Why CliffsTestPrep Guides? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need--fast! Written by test prep specialists About the contents: Introduction * A description of the test and scoring * Strategies for all question types Part I: Analysis of Exam Areas * Multiple-choice questions and strategies for each domain * Essay questions, approaches, sample essays, and critiques for each domain * Case studies, approaches, sample essays, and evaluations Part II: Review of Key Concept and Assessments, plus a Glossary * Content specifications for all 4 domains * Review of key concepts and assessments, plus a glossary Part III: 2 Full-Length Practice Tests with Answers and Explanations Test Prep Essentials from the Experts at CliffsNotes?
Beyond Tests and Quizzes Because the drive toward external assessment speaks almost exclusively in terms of standardized testing, we need to be reminded of the internal purposes of assessment: measuring learning for both student and teacher so that instruction can be adjusted and improved. This book is written for college instructors who are striving to creatively change assessment practice to better reflect learner-centered teaching. It is intended to consider not only the multiple ways in which individuals learn content, but also the multiple avenues to assessment the variety of learning styles demands. Creative assessment is defined here as assessments that spin, twist, and reform what might be a standard kind of assessment in an ordinary classroom. Instructors should use these examples of creative assessment as starting points, and as the beginnings of an internal discussion on what matters most in the courses they teach: What components of each course count the most for solving a range of problems in the discipline? If facts are important, and they usually are, how can they be used to support a flexible approach to thinking, solving, considering options, and gathering and interpreting evidence? What are the facts not telling us? The approaches suggested in this book focus on learning, on what students can do as a result of learning, and on how teachers can observe what students do. The assessment models presented here include concept mapping, variable grading, learning logs, moving from memorization to analysis, making labs more practical, exams as learning experiences, web-based assessment, thinking styles, tracking learning over time, and assessment in the real world. Each translates to a range of academic settings and is easily adaptable for use by a variety of instructors in any discipline.
This volume presents case studies of language learning beyond the classroom. The studies draw on a wide range of contexts, from North and South America to Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. Each provides principled links between theory, research and practice. While out-of-class learning will not replace the classroom, ultimately all successful learners take control of their own learning. This book shows how teachers can help learners bridge the gap between formal instruction and autonomous language learning. Although English is the primary focus of most chapters, there are studies on a range of other languages including Spanish and Japanese.
This book looks beyond the classroom, and focuses on out-of-class autonomous use of technology for language learning, discussing the theoretical frameworks, key findings and critical issues. The proliferation of digital language learning resources and tools is forcing language education into an era of unprecedented change. The book will stimulate discussions on how to support language learners to construct quality autonomous technology-mediated out-of-class learning experience outside the classroom and raise greater awareness of and research interest in this field. Out-of-class learning constitutes an important context for human development, and active engagement in out-of-class activities is associated with successful language development. With convenient access to expanded resources, venues and learning spaces, today's learners are not as dependent on in-class learning as they used to be. Thus, a deeper understanding of the terrain of out-of-class learning is of increasing significance in the current educational era. Technology is part and parcel of out-of-class language learning, and has been a primary source that learners actively use to construct language learning experience beyond the classroom. Language learners of all ages around the world have been found to actively utilize technological resources to support their language learning beyond formal language learning contexts. Insights into learners' out-of-class autonomous use of technology for language learning are essential to our understanding of out-of-class learning and inform educators on how language learners could be better supported to maximize the educational potentials of technology to construct quality out-of-class learning experience.
This unique book tells the story of a select group of schools and teachers who have managed to beat the odds in terms of improving elementary students reading achievement. Originating with the CIERA School Change Project directed by Barbara Taylor and David Pearson, it was subsequently expanded to include the work of other research teams doing similar work. It combines large scale studies of effective schools and teachers (Part I) with case studies of individual schools and teachers who have successfully transformed research findings into situation-specific strategies appropriate to their schools and classrooms (Parts II and III). The book's distinct contribution is showing that no matter how consistent the research findings on effective school and classroom practice, groups of teachers must improvise their own situation-specific programs and practices. In short, they must be able to create variations on a common theme. Key features of this outstanding new volume include: *Integration of research and cases--One cannot fully understand research-based general principles without knowing how they play themselves out in specific settings. Similarly, one cannot fully understand cases without seeing the commonalities across different schools and classrooms sharing similar goals. This book provides both perspectives. *Diverse cases--The schools and classrooms depicted in this book are urban, rural, and suburban; poor and middle class; and English-only and bilingual. Rather than telling readers how to beat the odds, it provides them with a wide variety of cases from which they can extrapolate to build their own customized teaching programs and practices. *Summarizing section--The final section contains a summary of research on effective schools and teachers and a concluding chapter by Gerry Duffy and Jim Hoffman in which they reflect on the book's content and possible directions for future research. The book is targeted to both in-service elementary teachers and literacy students in advanced college courses.
This esteemed reference work and professional resource, now substantially revised, integrates classic and cutting-edge research on how children and adolescents make meaning from text. The comprehension tasks and challenges facing students at different grade levels are explored, with attention to multiple text types and reading purposes. Preeminent researchers offer a range of perspectives--cognitive, neuroscientific, sociocultural, pedagogical, and technological--on key aspects of comprehension. Effective approaches to assessment, instruction, and intervention are reviewed. The volume also addresses issues in teaching specific populations, including struggling readers and English language learners. New to This Edition *A decade's worth of significant research advances are reflected in 10 entirely new chapters. *Revised throughout to incorporate new studies and timely topics: the expanding role of technology, changing school populations, the Common Core standards, international research, and more. *Chapters on graphic, scientific, and multiple digital texts. *Chapters on fluency, professional learning, and literacy coaching.
An Application Worktext for Elementary Classroom Teachers
Author: Arleen Shearer Mariotti
Now in its Fifth Edition, this text applies current theory to classroom practice by providing, in each chapter, a brief explanation of major concepts followed by guided practical experience in administering, scoring, and interpreting reading assessment techniques. The Fifth Edition is revised and updated to reflect recent developments in the field. New activities are included throughout. A Companion Website for instructors and students, a value-added feature, is new for this edition. Like previous editions of this popular text, this edition Emphasizes the use of assessment and diagnosis for instructional decision making Stresses the use of informal assessment techniques - reflecting the current emphasis in educational assessment theories - but also includes usage of standardized test scores Provides numerous classroom-tested, hands-on activities, giving students step-by-step experiences in administering, scoring, and interpreting assessment techniques This text covers assessment/diagnosis in all five critical reading areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. It is designed for undergraduate and graduate courses in reading diagnosis, reading methods that include a diagnostic component, and for in-service courses on reading/literacy development and diagnosis. http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415802093/
Washback refers to the influence of language testing on teaching and learning. This volume, at the important intersection of language testing and teaching practices, presents theoretical, methodological, and practical guidance for current and future washback studies. In the field of language testing, researchers' major interest has traditionally been focused on issues and solving problems inherent in tests in order to increase their reliability and validity. However, the washback effect goes well beyond the test itself to include factors, such as curriculum, teacher and learner behaviors inside and outside the classroom, their perceptions of the test, and how test scores are used. Only recently have researchers started to empirically investigate the phenomenon of washback. This volume of such research serves two essential purposes by: *providing an overview of the complexity of washback and the various contextual factors entangled within testing, teaching, and learning; and *presenting empirical studies from around the world that offer insights into the effects of washback in specific educational contexts and models of research on which future studies can be based. The extensive use of test scores for various educational and social purposes in society nowadays makes the washback effect a high-interest phenomenon in the day-to-day educational activities of teachers, researchers, program coordinators/directors, policymakers, and others in the field of education. Washback in Language Testing: Research Contexts and Methods is a valuable resource for those who are interested in the application of findings to actual teaching and learning situations or conduct washback research in their own contexts, including educational and psychological testing experts, as well as alternative assessment people in all fields, and for policy- and decision-makers in educational and testing organizations.
The fifth edition of this comprehensive resource helps future and practicing teachers recognize and assess literacy problems, while providing practical, effective intervention strategies to help every student succeed. DeVries thoroughly explores the major components of literacy, offering an overview of pertinent research, suggested methods and tools for diagnosis and assessment, intervention strategies and activities, and technology applications to increase students' skills. Updated to reflect the needs of teachers in increasingly diverse classrooms, the fifth edition addresses scaffolding for English language learners, and offers appropriate instructional strategies and tailored teaching ideas to help both teachers and their students. Several valuable appendices include assessment tools, instructions and visuals for creating and implementing the book's more than 150 instructional strategies and activities, and other resources. New to the Fifth Edition: Up-to-date and in line with ILA, CCSS, and most state and district literacy standards, this edition also addresses the important shifts and evolution of these standards. New chapter on Language Development, Speaking, and Listening covers early literacy, assessment, and interventions. New intervention strategies and activities are featured in all chapters and highlight a stronger technology component. Updated Companion Website with additional tools, resources, and examples of teachers using assessment strategies.
Why do we assess reading? What do we assess when we assess reading? How, where, and when do we assess reading? Reading instruction and assessment expert Peter Afflerbach addresses these questions and much more in the 3rd edition of Understanding and Using Reading Assessment, K–12. Using the CURRV model to evaluate reading assessment methods—including reading inventories, teacher questioning, performance assessment, and high-stakes reading tests—Afflerbach considers the consequences and usefulness of each method, the roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders, and the reliability and validity of the assessments. In addition, he examines four important but often overlooked aspects of reading assessment: Assessment accommodation for English-language learners and students with special needs Assessment of noncognitive aspects of reading, such as motivation, engagement, self-concept, and self-efficacy The use of formative and summative assessment The importance of self-assessment in building reading independence The book provides detailed case studies from all grade levels to illustrate reading assessment done well. It also includes 15 reproducible forms and checklists that teachers and administrators can use to optimize their reading assessment efforts. Students are expected to read increasingly complex texts and to complete increasingly complex reading-related tasks to demonstrate their growth as readers. This book offers teachers and administrators alike a clear path to helping students meet those expectations. This book is a co-publication of ASCD and ILA. New to the 3rd edition: New chapter “Formative and Summative Assessment” Three significantly revised chapters—Performance Assessment; Assessment Accommodation for English Learners and Students With Special Needs (“Accommodation and Reading Assessment” in 2nd edition); Assessing “the Other”: Important Noncognitive Aspects of Reading Fifteen reproducible and downloadable forms and checklists
A compendium of the latest developments in research regarding English language education for Chinese-speaking learners, this volume combines cutting-edge research from multiple internationally-known scholars. The chapters offer unique insights into some of the most salient issues related to this broad topic. The seventh volume in the Global Research on Teaching and Learning English series, co-published with The International Research Foundation for English Language Education (TIRF), this book features chapters with original research written by TIRF Doctoral Dissertation Grant awardees. The volume addresses the crucial and growing need for research-based conversations on the contexts, environments, goals, and measures of success for Chinese-speaking learners of English. It includes sections on language assessment, perceptions in university contexts, and technology, especially in relation to young learners, in order to promote in-depth discussion of the teaching and learning of English for native speakers of Chinese. The volume’s 13 research-based chapters discuss topics such as the impact and implications of using emerging assessment tools; the increase in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) courses; academic speaking and writing; and teaching in an online or hybrid environment. Throughout the book the authors draw on their knowledge of their multiple contexts, as well as their learners’ needs and goals. This volume brings together innovative research for TESOL and TEFL students, language teacher educators, language policy specialists, language assessment scholars, and language teachers. Readers will become familiar with how these issues related to Chinese-speaking learners of English are being addressed in academic circles around the world.
Jack Sutherford has taught for ten years. When he first began his career, he was a very optimistic teacher, but that optimism waned as he continued through. In Combating Ignorance, Sutherford takes on the challenges of dealing with administration, counselors, fellow teachers, students and parents as a classroom teacher. He discusses the many programs and trends, good and bad, he has seen throughout his ten years of teaching.