There has been a resurgence of interest in environmental friendly, sustainable and organic cultural practices that warrants high yield and quality in agricultural crops. To enhance sustainable agricultural production and alleviate food scarcity, spoor of majority of microorganisms, especially plant growth and health promoting bacteria of eminent characteristics that allow them for exploitation in agro-ecosystem. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria inhabiting around/on the root surface and are directly or indirectly involved in promoting plant growth and development via production and secretion of various regulatory chemicals in the vicinity of rhizosphere. Among various beneficial bacteria mediated mechanisms include direct production of phytohormones and biosurfactants experiencing quest of research and concept up gradation that can built emerging paradigm (agriculture model). Research on bacteria-mediated phytohormones is crucially important, provides key understanding of the plant growth and development. Various genera including PGPR group of bacteria are potential source of plant growth regulators. Application of such organism allow plants to survive under abiotic and biotic stress conditions besides govern phytohormone mediated immune response and manage to regulate hormones. Such group of bacteria also produce another important metabolite i.e. biosurfacatants which are involved in many important functions to bacteria itself as we ll as for the plants and their ecosystem. Biosurfactants may alter nutrient availability, endogenous metabolites such as antibiotics production, root colonization imparting protection from phytopathogens besides eradicating soil contaminants and other pollutants. The role and activities of surfactants produced by bacteria are multifarious in nature. Thus, bacterial phytohormones and biosurfactants are identified as effector molecules in plant- microbe interactions, in pathogenesis and phyto-stimulation which can either be beneficial for the bacteria itself or for the crops. This book highlights current applications and research on bacterial hormones and surfactants to provide a timely overview. The chapters have been contributed by subject experts from around the world and include topics of varied importance which include phytohormones production by rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria, their role in rhizosphere competence, plant growth regulation, bioremediation, biosurfactants as antibiofilm agents and other aspects. This major new work represents a valuable source of information to all those scientists interested in microbial technology with respect to the microbial innovative products and applications towards sustainable agroecosystem.
Microbes are ubiquitous in nature, and plant-microbe interactions are a key strategy for colonizing diverse habitats. The plant microbiome (epiphytic, endophytic and rhizospheric) plays an important role in plant growth and development and soil health. Further, rhizospheric soil is a valuable natural resource, hosting hotspots of microbes, and is vital in the maintenance of global nutrient balance and ecosystem function. The term endophytic microbes refers to those microorganisms that colonize the interior the plants. The phyllosphere is a common niche for synergism between microbes and plants and includes the leaf surface. The diverse group of microbes are key components of soil-plant systems, and where they are engaged in an extensive network of interactions in the rhizosphere/endophytic/phyllospheric they have emerged as an important and promising tool for sustainable agriculture. Plant microbiomes help to directly or indirectly promote plant growth using plant growth promoting attributes, and could potentially be used as biofertilizers/bioinoculants in place of chemical fertilizers. This book allows readers to gain an understanding of microbial diversity associated with plant systems and their role in plant growth, and soil health. Offering an overview of the state of the art in plant microbiomes and their potential biotechnological applications in agriculture and allied sectors, it is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and students in the field of microbiology, biotechnology, agriculture, molecular biology, environmental biology and related subjects.
The search for new strategies of pest control with safer molecules is currently of great importance and interest. Microbe-mediated biological crop protection is an attractive and promising technology with no concern for a negative impact on the environment and biodiversity. Microbial hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases, chitinases, lipases, etc. are attractive for this purpose. They present toxic properties and act synergistically to control pest attacks. Also, some metabolites, that microorganisms produce for their survival or defense, can be explored and exploited for plant protection. The focus of this Volume is on the potential of microbial hydrolytic enzymes and their metabolites in agroecosystem functioning. Subsequent chapters review topics such as microbial hydrolytic enzymes as powerful management tools, chitinases in IPM of agro-horticultural crops, metabolites as pesticides and the importance of the metabolites of entomopathogenic fungi, metabolites and virulence factors. Other topicas include: microbial-based nanoparticles, recombinant DNA technologies to improve the efficacy of microbial insecticides, the effects of entomopathogens on insect predators and parasitoids, and the management of major vegetable insect pests. This Volume provides detailed accounts on the safe use of microbial products for sustainable management of insect pests. Its aim is to build solid foundations for the students, teachers, and researchers interested in eco-friendly management of important insect crop pests.
Applications and Immunization for Plant Growth and Protection
Author: Sudisha Jogaiah
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
Category: Technology & Engineering
Biocontrol and Secondary Metabolites: Applications and Immunization for Plant Growth and Protection covers established and updated research on emerging trends in plant defense signaling in, and during, stress phases. Other topics cover growth at interface as a sustainable way of life and the context of human welfare and conservation of fungi as a group of organisms. Further, the book explores induced systemic resistance using biocontrol agents and/or secondary metabolites as a milestone for sustainable agricultural production, thus providing opportunities for the minimization or elimination of the use of fungicides. Presents an overview on mechanisms by which plants protect themselves against herbivory and pathogenic microbes Identifies the use of immunization as a popular and effective alternative to chemical pesticides Explores how these fungi help crop plants in better uptake of soil nutrients, increase soil fertility, produce growth promoting substances, and secrete metabolites that act as bio-pesticides
How to achieve sustainable agricultural production without compromising environmental quality, agro-ecosystem function and biodiversity is a serious consideration in current agricultural practices. Farming systems’ growing dependency on chemical inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, nutrients etc.) poses serious threats with regard to crop productivity, soil fertility, the nutritional value of farm produce, management of pests and diseases, agro-ecosystem well-being, and health issues for humans and animals. At the same time, microbial inoculants in the form of biofertilizers, plant growth promoters, biopesticides, soil health managers, etc. have gained considerable attention among researchers, agriculturists, farmers and policy makers. The first volume of the book Microbial Inoculants in Sustainable Agricultural Productivity - Research Perspectives highlights the efforts of global experts with regard to various aspects of microbial inoculants. Emphasis is placed on recent advances in microbiological techniques for the isolation, characterization, identification and evaluation of functional properties using biochemical and molecular tools. The taxonomic characterization of agriculturally important microorganisms is documented, along with their applications in field conditions. The book exploresthe identification, characterization and diversity analysis of endophytic microorganisms in various crops including legumes/ non-legumes, as well as the assessment of their beneficial impacts in the context of promotingplant growth. Moreover, it provides essential updates onthe diversity and role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Further chaptersexamine in detailbiopesticides, thehigh-density cultivation of bioinoculants in submerged culture, seed biopriming strategies for abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, andPGPR as abio-control agent. Given its content,the book offers a valuable resource for researchers involved in research and development concerningPGPR, biopesticides and microbial inoculants.
Today, microbiology is a rapidly growing discipline in the life sciences, and the technologies are evolving on a virtually daily basis. Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized microbial analysis, and can help us understand the biology and genomic diversity of various bacterial species with significant impacts on agro-ecosystems. In addition, advances in molecular biology and microbiology techniques hold the potential to improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture and forestry. This new volume addresses the role of microbial genomics in understanding the living systems that exist in the soil and their interactions with plants, an aspect that is also important for crop improvement. The topics covered focus on a deeper and clearer understanding of how microbes cause diseases, the genome-based development of novel antibacterial agents and vaccines, and the role of microbial genomics in crop improvement and agroforestry. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable resource for researchers and students of agriculture and infectious biology.
The cropping system is one of the important components of sustainable agriculture, since it provides more efficient nutrient cycling. As such, balanced fertilization must be based on the concept of sustainable crop production. Feeding the rapidly growing world population using environmentally sustainable production systems is a major challenge, especially in developing countries. A number of studies have highlighted the fact that degradation of the world's cultivated soils is largely responsible for low and plateauing yields. Soil is lost rapidly but only formed over millennia, and this represents the greatest global threat to nutrient dynamics in agriculture. This means that nutrient management is essential to provide food and nutritional security for current and future generations. Nutrient dynamics and soil sustainability imply the maintenance of the desired ecological balance, the enhancement and preservation of soil functions, and the protection of biodiversity above and below ground. Understanding the role of nutrient management as a tool for soil sustainability and nutritional security requires a holistic approach to a wide range of soil parameters (biological, physical, and chemical) to assess the soil functions and nutrient dynamics of a crop management system within the desired timescale. Further, best nutrient management approaches are important to advance soil sustainability and food and nutritional security without compromising the soil quality and productive potential. Sustainable management practices must allow environmentally and economically sustainable yields and restore soil health and sustainability. This book presents soil management approaches that can provide a wide range of benefits, including improved fertility, with a focus on the importance of nutrient dynamics. Discussing the broad impacts of nutrients cycling on the sustainability of soil and the cropping systems that it supports, it also addresses nutrient application to allow environmentally and economically sustainable agroecosystems that restore soil health. Arguing that balanced fertilization must be based on the concept of INM for a cropping system rather than a crop, it provides a roadmap to nutrient management for sustainability. This richly illustrated book features tables, figures and photographs and includes extensive up-to-date references, making it a valuable resource for policymakers and researchers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students of Soil Science, Agronomy, Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Microbial Services in Restoration Ecology describes the role of microbial resources and their beneficial services in soil fertility and restoration of degraded ecosystems. The role of microbial interactions with crop plants which benefit agricultural productivity is also discussed. The book also includes significant advances in microbial based bio-pesticide production and strategies for high-density bio-inoculant cultivation to improve stress survivability of crop plants. This work provides next-generation molecular technologies for exploring complex microbial secondary metabolites and metabolic regulation in viability of plant–microbe interactions. Describes the role of microbial resources and their beneficial services in soil fertility and restoration of degraded ecosystems Discusses the role of microbial interactions with crop plants and how it benefits of agricultural productivity Includes significant advances in microbial based bio-pesticide production and strategies for high-density bio-inoculant cultivation to improve stress survivability of crop plants provides next-generation molecular technologies for exploring complex microbial secondary metabolites and metabolic regulation in viability of plant–microbe interactions
Volatiles and Metabolites of Microbes compiles the latest research and advancement in the field of volatiles, metabolites synthesized from the microbial strains such as actinomycetes, bacteria, cyanobacteria, and fungal species and their potential applications in the field of healthcare issue and sustainable agriculture. There is an urgent need to explore new and advanced biological methods for health industries and sustainable agriculture and to protect the environment from environmental pollution or contaminates, global warming, and also control the health of human beings from the side effects of various pharmaceuticals products. Focusing all these factors, Volatiles and Metabolites of Microbes explores new aspects of microorganism in terms of volatiles, enzymes, bioactive compounds synthesized from the microbes and their potential applications in the field of sustainable agriculture and health-related issues Provides a broad aspect about volatiles, bioactive compounds, and secondary metabolites of microbes compiled in one cover Gives the latest research and advancement in the field of volatiles, secondary metabolites, and bioactive compounds synthesized from the different microbial strains Responds to new developments in the detection of the complex compound structures of volatiles Offers insight to a very broad audience in Biotechnology, Applied Microbiology, Agronomy, and Pathology
PGPR Amelioration in Sustainable Agriculture: Food Security and Environmental Management explores the growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that are indigenous to soil and plant rhizosphere. These microorganisms have significant potential as important tools for sustainable agriculture. PGPR enhance the growth of root systems and often control certain plant pathogens. As PGPR amelioration is a fascinating subject, is multidisciplinary in nature, and concerns scientists involved in plant heath and plant protection, this book is an ideal resource that emphasizes the current trends of, and probable future of, PGPR developments. Chapters incorporate both theoretical and practical aspects and may serve as baseline information for future research. This book will be useful to students, teachers and researchers, both in universities and research institutes, especially working in areas of agricultural microbiology, plant pathology and agronomy. Presents new concepts and current development in PGPR research and evaluates the implications for sustainable productivity Describes the role of multi-omics approaches in establishing an understanding of plant–microbe interactions that help plants optimize abiotic stresses Incorporates both theoretical and practical aspects, and will serve as a baseline for future research
Environmental sustainability is one of the biggest issues faced by the mankind. Rapid & rampant industrialization has put great pressure on the natural resources. To make our planet a sustainable ecosystem, habitable for future generations & provide equal opportunity for all the living creatures we not only need to make corrections but also remediate the polluted natural resources. The low-input biotechnological techniques involving microbes and plants can provide the solution for resurrecting the ecosystems. Bioremediation and biodegradation can be used to improve the conditions of polluted soil and water bodies. Green energy involving biofuels have to replace the fossil fuels to combat pollution & global warming. Biological alternatives (bioinoculants) have to replace harmful chemicals for maintaining sustainability of agro-ecosystems. The book will cover the latest developments in environmental biotech so as to use in clearing and maintaining the ecosystems for sustainable future.
This book provides a straightforward and easy-to-understand overview of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. It features a wealth of unique illustrations to clarify the text, and each chapter includes study questions that highlight the important points, as well as references to key experiments. Since the publication of the first edition of Beneficial Plant-Bacterial Interactions, in 2015, there has been an abundance of new discoveries in this area, and in recent years, scientists around the globe have begun to develop a relatively detailed understanding of many of the mechanisms used by bacteria that facilitate plant growth and development. This knowledge is gradually becoming an integral component of modern agricultural practice, with more and more plant growth-promoting bacterial strains being commercialized and used successfully in countries throughout the world. In addition, as the world’s population continues to grow, the pressure for increased food production will intensify, while at the same time, environmental concerns, mean that environmentally friendly methods of food production will need to replace many traditional agricultural practices such as the use of potentially dangerous chemicals. The book, intended for students, explores the fundamentals of this new paradigm in agriculture, horticulture, and environmental cleanup.
Production and Applications in the Environment and Biomedicine
Author: Hemen Sarma
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Technology & Engineering
Biosurfactants for a Sustainable Future Explore the state-of-the-art in biosurfactant technology and its applications in environmental remediation, biomedicine, and biotechnology Biosurfactants for a Sustainable Future explores recent developments in biosurfactants and their use in a variety of cutting-edge applications. The book opens a window on the rapid development of microbiology by explaining how microbes and their products are used in advanced medical technology and in the sustainable remediation of emerging environmental contaminants. The book emphasizes the different techniques that are used for the production of biosurfactants from microorganisms and their characterization. Various aspects of biosurfactants, including structural characteristics, developments, production, bio-economics and their sustainable use in the environment and biomedicine, are addressed, and the book also presents metagenomic strategies to facilitate the discovery of novel biosurfactants producing microorganisms. Readers will benefit from the inclusion of: A thorough introduction to the state-of-the-art in biosurfactant technology, techniques, and applications An exploration of biosurfactant enhanced remediation of sediments contaminated with organics and inorganics A discussion of perspectives for biomedical and biotechnological applications of biosurfactants A review of the antiviral, antimicrobial, and antibiofilm potential of biosurfactants against multi-drug-resistant pathogens. An examination of biosurfactant-inspired control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Perfect for academic researchers and scientists working in the petrochemical industry, pharmaceutical industry, and in the agroindustry, Biosurfactants for a Sustainable Future will also earn a place in the libraries of scientists working in environmental biotechnology, environmental science, and biomedical engineering.
This book discusses the most challenging task ahead of researchers from India and around the globe: providing disease-free field crops for the ever-growing world population. In Asia, despite being cultivated in massive volumes, major crops, including cereals, oil seed, tuber and non-tuber vegetables, and fruit, are not meeting the demands of the increasing population. This book showcases naturally occurring beneficial microbes in the form of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, or PGPR, which make it possible to grow field crops without applying synthetic chemicals. Our understanding of PGPR has increased exponentially in recent decades. They play a multifarious role in developing sustainable systems of crop production and protection. The book focuses on the mechanistic behaviors of PGPRs, their use to develop sustainable cultivation techniques, and their application to enhance crop growth and productivity at the cutting edge of tech-oriented agriculture and to replace hazardous chemicals with microbial inoculants. The book is useful to agronomists, microbiologists, ecologists, plant pathologists, molecular biologists, environmentalists, policy makers, conservationists, and NGOs working on organically grown field crops.
Over the past decade, the population explosion, rise in global warming, depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental pollution has been the major driving force for promoting and implementing the principles of green chemistry and sustainable engineering in all sectors ranging from chemical to environmental sciences. It is noteworthy to mention that production of biofuels, exploitation of renewable energy sources and use of ecologically safer products in applied sectors are becoming increasingly important for the development of alternative sustainable technologies. Integrating Green Chemistry and Sustainable Engineering focusses on latest sustainable technologies and developments and describes how sustainable chemistry and engineering practices are being applied and integrated in various industrial sectors. The book addresses emerging topics including biofuel production, CO2 conversation to green fuels, advanced green polymers in coating applications, biological macromolecules in medical sector, biofertilizers for agricultural sector, bioadsorption and much more.
The increasing human population and the associated activities have negatively influenced the ecosystems and life on earth. The continuous addition of agrochemicals, heavy metals and industrial wastes/ effluents in the ecosystems have caused great harm, including loss of productivity, biodiversity, climate change and diseases in plants, animals and humans, resulting in increased marginal lands and endangered sustainability of life on earth. Hence, there is an urgent need to reverse the impact of dangerous pollutants through a holistic, sustainable and biotic approach. Bioremediation involves the utilization of biological systems, mainly plants (phytoremediation) or microorganisms or both in combination (rhizoremediation) for the removal or degradation of pollutants and revive the habitats in an eco-friendly manner. Recently, there have been many success stories related to bioremediation involving plants or plant-microbe interactions. These success stories are related to the removal of heavy metals, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, explosives, radionuclides or reduction of biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, oil spills in water bodies. Rhizoremediation has also been successfully used for reclamation of saline or marginal soils. With the range of pollutants and the total area (on earth) covered by these toxic chemicals, it is important that these eco-friendly technologies be utilized in a better way. The book throws light on the recent happenings, research and success stories related to bioremediation of polluted habitats through phytoremediation or rhizoremediation. The book also highlights some of the significantly important plant and microbial species involved in remediation, the physiology, biochemistry and the mechanisms of remediation by various plants and microbes, and suggestions for future improvement of bioremediation technology.
This new volume, Biofertilizers and Biopesticides in Sustainable Agriculture, presents strategies for the management of soil and crop diseases. Microbes have attracted worldwide attention due to their role in disease management and remediation of polluted soils. Taking a sustainable approach, this book explores the means of integrating various microbial management approaches to achieve the desired levels of crop yield under both conventional soils and neglected soils through the use of biopesticides and other botanicals as well as biomolecules. This book also presents a broad and updated view of molecular nitrogen fixation and phosphate-solubilizing and sulfur-transforming microbes for nutrition of crops in relation to the role of metal tolerant microbes in providing protection to plants grown in metal-contaminated soils. The preparation and application of biofertilizers, utilization of household waste materials, and use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) in plant growth and development are also well discussed in the volume.
Toxicity, Mechanisms of Contaminants Degradation, Detoxification and Challenges
Author: Gaurav Saxena
Category: Technology & Engineering
Bioremediation for Environmental Sustainability: Toxicity, Mechanisms of Contaminants Degradation, Detoxification and Challenges introduces pollution and toxicity profiles of various organic and inorganic contaminants, including mechanisms of toxicity, degradation, and detoxification by microbes and plants, and their bioremediation approaches for environmental sustainability. The book also covers many advanced technologies in the field of bioremediation and phytoremediation, including electro-bioremediation, microbial fuel cells, nano-bioremediation, constructed wetlands, phytotechnologies, and many more, which are lacking in other competitive titles existing in the market. The book includes updated information, as well as future directions for research, in the field of bioremediation of industrial wastes. This book is a reference for students, researchers, scientists, and professionals in the fields of microbiology, biotechnology, environmental sciences, eco-toxicology, environmental remediation, and waste management, especially those who aspire to work on the biodegradation and bioremediation of industrial wastes and environmental pollutants for environmental sustainability. Environmental safety and sustainability with rapid industrialization is one of the major challenges worldwide. Industries are the key drivers in the world economy, but these are also the major polluters due to discharge of potentially toxic and hazardous wastes containing various organic and inorganic pollutants, which cause environmental pollution and severe toxic effects in living beings. Introduces pollution and toxicity profiles of environmental contaminants and industrial wastes, including oil refinery wastewater, distillery wastewater, tannery wastewater, textile wastewater, mine tailing wastes, plastic wastes, and more Describes underlying mechanisms of degradation and detoxification of emerging organic and inorganic contaminants with enzymatic roles Focuses on recent advances and challenges in bioremediation and phytoremediation, including microbial enzymes, biosurfactants, microalgae, biofilm, archaea, genetically engineered organisms, and more Describes how microbes and plants can be successfully applied for the remediation of potentially toxic industrial wastes and chemical pollutants to protect the environment and public health