"The award-winning lifestyle editor of American Girl magazine shares recipes for organic beauty and health products, demonstrating how to use natural ingredients, from sea salt to beeswax, to make scrubs, lotions, toothpaste and more."--
Cardmaking and collage go together like birthdays and cake! They’re both accessible crafts that allow great freedom of expression and provide a clever way to use those inevitable studio scraps and ephemera. That’s why Collage Cards is the perfect debut book in this brand-new beginner-friendly series on creative card crafting. It offers approximately 50 inspirational projects, with seven themed chapters that cover everything from focal points and photographs to embellishments, backgrounds, and inside treatments. Incorporate used dress patterns, with its tea-colored tissue paper and interesting arcs and arrows. Evoke Paris with the lush flowers on French perfume labels. Go charmingly vintage, with old-fashioned children’s art. Tips, insights, and card variations show how even the simplest alterations can transform a layout.
PPrreeffaaccee I believe that if herbal medicine is to play a significant role in future health care, the therapeutic effects of the individual herbs must be carefully evaluated by well-designed, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled studies involving a significant number of human subjects. Varro E. Tyler (1999) “Phytomedicines: Back to the Future” In Journal of Natural Products Background of the Project The genesis of the idea for this book came from a conversation with my childhood physician, Larry Posner, MD, at a party in September 1998. He told me of his interest in botanicals due to the number of patients he had taking dietary supplements and of the limited knowledge he had of those products. He knew of my work with medicinal herbs and asked me to speak to him in his language regarding the evidence for these herbs. I inquired what language that might be and he replied, “double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trials.” My response was that quite a few studies have been conducted on herbal remedies, probably more than he realized. Thus, the idea of this book was born. Purpose and Scope of the Book This book provides consumers and health professionals with a means to distinguish those herbal products that have the backing of clinical evidence to substantiate claims of efficacy. It includes product descriptions provided largely from label information. In addition, this book describes in detail the trials associated with those products and provides an assessment of the quality of those trials. Only products that have undergone controlled clinical trials are included, as this research design is considered the most persuasive and is generally given the most weight by researchers and practitioners. Many herbal preparations commonly sold on the market are not included in this text, as they have not been subjected to controlled clinical trials. The book lists products, made with 32 herbs and ten formulas, that have been studied in a total of 369 clinical trials. Attempts were made to be systematic and inclusive in gathering products and trials; however, due to the magnitude of the effort and the amount of time required to complete the project, I acknowledge that it is essentially a snapshot—a sampling of the existing products and their clinical trials at the time when we were doing research for the book. It is my hope that this snapshot will assist in the evaluation of the clinical science behind botanical medicine and will help with the evaluation of the evidence for herbal product efficacy. I also hope that this book will help to bridge the gap between herbal medicine and standard Western therapies by using the language of the latter to describe the former. Ultimately it is my desire that this book will assist in establishing an appropriate place for botanical medicine alongside standard Western therapies in the medicine cabinet. The chapters in Part I: Fundamentals of Herbal Medicine provide background as well as context for the product and trial summaries that follow. These chapters provide information on the regulatory status of botanicals in the United States, the characterization and standardization of products, as well as the means to establish bioavailability, efficacy, and safety. Also included is a discussion on the “borrowing” of science from one product to support claims of efficacy for another. In addition, there is a discourse on the motives for conducting trials in the United States and in Europe, particularly in Germany. Finally, a chapter on pharmacopoeial monographs describes what they are and what information they provide. Part II: Methods describes the methods used to gather information on products and clinical studies. It includes the criteria for entry into the book and the means used to evaluate the efficacy of the individual trials. Part III: Botanical Profiles contains information on products and clinical trials. Products are grouped according to the principal botanical ingredient. If the products are multi-ingredient formulas, without a primary ingredient, then they are listed separately. Each botanical section is headed by a summary review of the products and trials. This summary section contains an at-a-glance table listing the products included in that section, the indications addressed by the clinical studies, and the number and quality of those studies. The summary section also includes information from therapeutic monographs with use information for that herb. The summary section is followed by details on the products, which is in turn followed by a detailed account of the clinical trials for each product. Indexes allow for easy access to the product and trial information through the botanical common and scientific names, as well as by product and manufacturer names and therapeutic indication. AckAnckonwowlleeddggmmentesnts This book was a long time in the making, and like many large projects, it has gone through several stages. Many people have given me advice and/or assistance over that time and to mention all of them would be prohibitive. I will therefore mention a few and hope that those whose names do not appear will forgive me. When I embarked on this book, I had only a vague sort of notion as to what it would entail. Initial encouragement from Joerg Gruenwald regarding the idea of this book resulted in a joint attempt to contact U.S. manufacturers. We asked manufacturers if they had products whose efficacy was supported by clinical studies. The scant response revealed to us that itwould not necessarily be easy to obtain this product information and the project was abandoned. However, Dr. Varro (Tip) Tyler approached me regarding a contract with The Haworth Herbal Press in June 1999, starting the process anew. With the assistance of Julie Dennis, we expanded our mailing list and contacted approximately 200 manufacturers, initially asking only for a sign of interest. This time, with the publisher’s name clearly on the letterhead, we got better results. We set out to collect not only those products which had been tested in clinical studies, but also those which had similar specifications. Julie tirelessly collected information on 300 products, designed and established a database for that information, and entered the information into the database. Her enthusiasm and positive attitude were a boon throughout this stage of the project. In the meantime, conversations with Loren Israelsen, Ulrich Mathes, and others revealed to me the complexity of evaluating product equivalency and the issues behind “borrowing” the science for one product to support the efficacy of another. I soon realized that I could include only products that had themselves been tested in clinical trials. However, now I was seven months into the project, had spent most of the generous grant from The Haworth Press, and, in some ways, was starting over. I began to concentrate on the clinical trials themselves: retrieving studies from scientific databases and then specifically contacting manufacturers who made those products. Both Eva Boyd and Eva Dusek helped tremendously with the massive job of identifying and collecting clinical trials as well as entering them into the database. Conversations with Marie Mulligan, MD, and others helped me with ideas regarding the evaluation of the quality of clinical studies. Paramount in these conversations were those methodological qualities required by the medical community for a trial to be considered credible. Thankfully, Tieraona Low Dog, MD, stepped in and designed the checklist used to evaluate the trials. Her guidance was also instrumental in the overall concept and design of the book. With the trials gathered and the checklist in place, I began to send those trials out to MDs for review. I am deeply indebted to all those who reviewed trials, for this is not a quick process. Concurrent with the gathering and evaluation of trials was the writing of Part I of the book, encompassing the fundamentals of herbal medicine. I am indebted to the authors of those chapters for their contributions. In addition, I am grateful to Mitch Bakos for his computer advice and assistance with the database. Also, the advice of Cathirose Petrone, who taught me how to juggle many tasks at the same time with a minimum of stress, was a blessing. Thinking that I had only a few months left before finishing the book, I asked Clea Lopez to assist me. Those several months turned into a year and a half. Clea assisted with just about every aspect of the book during that time. With her help, we again conducted literature searches, looking for trials that had been published since our initial search. Her editing skills were a very pleasant surprise to me, with a wonderful ability to spot where the text needed to be clearer or where I needed to provide additional information. Her excellent editorial advice and attention to detail has made this book a much better one than it would have been without her. EDITOR’S NOTE The purpose of this book is informational. It is not intended as a guide to self-medication or as a substitute for the advice of a health practitioner. The production of this book was partially supported by a grant from The Haworth Press. No monetary assistance was provided by any manufacturer whose product is, or is not, included in the book. This book is not meant to promote any product(s) in particular. The purpose of the book is to examine the scientific data supporting the efficacy of herbal preparations. As therapeutic equivalence of these products has not been proven, examining the clinical evidence cannot be done without profiling individual products. Manufacturers who wish to submit their product(s) for inclusion in future editions of this book should contact the editor via e-mail at or via the Internet at .