Originally published in 1978 Volume 5 of this Handbook reflects a single theoretical orientation, that characterized by the term human information processing in the literature at the time, but which ranges over a very broad spectrum of cognitive activities. The first two chapters give some overall picture of the background, goals, method, and limitations of the information-processing approach. The remaining chapters treat in detail some principal areas of application – visual processing, mental chronometry, representation of spatial information in memory, problem solving, and the theory of instruction. The first three volumes of the Handbook presented an overview of the field, followed by treatments of conditioning, behavior theory, and human learning and retention. With the fourth volume, the focus of attention shifted from the domain of learning theory to that of cognitive psychology.
Survey researchers have long been aware that the way in which questions are asked determines the obtained responses. However, the exact processes that mediate response effects remained elusive. In the present volume, cognitive psychologists and survey methodologists explore the cognitive processes that underlie respondents' answers to survey questions. The contributors provide an introduction to information processing theories for survey researchers, review current knowledge of response effects in the light of recent theorizing in cognitive psychology, and report a number of experimental studies on question context and question wording. In combination, the chapters provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of response effects in surveys and raise a number of applied and theoretical issues that have so far not been addressed in cognitive psychology.
Originally published in 1988 Applied Cognitive Psychology draws on the psychology of perception, attention, and cognition to give an understanding of some everyday activities and skills. Paul Barber focuses on processes involved in selecting simple actions, face perception, reading, and tasks requiring attention skills. He uses practical problems as starting points for discussion, including mental overloading in air-traffic controllers, cooker-hob design, the use of Photokit/identikit, and reading from computer screens. The book also examines the strengths and limitations of the basic analytical approach of 'information-processing' in psychology. As well as providing a textbook for students of psychology and ergonomics, Applied Cognitive Psychology will still be welcomed by those from other disciplines - management studies, education, sports science - who need to understand skilled behaviour in applied settings.
Memory, perception, and decision in letter identification; Studies of visual information processing in man; Retrieval as a memory modifier: an interpretation of negative recency and related phenomena Memory representations of text.
To the vast majority of academic psychologists in the 1980s, the study of cognition referred to that area of psychology known as ‘cognitive psychology’. The major basis of this area had been the computer metaphor with its accompanying notion of the individual as an information-processing system. Yet within the field the study of cognition is much broader and has a history that reaches into antiquity, whereas ‘cognitive psychology’ as information-processing psychology had only recently become the standard bearer of cognitive studies. One of the purposes of this volume, originally published in 1986, was to articulate some of the fundamental distinctions between and concordances among different orientations concerning the study of cognition. The collection includes chapters on information processing, ecological, Gestalt, physiological, and operant psychology.
This text offers a systematic and accessible presentation of the theoretical foundations of higher mental processes. It addresses both the information processing and the cognitive neuroscience approaches to the field.
Some of the most important issues in cognitive psychology and related disciplines centre around the problem of knowledge aided information processing. This book, dedicated to Professor Friedhart Klix on the occasion of his 60th birthday, contains substantial contributions by eminent psychologists active in research in the USA, and both Eastern and Western Europe. Specific topics covered include: - Knowledge representation and use - Knowledge aided text processing - Hypotheses in information processing - Psychophysiological correlates of cognitive processes. The volume will be of much benefit to cognitive, experimental and physiological psychologists, and specialists in the fields of Artificial Intelligence and psycholinguistics.
Human Information Processing: An Introduction to Psychology, Second Edition, was written to reflect recent developments, as well as anticipate new directions, in this flourishing field. The ideas of human information processing are relevant to all human activities, most especially those of human interactions. The book discusses all the traditional areas and then goes beyond: consciousness, states of awareness, multiple levels of processing (and of awareness), interpersonal communication, emotion, and stress. The book begins with an introduction to some of the more interesting phenomena of perception and poses some of the puzzles faced by those who would attempt to unravel the structures. Separate chapters cover the systems of most interest for human communication: the visual system and the auditory system; the structure of the nervous system; and the systems of memory: sensory information storage, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Subsequent chapters deal with the different aspects of memory, including show how memory is used in thought, in language, and in decision making. Also examined are the neurological basis of memory and the representation of knowledge within memory.
This volume presents a theoretical framework for understanding consciousness and learning. Drawing on work in cognitive psychology and philosophy, this framework begins with the observation that to be conscious is literally to have a point of view. From this starting point, the book develops a descriptive scheme that allows perceptual, symbolic, and emotional awareness to be discussed in common theoretical terms, compatible with a computational view of the mind. A central theme is our experience of ourselves as agents, consciously controlling activities situated in environments. In contrast to previous theories of consciousness, the experienced cognition framework emphasizes the changes in conscious control as individuals acquire skills. The book is divided into four parts. The first introduces the central themes and places them in the context of information-processing theory and empirical research on cognitive skill. The second develops the theoretical framework, emphasizing the unity of perceptual, symbolic, and emotional awareness and the relation of conscious to nonconscious processes. The third applies the experienced cognition framework to a variety of topics in cognitive psychology, including working memory, problem solving, and reasoning. It also includes discussions of everyday action, skill, and expertise, focusing on changes in conscious control with increasing fluency. The last concludes the book by evaluating the recent debate on the "cognitive unconscious" and implicit cognition from the perspective of experienced cognition, and considering the prospects for a cognitive psychology focused on persons. This book addresses many of the issues raised in philosophical treatments of consciousness from the point of view of empirical cognitive psychology. For example, the structure of conscious mental states is addressed by considering how to describe them in terms of variables suitable for information-processing theory. Understanding conscious states in this way also provides a basis for developing empirical hypotheses, for example, about the relation of emotion and cognition, about the apparent "mindlessness" of skilled activity, and about the nature and role of goals in guiding activity. Criticisms of the computational view of mind are addressed by showing that the role of first-person perspectives in cognition can be described and investigated in theoretical terms compatible with a broadly-conceived information-processing theory of cognition.
Nonconscious Social Information Processing presents a research program concerned with the processing of social information. It cannot be considered a typical social psychological research program, however, because it is not aimed at explaining any specific social psychological phenomena, nor are the cognitive processes studied specific to the processing of social information. The program explores complex or ""high level"" processing of information that is not mediated by conscious awareness, and social cognition seems to be an appropriate area in which to investigate this kind of processing. The research program began with observations which suggest that nonconscious acquisition and processing of information play a major role in human development and adjustment. The first two chapters discuss these observations and present preliminary theoretical assumptions. The subsequent chapters contain reports of 34 experiments on nonconscious information processing. The book is addressed not only to personality and social psychologists, but also to cognitive psychologists concerned with information processing in general. The former may find this research relevant because most of the experiments describe some mechanisms of acquisition and utilization of social information—problems they are working on themselves. The latter may want to ignore the specific stimulus material (i.e., social information) employed in most of the experiments and focus on the general nature of the cognitive mechanisms studied.
A great deal of interest and excitement surround the interface between the philosophy of biology and the philosophy of psychology, yet the area is neither well defined nor well represented in mainstream philosophical publications. This book is perhaps the first to open a dialogue between the two disciplines. Its aim is to broaden the traditional subject matter of the philosophy of biology while informing the philosophy of psychology of relevant biological constraints and insights.The book is organized around six themes: functions and teleology, evolutionary psychology, innateness, philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and parallels between philosophy of biology and philosophy of mind. Throughout, one finds overlapping areas of study, larger philosophical implications, and even larger conceptual ties. Woven through these connections are shared concerns about the status of semantics, scientific law, evolution and adaptation, and cognition in general. Contributors André Ariew, Mark A. Bedau, David J. Buller, Paul Sheldon Davies, Stephen M. Downes, Charbel Niño El-Hani, Owen Flanagan, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Todd Grantham, Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Gary Hatfield, Daniel W. McShea, Karen Neander, Shaun Nichols, Antonio Marcos Pereira, Tom Polger, Lawrence A. Shapiro, Kim Sterelny, Robert A. Wilson, William C. Wimsatt
Gale Researcher Guide for: Cognitive Psychology is selected from Gale's academic platform Gale Researcher. These study guides provide peer-reviewed articles that allow students early success in finding scholarly materials and to gain the confidence and vocabulary needed to pursue deeper research.
Measurement and analysis of eye movements are two of the most powerful ways to study the workings of the human mind. This Special Issue on eye movements and information processing in reading presents an overview of experimental research based on this methodology. Eye movements provide a unique opportunity to examine principles of human information processing in a well-structured visual environment while people engage in a natural cognitive task. At the same time, oculomotor measures can be used as a tool to develop and test psycholinguistic hypotheses about the processing of written language. The papers in this issue contribute to both aspects, addressing issues that dominate current debates in the field. Seen from the angle of visual information processing, a major theme is the role played by parafoveal information for different types and levels of processing and for oculomotor control in reading. This includes effects of visual and linguistic word properties on the selection of words for fixation and the specification of saccade amplitudes. Clearly the most controversial question in this context concerns the allocation of attention, with positions ranging from a sequentially moving spotlight to a gradient of spatially distributed processing. Related to this is the issue of serial vs. parallel word processing and the fundamental question as to what extent the duration of fixations in reading is related to lexical processing. Taking a psycholinguistic perspective, the topics addressed include several levels of language processing from orthography to pragmatic information in sentence reading. New approaches to the study of morphologically complex words are reported, together with novel work revealing the complex nature of the apparently accessible, but elusive, concept of word frequency. Other papers reflect current theoretical discussions centered on the development of computational models of the reading process and contribute to the empirical base of these discussions. Taken together, this collection of papers, supplemented by an introduction to the field and a commentary on major issues, presents a comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on a research area currently characterised by numerous theoretical and empirical disputes. The papers will be of particular appeal to readers interested in basic and applied psycholinguistics, attention and visual perception, motor control and the modelling of complex cognitive processes.
Originally published in 1980, this title came about after many late night discussions between the authors during a 3-week workshop on Mathematical Approaches to Person Perception in 1974. In subsequent meetings a mutual interest emerged in the development of cognitive information processing metaphors for human thought and their application to problems of social perception, memory and judgment. Within the context of modern research on social cognition, the most distinctive aspects of the authors’ work was its empirical focus on how people cognitively represent people in memory, and its theoretical emphasis on models of cognitive organization and process. They concluded that an adequate theory of social memory was the necessary foundation for solutions to many questions concerning social perception and judgment that had dominated the 1974 workshop. This volume summarizes work conducted between 1974 and 1979 on social memory by these authors. In addition to six chapters summarizing individual research programs, the volume includes a general introduction and a concluding theoretical integration.
This volume presents different perspectives on a dual model of impression formation -- a theory about how people form impressions about other people by combining information about a person with prior knowledge found in long-term memory. This information is of real importance to graduate students and advanced undergraduates in cognitive and social psychology, experimental psychology, social cognition and perception. Each volume in the series will contain a target article on a recent theoretical development pertinent to current study followed by critical commentaries offering varying theoretical viewpoints. This productive dialogue concludes with a reply by the target article author. The first volume of the series presents an evaluation of theoretical advances in social cognition and information processing from new and different perspectives. Volume 2 presents a new conceptualization of personality and social cognition by Cantor and Kihlstrom which addresses both new and old issues. The volumes in this series will interest and enlighten graduate and advanced undergraduates in cognitive and social psychology, experimental psychology, social cognition and perception. The first volume of the series presents an evaluation of theoretical advances in social cognition and information processing from new and different perspectives. Each volume in the series will contain a target article on a recent theoretical development pertinent to current study followed by critical commentaries offering varying theoretical viewpoints. This productive dialog concludes with a reply by the target article author. The information provided in Volume 1 promises to enrich graduate and advanced undergraduates in cognitive and social psychology, experimental psychology, social cognition and perception. This first volume of the series evaluates the theoretical advances made in social cognition and information processing from new and different perspectives. This unique and lively interchange between the target article author and the critics will enrich and enlighten psychologists from many disciplines. Each volume in the series will contain a target article on a recent theoretical development pertinent to current study followed by critical commentaries offering varying theoretical viewpoints. This productive dialog concludes with a reply by the target article author. The first volume of the series presents an evaluation of theoretical advances in social cognition and information processing from new and different perspectives. Volume 2 presents a new conceptualization of personality and social cognition by Cantor and Kihlstrom which addresses both new and old issues. All volumes in this series will interest and enlighten graduate and advanced undergraduates in cognitive and social psychology, experimental psychology, social cognition and perception.