The last two years have witnessed a continuation in the breakthrough shift toward pulse tube cryocoolers for long-life, high-reliability cryocooler applications. New this year are papers de scribing the development of very large pulse tube cryocoolers to provide up to 1500 watts of cooling for industrial applications such as cooling the superconducting magnets of Mag-lev trains, coolmg superconducting cables for the power mdustry, and liquefymg natural gas. Pulse tube coolers can be driven by several competing compressor technologies. One class of pulse tube coolers is referred to as "Stirling type" because they are based on the linear Oxford Stirling-cooler type compressor; these generally provide coolmg m the 30 to 100 K temperature range and operate ^t frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. A second type of pulse tube cooler is the so-called "Gifford-McMahon type. " Pulse tube coolers of this type use a G-M type compressor and lower frequency operation (~1 Hz) to achieve temperatures in the 2 to 10 K temperature range. The third type of pulse tube cooler is driven by a thermoacoustic oscillator, a heat engine that functions well in remote environments where electricity is not readily available. All three types are described, and in total, nearly half of this proceedings covers new developments in the pulse tube arena. Complementing the work on low-temperature pulse tube and Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers is substantial continued progress on rare earth regenerator materials.
This book is the first in English being entirely dedicated to Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling. The category of Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers takes us back to the roots of cryogenics, in 1895, with figures like Linde and Hampson. The "cold finger" of these cryocoolers is compact, lacks moving parts, and sustains a large heat flux extraction at a steady temperature. Potentially, they cool down unbeatably fast. For example, cooling to below 100 K (minus 173 Celsius) might be accomplished within only a few seconds by liquefying argon. A level of about 120 K can be reached almost instantly with krypton. Indeed, the species of coolant plays a central role dictating the size, the intensity and the level of cryocooling. It is the JT effect that drives these cryocoolers and reflects the deviation of the "real" gas from the ideal gas properties. The nine chapters of the book are arranged in five parts. •The Common Principle of Cyrocoolers shared across the broad variety of cryocooler types •Theoretical Aspects: the JT effect and its inversion, cooling potential of coolants, the liquefaction process, sizing of heat exchangers, level of pressurization, discharge of pressure vessels • Practical Aspects: modes of operation (fast cooldown, continuous, multi-staging, hybrid cryocoolers), pressure sources, configuration, construction and technologies, flow adjustment, MEMS, open and closed cycle, cooldown process and similarity, transient behavior • Mixed Coolant cryocooling: theory, practice and applications • Special Topics: real gas choked flow rates, gas purity, clog formation, optimal fixed orifice, modeling, cryosurgical devices, warming by the inverse JT effect The theoretical aspects may be of interest not only to those working with cryocoolers but also for others with a general interest in "real" gas thermodynamics, such as, for example, the inversion of the JT effect in its differential and integral forms, and the exceptional behavior of the quantum gases. A detailed list of references for each chapter comprises a broad literature survey. It consists of more than 1,200 relevant publications and 450 related patents. The systematically organized content, arranged under a thorough hierarchy of headings, supported by 227 figures and 41 tables, and accompanied by various chronological notes of evolution, enables readers a friendly interaction with the book. Dr. Ben-Zion Maytal is a Senior Researcher at Rafael-Advanced Defense Systems, Ltd., and an Adjunct Senior Teaching Fellow at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. Prof. John M. Pfotenhauer holds a joint appointment in the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Physics at the University of Wisconsin - Madison.
The last few years have witnessed a substantial maturing of long life Stirling-cycle cryocoolers built upon the heritage of the flexure-bearing cryocoolers from Oxford University, and have seen the emergence of mature pulse tube cryocoolers competing head-to-head with the Stirling cryocoolers. Hydrogen sorption cryocoolers, Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers with rare earth regenerators, and helium Joule-Thomson cryocoolers have also made tremendous progress in opening up applications in the 4 K to 10 K temperature range. Tactical Stirling cryocoolers, now commonplace in the defense industry, are finding application in a number of cost constrained commercial applications and space missions, and are achieving ever longer lives as they move to linear-drive, clearance-seal compressors. Building on this expanding availability of commercially viable cryocoolers, numerous new applications are being enabled; many of these involve infrared imaging systems, and high temperature superconductors in the medical and communications fields. The vibration sensitivity of many of the infrared and medical imaging applications has led to the recognition that cryocooler-generated vibration and EMI is a critical performance parameter for these applications. In response, advanced closed-loop active vibration control systems have been developed and are being delivered to their first users. Application experiments, designed to explore, troubleshoot and resolve product integration issues, are occurring on an ever widening front, particularly in the fields of infrared imaging and spectroscopy, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and high-temperature superconductor applications. An important lesson is that integrating cryogenic systems requires care and thoughtfulness in a broad range of engineering and scientific disciplines.
Proceedings of the International Workshop, Kashiwa, Japan, 22-24 February 2006
Author: Junji Hisano
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Cosmic rays
The existence of materials with very high specific energies greatly exceeding the local virial temperature is best represented by cosmic rays, whose origin has long been a mystery. Recent astrophysical observations in X-ray, gamma-ray, neutrino, and high energy cosmic ray experiments, in conjunction with theoretical studies, have revealed various new aspects of the high energy universe, including promising candidates for cosmic ray acceleration sites. As each approach has its own advantages and limitations, it is expected that joint efforts by experimentalists and theorists in various related fields are essential. The contributions in this volume include observation of the universe through a wide range of techniques for detecting cosmic rays, neutrinos, X-rays and gamma-rays, as well as theoretical considerations in understanding their nature and astrophysical aspects.
The development and application of cryocoolers - small cryogenic refrigerators designed to provide localized cooling at cryogenic temperatures - is expanding at an ever increasing rate. Small, highly portable cryocoolers are serving growing numbers of advanced infrared sensor and viewing systems; others provide cooling for medical applications, laboratory experiments, vacuum cryopumps, and advanced radio-frequency devices. Long-life spacecraft cooling for space infrared and gamma-ray instruments is a growing field, as is serving the expanding high-temperature superconductor community, and the emerging field of cryogenic cooling of computer systems. Composed of papers written by leading engineers and scientists in the field, Cryocoolers 12 reports the most recent advances in cryocooler development, contains extensive performance test results and comparisons, and relates the latest experience in integrating cryocoolers into advanced applications. The contributions contained in Cryocoolers 12 will be a valuable asset for researchers, product designers, and development engineers associated with the design and application of cryocoolers to the ever expanding number of military, space, semiconductor, medical, computing, and high-temperature superconductor cryogenic applications.
Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 2014 International Conference on Measurement, Instrumentation and Automation (ICMIA 2014), April 23-24, 2014, Shanghai, China. The 380 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Measurement Science, Methods and Techniques of Measurements, Chapter 2: Signal Acquisition and Data Processing Techniques, Chapter 3: Research and Design of Measurement Instruments, Chapter 4: Sensors Technology, Chapter 5: Image and Video Processing, Chapter 6: Artificial Intelligence, Optimization Algorithms and Computational Mathematics, Chapter 7: Mechatronics and Robotics, Chapter 8: Control and Automation of Industrial Objects, Chapter 9: Electronics, Integrated Systems and Power Electronics, Chapter 10: Communications Technology, Chapter 11: Computer Networks and Security, Chapter 12: Software Development and Application, Chapter 13: Computer and Information Technologies, Chapter 14: Materials, Mechanical Engineering and Manufacturing, Chapter 15: Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Chapter 16: Power Engineering, Chapter 17: Transportation, Chapter 18: Biomaterials and Sports Mechanics, Chapter 19: Engineering Education and Engineering Management
Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience and others. Here is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, medical acoustics and ocean acoustics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest research and applications are incorporated throughout, e.g. computer recognition and synthesis of speech, physiological acoustics, psychological acoustics, thermoacoustics, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications and acoustical oceanography. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations and two new chapters covering microphone arrays, acoustic metamaterials and acoustic emission. These improvements will make the handbook even more useful as a reference and a guide for researchers and students in every branch of acoustics. Praise for the first edition: "This treatise is a successful attempt to cover in one book the diverse field of acoustics, which ranges from physics to music and from formal mathematics to technological applications. ... It is this reviewer's opinion that a handbook like Rossing's, which covers the whole field of acoustics, serves a real purpose because it not only gives one a chance to see how one's specialty is covered but it also permits one to make a quick survey of other acoustical areas." (Leo Beranek, American Journal of Physics, Vol. 77 (12), December, 2009) "The Springer Handbook of Acoustics falls into that exceptional list. ...every physics department should have a copy available." (John L. Hubisz, The Physics Teacher, Vol. 48, March, 2010) "This handbook is an excellent addition to the acoustics literature. ... The handbook nicely covers both basics and advances in several areas of acoustics. Several chapters provide good mathematical depth, making the handbook useful as a research and technical resource. ...Overall, a very useful educational and research resource. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals." (M. G. Prasad, CHOICE, Vol. 45 (5), January, 2008) "This book covers a wide range of topics and the inclusion of musical acoustics, computer and electronic music appeal to me (singer, song-writer, performer and recording studio co-owner). This handbook is probably well suited for an undergraduate-level introduction to an acoustics course. ... The wide range of topics, inclusion of music-related chapters, eye-pleasing presentations and other useful features make this a very good book to have on your shelf." (Tim Casey, International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, Vol. 13 (1), 2008) "The Springer Handbook of Acoustics comprises 28 chapters written by 33 authors. The Handbook of Acoustics is useful as a source book for anyone who needs or wants to become familiar with the jargon and issues related to a specific subfield of acoustics ... ." (Robert I. Odom, Siam Review, Vol. 50 (3), 2008) The Springer Handbook of Acoustics reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest research and applications are incorporated throughout, e.g. computer recognition and synthesis of speech, physiological acoustics, psychological acoustics, thermoacoustics, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications and acoustical oceanography. This new edition of the Handbook features over 13 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations and 3 new chapters covering microphone arrays, acoustic metamaterials and acoustic emission. These improvements will make the handbook even more useful as a reference and a guide for researchers and students in every branch of acoustics.
This book serves as an introduction to cryocooler technology and describes the principle applications of cryocoolers across a broad range of fields. It covers the specific requirements of these applications, and describes how the advantages and disadvantages of different cryocooler systems are taken into consideration. For example, Stirling coolers tend to be used only in space applications because of their high coefficient of performance, low weight and proven reliability, whilst Gifford-McMahon coolers are used for ground applications, such as in cryopumps and MRI shield cooling applications. Joule-Thomson cryocoolers are used in missile technology because of the fast cool down requirements. The cryocooler field is fast developing and the number of applications are growing because of the increasing costs of the cryogens such as Helium and Neon. The first chapter of the book introduces the different types of cryocoolers, their classification, working principles, and their design aspects, and briefly mentions some of the applications of these systems. This introductory chapter is followed by a number of contributions from prominent international researchers, each describing a specific field of application, the cooling requirements and the cryocooler systems employed. These areas of application include gas liquefaction, space technology, medical science, dilution refrigerators, missile systems, and physics research including particle accelerators. Each chapter describes the cooling requirements based on the end use, the approximate cooling load calculations, the criteria for cryocooler selection, the arrangement for cryocooler placement, the connection of the cooler to the object to be cooled, and includes genuine case studies. Intended primarily for researchers working on cryocoolers, the book will also serve as an introduction to cryocooler technology for students, and a useful reference for those using cryocooler systems in any area of application.
Composed of papers written by leading engineers and scientists in the field, this valuable collection reports the most recent advances in cryocooler development, contains extensive performance test results and comparisons, and relates the latest experience in integrating cryocoolers into advanced applications.
In recent years, the technology of cryogenic comminution has been widely applied in the field of chemical engineering, food making, medicine production, and particularly in recycling of waste materials. Because of the increasing pollution of waste tires and the shortage of raw rubber resource, the recycling process for waste rubber products has become important and commercially viable. This technology has shown a great number of advantages such as causing no environmental pollution, requiring low energy consumption and producing high quality products. Hence, the normal crusher which was used to reclaim materials, such as waste tires, nylon, plastic and many polymer materials at atmospheric 12 temperature is being replaced by a cryogenic crusher. • In the cryogenic crusher, the property of the milled material is usually very sensitive to temperature change. When a crusher is in operation, it will generate a great deal of heat that causes the material temperature increased. Once the temperature increases over the vitrification temperature, the material property will change and lose the brittle behavior causing the energy consumption to rise sharply. Consequently, the comminution process cannot be continued. Therefore, it is believed that the cryogenic crusher is the most critical component in the cryogenic comminution system. The research on the temperature increase and energy consumption in the cryogenic crusher is not only to reduce the energy consumption of the crasher, but also to reduce the energy consumption of the cryogenic system.