"Acknowledging the challenges and opportunities raised by Brexit for the agri-food supply chain and agricultural policies across the UK, this book provides the first in-depth analysis of agricultural policy developments across the UK's four nations rooted in strong theoretical and practical underpinnings. Arguing that the four nations could be more ambitious in departing from the Common Agricultural Policy and extending beyond the 'public money for public goods' approach adopted across the UK, it critiques the core attributes of their policies with focuses including the debate over outcome-based schemes, governance mechanisms, impacts on farm diversity and path dependency on the Common Agricultural Policy and English approaches. It promotes a 'resilient agriculture' paradigm and utilises social-ecological services, net zero, agroecology and agri-food democracy as the main pathways to achieve this. In doing so, it scrutinises the evolving contextual, political and legal landscape within which devolved and UK agricultural policies are developing from a multilevel governance perspective, examining the implications of WTO law for the UK and its devolved administrations to determine environmental, food and animal welfare standards under the GATT, the SPS and TBT Agreements and financial support schemes under the Agreement on Agriculture. The book assesses the significance of the Northern Ireland Protocol, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement with the EU and other free trade agreements for standards across the UK and access to markets. From a domestic perspective, challenges to devolution and the stability of the Union are highlighted. Elements of unilateral recentralisation are visible via financing mechanisms, the UK Internal Market Act and the Agriculture Act"--
Acknowledging the challenges and opportunities raised by Brexit for the agri-food supply chain and agricultural policies across the UK, this book provides the first in-depth analysis of agricultural policy developments across the UK’s four nations rooted in strong theoretical and practical underpinnings. Arguing that the four nations could be more ambitious in departing from the Common Agricultural Policy and extending beyond the ‘public money for public goods’ approach adopted across the UK, it critiques the core attributes of their policies with focuses including the debate over outcome-based schemes, governance mechanisms, impacts on farm diversity and path dependency on the Common Agricultural Policy and English approaches. It promotes a ‘resilient agriculture’ paradigm and utilises social-ecological services, net zero, agroecology and agri-food democracy as the main pathways to achieve this. In doing so, it scrutinises the evolving contextual, political and legal landscape within which devolved and UK agricultural policies are developing from a multilevel governance perspective, examining the implications of WTO law for the UK and its devolved administrations to determine environmental, food and animal welfare standards under the GATT, the SPS and TBT Agreements and financial support schemes under the Agreement on Agriculture. The book assesses the significance of the Northern Ireland Protocol, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement with the EU and other free trade agreements for standards across the UK and access to markets. From a domestic perspective, challenges to devolution and the stability of the Union are highlighted. Elements of unilateral recentralisation are visible via financing mechanisms, the UK Internal Market Act and the Agriculture Act. The book’s interdisciplinary nature makes it of interest to lawyers, political scientists, economists, human geographers and scientists, as well as policy-makers, agricultural communities, civil society organisations and think tanks in the devolved administrations, the UK, the EU and beyond.
This book provides a multidisciplinary analysis of the impact of Brexit on British agriculture and associated areas, discussing the Common Agricultural Policy and the Agriculture Act 2020. The Brexit referendum provoked new debates and questions over the future of agriculture in Britain and the potential positive and negative impacts of Brexit on both farmers and consumers. These debates, as well as the ensuing proposals relevant to the Agriculture Act 2020, have exposed the multidimensional effects of Brexit when it comes to agriculture. With a focus on profitability, the rights of farmers, environmental protection, as well as animal welfare, this book brings together an interdisciplinary analysis of the future of British agriculture in post-Brexit Britain. More specifically, it addresses the criticisms over the Common Agriculture Policy, presents an analysis of the Agriculture Act 2020, and considers suggestions for future developments. Through this analysis, the book suggests a way towards the future, with a positive outlook towards a competitive and sustainable agriculture that will satisfy the needs of farmers and consumers while ensuring environmental protection, animal welfare, and rural development. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of food and agricultural policy and politics, agroecology and rural development, as well as policymakers involved in Britain’s post-Brexit environmental policy.
The decision of the United Kingdom to leave the European Union has raised many questions, including some on the nature of the trading relationship that the United Kingdom will have with the European Union and third countries once it leaves the EU. For agriculture, the United Kingdom will need to develop its own agricultural policy as it will no longer be subject to the Common Agricultural Policy and one constraint on the development of that policy will be the Agreement on Agriculture concluded at the end of the Uruguay Round negotiations. This article examines the three pillars of that Agreement - market access, domestic support and export competition - to determine the commitments which the United Kingdom may make in each pillar and then looks at two other relevant agreements, the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, to complete the discussion of the scope of the United Kingdom's nascent agricultural policy. Thereafter there is a discussion of the possible principles on which that policy will be based. The paper argues that although a great number of questions have been raised by Brexit, not many answers have yet emerged.
Following an introductory discussion of the Treaty provisions on agriculture, this illuminating work examines the four regulations that currently govern the Common Agricultural Policy in the areas of Direct Payments, Rural Development, Finance, and the Common Organisation of the markets and considers their interpretation by the European Courts. It concludes with an astute assessment of the proposals for further reform, which will give Member States greater discretion in fine-tuning the principles of the policy established at European level to the particular characteristics of their agricultural sector.
If Brexit comes to pass, what changes in the United Kingdom legal system will the world face when dealing with the UK? The contributors to this penetrating new collection of studies – a worthy successor to the widely read pre-referendum Britain Alone! – bring a prodigious level of expert scrutiny to the myriad of rami?cations of this hugely complex subject. This book gathers together experts from different ?elds of legal practice and academia, not only to discuss the ongoing negotiations but also – and most valuably – to highlight and address the legal implications of possible scenarios and solutions for a post-Brexit United Kingdom and European Union. With topical chapters based on the Brexit Seminar Series held by the Centre of European Law at King's College London, the contributors address the challenges, options, opportunities, and possibilities that the Brexit process may engender in such areas as the following: – constitutional and administrative law; – the European Economic Area and the European Free Trade Association; – EU State aid; – the Irish border; – the fall-back position of the WTO rules should no agreement be achieved; – banking law, ?nancial services, and capital markets; – debt restructuring and insolvency practice; – environmental issues; – private international law; – tax; – citizenship; – social security; and – residence rights, especially considering women and children. Due to the unprecedented event that Brexit represents, there is an insatiable need for knowledge and technical detail as to its possible legal implications. This book, in its thorough analysis of the ongoing Brexit process and its technical understanding of the meaning of Brexit for several substantive areas of law, offers a solidly grounded and revealing exploration of the future that is particularly enlightening in explaining the challenges that the UK legal order is facing as a consequence of Brexit.
This comprehensive volume explores the political, social, economic and geographical implications of Brexit within the context of an already divided UK state. It demonstrates how support for Brexit not only sharpened differences within England and between the separate nations comprising the UK state, but also reflected how austerity politics, against which the referendum was conducted, impacted differently, with north and south, urban and rural becoming embroiled in the Leave vote. This book explores how, as the process of negotiating the secession of the UK from the EU was to demonstrate, the seemingly intractable problem of the Irish border and the need to maintain a ‘soft border’ provided a continuing obstacle to a smooth transition. The authors in this book also explore various other profound questions that have been raised by Brexit; questions of citizenship, of belonging, of the probable impacts of Brexit for key economic sectors, including agriculture, and its meaning for gender politics. The book also brings to the forefront how the UK was geographically imagined – a new lexicon of ‘left behind places’, ‘citizens of somewhere’ and ‘citizens of nowhere’ conjuring up new imaginations of the spaces and places making up the UK. This book draws out the wider implications of Brexit for a refashioned geography. It was originally published as a special issue of the journal Space and Polity.
EtYIL 2018 comes at a time when multilateralism and its underpinning norms of international law and institutions are under siege. At the same time, in 2018, Africa stood out for upholding multilateralism and international law. From the adoption of the Agreement establishing the African Continental Free Trade Area to the signing of peace agreements that brought to an end two decades of hostilities between Eritrea and Ethiopia, 2018 was indeed a remarkable year for international law in Africa. EtYIL 2018 covers some of these issues, including the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission decisions on jus ad bellum, jus in bello, evidentiary and procedural matters and the role of arbitration in upholding the international rule of law. Such new developments as the lifting of UN sanctions against Eritrea and the agreements signed between Eritrea and Ethiopia are also covered in this volume. The volume further devotes considerable attention to other legal issues including: the use and misuse of European patent law to the detriment of developing countries’ interests, sharing transboundary resources, production sharing agreements on extractives , evolving rules governing economic relations between Africa and the European Union in the context of Brexit, contract-farming in the African cocoa and chocolate industry, the International Criminal Court and human rights law, and cyber-attacks and the role of international law in tackling them. These chapters, authored by experts from Africa, Asia, Europe and North America not only bring new and diverse voices to the international law discourse; they also contribute to EtYIL’s overarching goal of contributing to the effort to rebalance the narrative of international law.
How the WTO deals with regional trade agreements (RTAs) is conceptually and practically one of the most important questions in international trade law. This book clarifies that relationship focussing on one form of regional integration – customs unions – and one form of trade measures – anti-dumping measures. This book answers the question how anti-dumping measures and legislation change if a state is in a customs union as well. In doing so, this book provides a new reasoning why anti-dumping measures are modified in customs unions, as well as a comprehensive overview of how this has happened, a legal analysis on the legality of these changes, and an answer to the question how the different institutional settings have impacted questions of responsibility and attribution. Going beyond this, this book also considers the specific problems that arise in cases of economic integration and disintegration, and finally, the impact forming a customs union has on third parties that may impose anti-dumping measures on states that are members of a customs union.
What are the contemporary challenges faced by property law as we enter the 2nd decade of the 21st century? This collection brings together the research and perspectives of an international body of academics and practitioners to consider these challenges and how even familiar topics must develop to meet new demands and developments. As with previous books in the Modern Studies in Property Law series, this volume adopts a broad approach to topics encompassed by 'property law' in the firm belief that the boundaries that divide are shadowy at best and constantly moving in the endeavour to keep up with what is 'modern'. This collection looks at 5 themes: - Comparative perspectives, including a chapter on grazing and cropping rights in Northern Ireland, and analysis of the anomalies of the English trust law as seen from a civil law perspective; - Taking and alienating property, including a chapter on bankruptcy and the family home; - Modern dilemmas, including chapters on trusts in virtual currency and on smart homes; - Old chestnuts – new challenges, including analysis of the mortgage law reform in Scotland and a chapter on the ouster principle in common law jurisdictions; and - Wills, death and other morbid topics, with chapters on English succession law and the role of knowledge and approval in retrospective assessments of capacity. Unfortunately, the COVID-19 pandemic prevented the 13th biennial conference being held in 2020 as planned but despite this, the authors and co-editors persevered to produce this interesting and diverse collection.