Forschungs- und Diskussionsgegenstand der Beitrage dieses Bandes ist das Griechenlandbild, das in Kultur und Literatur verschiedener Nationen bestanden hat, seine Genese und Modifikation sowie sein Verhaltnis zur Wirklichkeit. Ein Grossteil einschlagiger literarischer Reflexe und Reflexionen fallt in die enge Epoche des Philhellenismus. Es ist aber nicht nur sinnvoll, sondern wissenschaftlich geboten, den Blick historisch auszuweiten: zuruck zu den Anfangen europaischer Volkerspiegel in der Fruhen Neuzeit und nach vorn bis in die Gegenwart. Denn nationale (Zerr-)Bilder und Stereotype wurzeln tief in der Geschichte und betreffen bis heute unser Denken. Die 30 Beitrage dieses Bandes von renommierten Forschern aus 14 Landern bringen neue Erkenntnisse ans Licht und verleihen damit der Philhellenischen Forschung neue Impulse. The research objective and discussion topic of the essays in the present volume is the image of Greece in the cultural, artistic and literary traditions in different countries in Europe and abroad, and the ways it was formed and modified. The essays raise also the issue to what extent this image corresponds to Greek realities. The main part of philhellenic images was formed during the early 19th century and during the 1820s and 1830s Philhellenism grew up to a European movement of considerable import. However, it is not only desirable, but also scientifically necessary to broaden the scope of the analysis of the reception of Greece in Europe and abroad in order to include both previous and subsequent forms of philhellenic images. Therefore the aim of the present volume is to concentrate on early forms of Philhellenism, but also on contemporary receptions of Greece in Europe and other continents. Besides an accurate account of how Greece has been perceived in the last four centuries, the essays also point out stereotypes and misconceptions that often characterize the image of Greece abroad. The volume gathers 30 works of researchers and experts from 14 countries and gives a new impetus to the research of Philhellenism."
Violence and Mass Warfare in the German Lands, 1792-1820
Author: Mark Hewitson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Wars have played a fundamental part in modern German history. Although infrequent, conflicts involving German states have usually been extensive and often catastrophic, constituting turning-points for Europe as a whole. Absolute War is the first in a series of studies from Mark Hewitson that explore how such conflicts were experienced by soldiers and civilians during wartime, and how they were subsequently imagined and understood during peacetime, from Clausewitz and Kleist to Jünger and Adorno. Without such an understanding, it is difficult to make sense of the dramatic shifts characterising the politics of Germany and Europe over the past two centuries. The studies argue that the ease - or reluctance - with which Germans went to war, and the far-reaching consequences of such wars on domestic politics, were related to soldiers' and civilians' attitudes to violence and death, as well as to long-term transformations in contemporaries' conceptualisation of conflict. Absolute War reassesses the meaning of military conflict for the millions of German subjects who were directly implicated in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Based on a re-reading of contemporary diaries, letters, memoirs, official correspondence, press reports, pamphlets, treatises, plays, and cartoons, this volume refocuses attention on combat and conscription as the central components of new forms of mass warfare. It concentrates, in particular, on the impact of violence, killing, and death on many soldiers' and some civilians' experiences and subsequent memories of conflict. War has often been conceived of as 'an act of violence pushed to its utmost bounds', as Clausewitz put it, but the relationship between military conflicts and violent acts remains a problematic one.
Histories of Violence in the German Lands, 1820-1888
Author: Mark Hewitson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
How did ministers, journalists, academics, artists, and subjects in the German lands imagine war during the nineteenth century? The Napoleonic Wars had been the bloodiest in Europe's history, directly affecting millions of Germans, yet their long-term consequences on individuals and on 'politics' are still poorly understood. This study makes sense of contemporaries' memories and histories of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic campaigns within a much wider context of press reportage of wars elsewhere in Europe and overseas, debates about military service and the reform of Germany's armies, revolution and counter-revolution, and individuals' experiences of violence and death in their everyday lives. For the majority of the populations of the German states, wars during an era of conscription were not merely a matter of history and memory; rather, they concerned subjects' hopes, fears, and expectations of the future. This is the second volume of Mark Hewitson's study of the violence of war in the German lands during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It investigates the complex relationship between military conflicts and the violent acts of individual soldiers. In particular, it considers the contradictory impact of 'pacification' in civilian life and exposure to increasingly destructive technologies of killing during war-time. This contradiction reached its nineteenth-century apogee during the 'wars of unification', leaving an ambiguous imprint on post-war discussions of military conflict.
Anti-Semitic Trials and the Press in the Early German Empire
Author: Barnet Peretz Hartston
This book examines a number of sensational trials involving anti-Semitism in early Imperial Germany. Press coverage of these court cases helped to spur public debates about the nature of Judaism and the role and influence of Jews in German society.
German Press Responses to Anti-Jewish Violence in Germany and Russia (1881-1882)
Author: Sonja Weinberg
Publisher: Peter Lang
The establishment of universal manhood suffrage and legal equality for Jews in Germany in the 1860s and 1870s gave way to the rise of political anti-Semitism to a degree not witnessed before. In Russia too, as a consequence of the reform era (1855-1881), the -Jewish Question- became one of the most hotly debated topics. In 1881 and 1882 the anti-Semitic climate in Germany and Russia culminated in anti-Jewish pogroms sweeping over parts of Prussia and Southern Russia. This study explores the heated debate which unfolded in 1881 and 1882 in the German press in response to these events. The simultaneity of the pogroms in Russia and Germany offers a unique opportunity to examine the response of German commentators to both domestic and foreign anti-Jewish violence."