A systematic presentation of activity theory, its application to interaction design, and an argument for the development of activity theory as a basis for understanding how people interact with technology. Activity theory holds that the human mind is the product of our interaction with people and artifacts in the context of everyday activity. Acting with Technology makes the case for activity theory as a basis for understanding our relationship with technology. Victor Kaptelinin and Bonnie Nardi describe activity theory's principles, history, relationship to other theoretical approaches, and application to the analysis and design of technologies. The book provides the first systematic entry-level introduction to the major principles of activity theory. It describes the accumulating body of work in interaction design informed by activity theory, drawing on work from an international community of scholars and designers. Kaptelinin and Nardi examine the notion of the object of activity, describe its use in an empirical study, and discuss key debates in the development of activity theory. Finally, they outline current and future issues in activity theory, providing a comparative analysis of the theory and its leading theoretical competitors within interaction design: distributed cognition, actor-network theory, and phenomenologically inspired approaches.
This work brings together a collection of 13 contributions that apply activity theory - a psychological theory with a naturalistic emphasis - to problems of human-computer interaction. It presents activity theory as a means of structuring and guiding field studies of human-computer interaction.
"This book provides a source for definitions, antecedents, and consequences of social informatics and the cultural aspect of technology. It addresses cultural/societal issues in social informatics technology and society, the Digital Divide, government and technology law, information security and privacy, cyber ethics, technology ethics, and the future of social informatics and technology"--Provided by publisher.
"This book provides a comprehensive, critical approach to meeting the new challenges of technology in the classroom. It gathers together research on technology methods, principles, and content, acting as a reference source for proven and innovative methods. It presents an introduction to teaching educational technology, design, and engineering and contains strategies for innovation in technology education"--Provided by publisher.
The interdependency of technology and communication presents theoreticians as well as practitioners with a wide range of problems. Among the topics discussed in this interdisciplinary volume are: technological knowledge in text and context in combination with cognitive and social conditions, knowledge transfer beyond languages and cultures, the influence of the world wide web on social communities.
This e-book comprises a selection of articles from leading experts in the food safety field relating to global trends and their application to local operations. The collection reflects on the whole food production process from growing, harvesting and production to processing, transport, retailing and consumption. It also reflects on the importance of publicity - good and bad - on the food export industry.
A theory of HCI that uses concepts from semiotics and computer science to focus on the communication between designers and users during interaction. In The Semiotic Engineering of Human-Computer Interaction, Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza proposes an account of HCI that draws on concepts from semiotics and computer science to investigate the relationship between user and designer. Semiotics is the study of signs, and the essence of semiotic engineering is the communication between designers and users at interaction time; designers must somehow be present in the interface to tell users how to use the signs that make up a system or program. This approach, which builds on--but goes further than--the currently dominant user-centered approach, allows designers to communicate their overall vision and therefore helps users understand designs--rather than simply which icon to click. According to de Souza's account, both designers and users are interlocutors in an overall communication process that takes place through an interface of words, graphics, and behavior. Designers must tell users what they mean by the artifact they have created, and users must understand and respond to what they are being told. By coupling semiotic theory and engineering, de Souza's approach to HCI design encompasses the principles, the materials, the processes, and the possibilities for producing meaningful interactive computer system discourse and achieves a broader perspective than cognitive, ethnographic, or ergonomic approaches. De Souza begins with a theoretical overview and detailed exposition of the semiotic engineering account of HCI. She then shows how this approach can be applied specifically to HCI evaluation and design of online help systems, customization and end-user programming, and multiuser applications. Finally, she reflects on the potential and opportunities for research in semiotic engineering.
Today’s teachers need to prepare students for a world that places increasingly higher literacy demands on its citizens. In this timely book, the authors explore content-area literacy and instruction in English, music, science, mathematics, social studies, visual arts, technology, and theatre. Each of the chapters has been written by teacher educators who are experts in their discipline. Their key recommendations reflect the aims and instructional frameworks unique to content-area learning. This resource focuses on how literacy specialists and content-area educators can combine their talents to teach all readers and writers in the middle and secondary school classroom. The text features vignettes from classroom practice with visuals to demonstrate, for example, how we read a painting or hear the discourse of a song. Additional contributors: Marta Adair, Diane L. Asay, Sharon R. Gray, Sirpa Grierson, Scott Hendrickson, Steven L. Shumway, Geoffrey A. Wright Roni Jo Draperis an associate professor in the Department of Teacher Education in the David O. McKay School of Education.Paul Broomheadis associate professor and coordinator of the Music Education Division in the School of Music.Amy Petersen Jensenis an associate professor in the College of Fine Arts and Communications.Jeffery D. Nokesis an assistant professor in the History Department.Daniel Siebertis an associate professor in the Department of Mathematics Education. All editors are at Brigham Young University, Utah. “This is a must-read for educators engaged in professional development efforts aimed at improving students’ learning across the content areas. The editors and chapter authors are to be applauded for taking up the call to place content-area literacy squarely in the disciplines.” —From the Foreword byThomas W. Bean, University of Nevada, Las Vegas “A great tool for developing disciplinary literacy.” —Douglas Fisher, San Diego State University “Draper and her colleagues successfully convey the complex and subject-specific nature of effective content area literacy instruction. This book reminds us in refreshing ways that there is more to effective reading than decoding and prior knowledge.” —George G. Hruby, Executive Director, Collaborative Center for Literacy Development, University of Kentucky “From its grounding in inquiry and collaboration, to its contemporary views of literacy and text, this book is an important response to recent calls to redress century-old recommendations for teaching reading. It is exciting to recommend(Re)ImaginingContent-Area Literacy Instructionfor any course or in-service project with a focus on content-area literacy instruction.” —Kathleen Hinchman, Syracuse University, School of Education
A Scientific Study of American Hegemony and Unilateral Use-of-Force Decision Making
Author: Bradley F. Podliska
Publisher: Lexington Books
Category: Political Science
Acting Alone: A Scientific Study of American Hegemony and Unilateral Use-of-Force Decision Making is a straight-forward analysis of unilateral U.S. military actions, which are dependent upon the power disparity between the U.S. and the rest of the world. In solving the puzzle as to why individual presidents have made the "wrong" decision to act alone, the author lays out a president's behavior, during a crisis, as a two-step decision process. Acting Alone reviews the well-studied first decision, deciding to use force, based on international conflict literature and organized along traditional lines. The author then details the second decision, deciding to use unilateral force, with an explanation of the criticisms of multilateralism and the reasons for unilateralism. To test a new theory of unilateral use of force decision making, Acting Alone devises a definition and coding rules for unilateral use of force, develops a sequential model of presidential use of force decision making, and constructs a new, alternative measure of military power, a Composite Indicator of Military Revolutions (CIMR). It then uses three methods - a statistical test with a heckman probit model, an experiment, and case studies - to test U.S. crisis behavior since 1937.By applying these three methods, the author finds that presidents are realists and make expected utility calculations to act unilaterally or multilaterally after their decision to use force. The unilateral decision, in particular, positively correlates with a wide military gap with an opponent, an opponent located in the Western hemisphere, and a national security threat.
Featuring chapters on physics, structure, sound and design specifics, Technology of the Guitar also includes coverage of historical content, composition of strings and their effects on sound quality, and important designs. Additionally, author Mark French discusses case studies of historically significant and technologically innovative instruments. This is a complete reference useful for a broad range of readers including guitar manufacturer employees, working luthiers, and interested guitar enthusiasts who do not have a science or engineering background.
Technology, Time, and the Conversations of Modernity takes as its impetus the idea that technology is an embodiment of our uneasiness with finitude. Lorenzo Simpson argues that technology has succeeded in granting our wish to domesticate time. He shows how this attitude affects our understanding of the meaning of action and our ability to discern meaning in our lives.
Academic and practitioner journals in fields from electronics to business to language studies, as well as the popular press, have for over a decade been proclaiming the arrival of the "computer revolution" and making far-reaching claims about the impact of computers on modern western culture. Implicit in many arguments about the revolutionary power of computers is the assumption that communication, language, and words are intimately tied to culture -- that the computer's transformation of communication means a transformation, a revolutionizing, of culture. Moving from a vague sense that writing is profoundly different with different material and technological tools to an understanding of how such tools can and will change writing, writers, written forms, and writing's functions is not a simple matter. Further, the question of whether -- and how -- changes in individual writers' experiences with new technologies translate into large-scale, cultural "revolutions" remains unresolved. This book is about the relationship of writing to its technologies. It uses history, theory and empirical research to argue that the effects of computer technologies on literacy are complex, always incomplete, and far from unitary -- despite a great deal of popular and even scholarly discourse about the inevitability of the computer revolution. The author argues that just as computers impact on discourse, discourse itself impacts technology and explains how technology is used in educational settings and beyond. The opening chapters argue that the relationship between writing and the material world is both inextricable and profound. Through writing, the physical, time-and-space world of tools and artifacts is joined to the symbolic world of language. The materiality of writing is both the central fact of literacy and its central puzzle -- a puzzle the author calls "The Technology Question" -- that asks: What does it mean for language to become material? and What is the effect of writing and other material literacy technologies on human thinking and human culture? The author also argues for an interdisciplinary approach to the technology question and lays out some of the tenets and goals of technology studies and its approach to literacy. The central chapters examine the relationship between writing and technology systematically, and take up the challenge of accounting for how writing -- defined as both a cognitive process and a cultural practice -- is tied to the material technologies that support and constrain it. Haas uses a wealth of methodologies including interviews, examination of writers' physical interactions with texts, think-aloud protocols, rhetorical analysis of discourse about technology, quasi-experimental studies of reading and writing, participant-observer studies of technology development, feature analysis of computer systems, and discourse analysis of written artifacts. Taken as a whole, the results of these studies paint a rich picture of material technologies shaping the activity of writing and discourse, in turn, shaping the development and use of technology. The book concludes with a detailed look at the history of literacy technologies and a theoretical exploration of the relationship between material tools and mental activity. The author argues that seeing writing as an embodied practice -- a practice based in culture, in mind, and in body -- can help to answer the "technology question." Indeed, the notion of embodiment can provide a necessary corrective to accounts of writing that emphasize the cultural at the expense of the cognitive, or that focus on writing as only an act of mind. Questions of technology, always and inescapably return to the material, embodied reality of literate practice. Further, because technologies are at once tools for individual use and culturally-constructed systems, the study of technology can provide a fertile site in which to examine the larger issue of the relationship of culture and cognition.
In the following pages I have endeavored to show the impact on philosophy of tech nology and science; more specifically, I have tried to make up for the neglect by the classical philosophers of the historic role of technology and also to suggest what positive effects on philosophy the ahnost daily advances in the physical sciences might have. Above all, I wanted to remind the ontologist of his debt to the artificer: tech nology with its recent gigantic achievements has introduced a new ingredient into the world, and so is sure to influence our knowledge of what there is. This book, then, could as well have been called 'Ethnotechnology: An Explanation of Human Behavior by Means of Material Culture', but the picture is a complex one, and there are many more special problems that need to be prominently featured in the discussion. Human culture never goes forward on all fronts at the same time. In our era it is unquestionably not only technology but also the sciences which are making the most rapid progress. Philosophy has not been very successful at keeping up with them. As a consequence there is an 'enormous gulf between scientists and philosophers today, a gulf which is as large as it has ever been. ' (1) I can see that with science moving so rapidly, its current lessons for philosophy might well be outmoded tomorrow.
Cereal, also called grain, any grass yielding starchy seeds suitable for food. The cereals most commonly cultivated are wheat, rice, rye, oats, barley, corn (maize), and sorghum. As human food, cereals are usually marketed in their raw grain form (some are frozen or canned) or as ingredients of various food products; as animal feed, they are consumed mainly by livestock and poultry, which are eventually rendered as meat, dairy, and poultry products for human consumption; and they are used industrially in the production of a wide range of substances, such as glucose, adhesives, oils, and alcohols. Real processing, treatment of cereals and other plants is to prepare their starch for human food, animal feed, or industrial use. Cereals are used for both human and animal food and as an industrial raw material. Although milled white flour is largely used for bread production, especially in industrialized countries, the grain may be converted to food in other ways. The relatively minor use of cereals in nonfood products includes the cellulose in the straw of cereals by the paper industry, flour for manufacturing sticking pastes and industrial alcohol, and wheat gluten for core binders in the casting of metal. Rice chaff is often used as fuel in Asia. Assuming a 50 percent increase in fertilizer use and that 41.5 percent of the cropped area is irrigated; projected 2020 food production would increase by 7.2 percent - from 251.0 million tons to 269.1 million tons. Future increases in the production of cereals and non-cereal agricultural commodities will have to be essentially achieved through increases in productivity, as the possibilities of expansion of area and livestock population are minimal. To meet the projected demand in the year 2020, country must attain a per hectare yield of 2.7 tons 2 for rice, 3.1 tons for wheat, 2.1 tons for maize, 1.3 tons for coarse cereals, 2.4 tons for cereal, 1.3 tons for pulses, 22.3 tons for potato, 25.7 for vegetables, and 24.1 tons for fruits. The content of the book includes information about cereal food technology. The major contents of this book are project profiles of projects like rice milling, rice products, rice flake (poha) and utilities of storage and preservation techniques of food grains, flour milling, wheat and flour products, maize processing, the dry milling of corn, rice starch, corn products, white oat processing, nutrition labeling, requirements of plant and machinery and address of plant and machinery suppliers. This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technical institutions, existing units and technocrats.
iDisorder: changes to your brain's ability to process information and your ability to relate to the world due to your daily use of media and technology resulting in signs and symptoms of psychological disorders - such as stress, sleeplessness, and a compulsive need to check in with all of your technology. Based on decades of research and expertise in the "psychology of technology," Dr. Larry Rosen offers clear, down-to-earth explanations for why many of us are suffering from an "iDisorder." Rosen offers solid, proven strategies to help us overcome the iDisorder we all feel in our lives while still making use of all that technology offers. Our world is not going to change, and technology will continue to penetrate society even deeper leaving us little chance to react to the seemingly daily additions to our lives. Rosen teaches us how to stay human in an increasingly technological world.
Focusing on the day-to-day operations of the U.S. armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, from 1798 to 1861, this book shows what the "new technology" of mechanized production meant in terms of organization, management, and worker morale. A local study of much more than local significance, it highlights the major problems of technical innovation and social adaptation in antebellum America. Merritt Roe Smith describes how positions of authority at the armory were tied to a larger network of political and economic influence in the community; how these relationships, in turn, affected managerial behavior; and how local social conditions reinforced the reactions of decision makers. He also demonstrates how craft traditions and variant attitudes toward work vis-à-vis New England created an atmosphere in which the machine was held suspect and inventive activity was hampered.Of central importance is the author's analysis of the drastic differences between Harpers Ferry and its counterpart, the national armory at Springfield, Massachusetts, which played a pivotal role in the emergence of the new technology. The flow of technical information between the two armories, he shows, moved in one direction only— north to south. "In the end," Smith concludes, "the stamina of local culture is paramount in explaining why the Harpers Ferry armory never really flourished as a center of technological innovation."Pointing up the complexities of industrial change, this account of the Harpers Ferry experience challenges the commonly held view that Americans have always been eagerly receptive to new technological advances.