilized societies alone. Prehistoric warfare, according to this view, was little more than a ritualized game, where casualties were limited and the effects of aggression relatively mild. Lawrence Keeley's groundbreaking War Before Civilization offers a devastating rebuttal to such comfortable myths and debunks the notion that warfare was introduced to primitive societies through contact with civilization (an idea he denounces as "the pacification of the past"). Building on much fascinating archeological and historical research and offering an astute comparison of warfare in civilized and prehistoric societies, from modern European states to the Plains Indians of North America, War Before Civilization convincingly demonstrates that prehistoric warfare was in fact more deadly, more frequent, and more ruthless than modern war. To support this point, Keeley provides a wide-ranging look at warfare and brutality in the prehistoric world. He reveals, for instance, that prehistorical tactics favoring raids and ambushes, as opposed to formal battles, often yielded a high death-rate; that adult males falling into the hands of their enemies were almost universally killed; and that surprise raids seldom spared even women and children. Keeley cites evidence of ancient massacres in many areas of the world, including the discovery in South Dakota of a prehistoric mass grave containing the remains of over 500 scalped and mutilated men, women, and children (a slaughter that took place a century and a half before the arrival of Columbus). In addition, Keeley surveys the prevalence of looting, destruction, and trophy-taking in all kinds of warfare and again finds little moral distinction between ancient warriors and civilized armies. Finally, and perhaps most controversially, he examines the evidence of cannibalism among some preliterate peoples. Keeley is a seasoned writer and his book is packed with vivid, eye-opening details (for instance, that the homicide rate of prehistoric Illinois villagers may have exceeded that of the modern United States by some 70 times). But he also goes beyond grisly facts to address the larger moral and philosophical issues raised by his work. What are the causes of war? Are human beings inherently violent? How can we ensure peace in our own time? Challenging some of our most dearly held beliefs, Keeley's conclusions are bound to stir controversy.

The Behavioral Origins of War

Author: D. Scott Bennett,Allan C. Stam III

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472022014

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 723

In The Behavioral Origins of War, D. Scott Bennett and Allan C. Stam analyze systemic, binary, and individual factors in order to evaluate a wide variety of theories about the origins of war. Challenging the view that theories of war are nothing more than competing explanations for observed behavior, this expansive study incorporates variables from multiple theories and thus accounts for war's multiplicity of causes. While individual theories offer partial explanations for international conflict, only a valid set of theories can provide a complete explanation. Bennett and Stam's unconventional yet methodical approach opens the way for cumulative scientific progress in international relations. D. Scott Bennett is Professor of Political Science at the Pennsylvania State University. Allan C. Stam is Associate Professor in the Government Department at Dartmouth College.

Violence and Warfare Among Hunter-Gatherers

Author: Mark W Allen,Terry L Jones

Publisher: Left Coast Press

ISBN: 1611329396

Category: Social Science

Page: 391

View: 3750

The original chapters in this volume examine cultural areas on five continents where there is archaeological, ethnographic, and historical evidence for hunter-gatherer conflict despite high degrees of mobility, small populations, and relatively egalitarian social structures.

Troubled Times

Violence and Warfare in the Past

Author: David W. Frayer,Debra L. Martin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134385307

Category: Social Science

Page: 378

View: 8034

Evidence amassed in Troubled Times indicates that, much like in the modern world, violence was not an uncommon aspect of prehistoric dispute resolution. From the civilizations of the American Southwest to the Mesolithic of Central Europe, the contributors examine violence in hunter-gatherer as well as state societies from both the New and Old Worlds. Drawing upon cross-cultural analyses, archaeological data, and skeletal remains, this collection of papers offers evidence of domestic violence, homicide, warfare, cannibalism, and ritualized combat among ancient peoples. Beyond the physical evidence, various models and explanations for violence in the past are explored.

The Origins of War

Violence in Prehistory

Author: Jean Guilaine,Jean Zammit

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470775394

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 3202

Stretching across continents and centuries, The Origins of War: Violence in Prehistory provides a fascinating examination of executions, torture, ritual sacrifices, and other acts of violence committed in the prehistoric world. Written as an accessible guide to the nature of life in prehistory and to the underpinnings of human violence. Combines symbolic interpretations of archaeological remains with a medical understanding of violent acts. Written by an eminent prehistorian and a respected medical doctor.

Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest

Author: Steven A. LeBlanc

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780874809084

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 7935

Contests the highly romanticized picture of the ancient Puebloans as peaceful, sedentary corn farmers and suggests that people of the region fought for their survival.

The Better Angels of Our Nature

Why Violence Has Declined

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: Penguin Group USA

ISBN: 0143122010

Category: Psychology

Page: 802

View: 3093

Presents a controversial history of violence which argues that today's world is the most peaceful time in human existence, drawing on psychological insights into intrinsic values that are causing people to condemn violence as an acceptable measure.

War, Peace, and Human Nature

The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views

Author: Douglas P. Fry

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190232463

Category: Social Science

Page: 584

View: 7988

Have humans always waged war? Is warring an ancient evolutionary adaptation or a relatively recent behavior--and what does that tell us about human nature? In War, Peace, and Human Nature, editor Douglas P. Fry brings together leading experts in such fields as evolutionary biology, archaeology, anthropology, and primatology to answer fundamental questions about peace, conflict, and human nature in an evolutionary context. The chapters in this book demonstrate that humans clearly have the capacity to make war, but since war is absent in some cultures, it cannot be viewed as a human universal. And counter to frequent presumption the actual archaeological record reveals the recent emergence of war. It does not typify the ancestral type of human society, the nomadic forager band, and contrary to widespread assumptions, there is little support for the idea that war is ancient or an evolved adaptation. Views of human nature as inherently warlike stem not from the facts but from cultural views embedded in Western thinking. Drawing upon evolutionary and ecological models; the archaeological record of the origins of war; nomadic forager societies past and present; the value and limitations of primate analogies; and the evolution of agonism, including restraint; the chapters in this interdisciplinary volume refute many popular generalizations and effectively bring scientific objectivity to the culturally and historically controversial subjects of war, peace, and human nature.

Constructing Inequality

The Fabrication of a Hierarchy of Virtue Among the Etoro

Author: Raymond Case Kelly

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472065288

Category: Social Science

Page: 604

View: 3912

Challenges prevailing theories about social inequality.

Warlike and Peaceful Societies

The Interaction of Genes and Culture

Author: Agner Fog

Publisher: Open Book Publishers

ISBN: 1783744065

Category: Psychology

Page: 364

View: 8636

Are humans violent or peaceful by nature? We are both. In this ambitious and wide-ranging book, Agner Fog presents a ground-breaking new argument that explains the existence of differently organised societies using evolutionary theory. It combines natural sciences and social sciences in a way that is rarely seen. According to a concept called regality theory, people show a preference for authoritarianism and strong leadership in times of war or collective danger, but desire egalitarian political systems in times of peace and safety. These individual impulses shape the way societies develop and organise themselves, and in this book Agner argues that there is an evolutionary mechanism behind this flexible psychology. Incorporating a wide range of ideas including evolutionary theory, game theory, and ecological theory, Agner analyses the conditions that make us either strident or docile. He tests this theory on data from contemporary and ancient societies, and provides a detailed explanation of the applications of regality theory to issues of war and peace, the rise and fall of empires, the mass media, economic instability, ecological crisis, and much more. Warlike and Peaceful Societies: The Interaction of Genes and Culture draws on many different fields of both the social sciences and the natural sciences. It will be of interest to academics and students in these fields, including anthropology, political science, history, conflict and peace research, social psychology, and more, as well as the natural sciences, including human biology, human evolution, and ecology.

Wired for War

The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century

Author: P. W. Singer

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781440685972

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 512

View: 6448

P. W. Singer explores the great­est revolution in military affairs since the atom bomb: the dawn of robotic warfare We are on the cusp of a massive shift in military technology that threatens to make real the stuff of I, Robot and The Terminator. Blending historical evidence with interviews of an amaz­ing cast of characters, Singer shows how technology is changing not just how wars are fought, but also the politics, economics, laws, and the ethics that surround war itself. Travelling from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan to modern-day "skunk works" in the midst of suburbia, Wired for War will tantalise a wide readership, from military buffs to policy wonks to gearheads.

The Social Construction of Man, the State and War

Identity, Conflict, and Violence in Former Yugoslavia

Author: Franke Wilmer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135956219

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 1805

The Social Construction of Man, the State, and War is the fist book on conflict in the former Yugoslavia to look seriously at the issue of ethnic identity, rather than treating it as a given, an unquestionable variable. Combining detailed analysis with a close reading of historical narratives, documentary evidence, and first-hand interviews conducted in the former Yugoslavia, Wilmer sheds new light on how ethnic identity is constructed, and what that means for the future of peace and sovereignty throughout the world.

Blood is Their Argument

Warfare Among the Mae Enga Tribesmen of the New Guinea Highlands

Author: Mervyn J. Meggitt

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities Social

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 223

View: 8436

The scarcity of arable land in the central highlands of Papua New Guinea has created fierce competition among the Mae Enga for territorial control. Blood Is Their Argument studies the Mae Enga and their continuous struggle to survive and sustain both power and prestige.

Blood Rites

Origins and History of the Passions of War

Author: Barbara Ehrenreich

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780805057874

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 6775

A study of the human attraction to violence and war ranges from the human sacrifices of the ancient world to the Holocaust, tracing the impulse to slaughter to the blood rites enacted by the earliest human hunters. Reprint. 17,500 first printing.

Peace in World History

Author: Peter N. Stearns

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134757212

Category: History

Page: 220

View: 1447

In Peace in World History, Peter N. Stearns examines the ideas of peace that have existed throughout history, and how societies have sought to put them into practice. Beginning with the status of peace in early hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies, and continuing through the present day, the narrative gives students a clear view of the ways people across the world have understood and striven to achieve peace throughout history. Topics covered include: Comparison of the ‘pax Romana’ and ‘pax Sinica’ of Rome and China Concepts of peace in Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam, and their historical impact The place of peace in the periods of expanding empires The emergence, starting in the 19th century, of formal schemes to promote peace amid increasingly destructive technologies for warfare Moving away from the view of history as a series of military conflicts, Peace in World History offers a new way of looking at world history by focusing on peace. Showing how concepts of peace have evolved over time even as they have been challenged by war and conflict, this lively and engaging narrative enables students to consider peace as a human possibility.

Peace-Making and the Imagination

Papua New Guinea Perspectives

Author: Andrew Strathern,Pamela J. Stewart

Publisher: Univ. of Queensland Press

ISBN: 0702247561

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 4466

A compelling new book that presents a thoughtful and creative approach to transforming violent discordances, this work examines the intractable issues of revenge and restitution in a conflict context. It argues that in communities where violence must be paid for through compensation, violent conflict can be contained. With primary reference to the Highlands of Papua New Guinea and comparisons to cases from Africa, Pakistan, and other arenas of tribal social formations, the account explores how rituals such as wealth disbursement, oath taking, sacrifice, and formal apologies are often used as a means of averting or transcending acts of vengeance after violence. Through exploration of the balance between revenge and compensation at different junctures in the peace-making process, this compelling text devises a thought-provoking and inventive analysis that would benefit countless communities in conflict around the world.

Beyond War

The Human Potential for Peace

Author: Douglas P. Fry

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199885869

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 3934

A profoundly heartening view of human nature, Beyond War offers a hopeful prognosis for a future without war. Douglas P. Fry convincingly argues that our ancient ancestors were not innately warlike--and neither are we. He points out that, for perhaps ninety-nine percent of our history, for well over a million years, humans lived in nomadic hunter-and-gatherer groups, egalitarian bands where warfare was a rarity. Drawing on archaeology and fascinating recent fieldwork on hunter-gatherer bands from around the world, Fry debunks the idea that war is ancient and inevitable. For instance, among Aboriginal Australians, warfare was an extreme anomaly. Fry also points out that even today, when war seems ever present, the vast majority of us live peaceful, nonviolent lives. We are not as warlike as we think, and if we can learn from our ancestors, we may be able to move beyond war to provide real justice and security for the world.

The Nuer Conquest

The Structure and Development of an Expansionist System

Author: Raymond Case Kelly

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472080564

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 9201

A study of Nuer expansionism with implications for research into the relationship between social and material causes of change

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