Written by experts, Digital Terrain Modeling: Principles and Methodology provides comprehensive coverage of recent developments in the field. The topics include terrain analysis, sampling strategy, acquisition methodology, surface modeling principles, triangulation algorithms, interpolation techniques, on-line and off-line quality control in data acquisition, DTM accuracy assessment and mathematical models for DTM accuracy prediction, multi-scale representation, data management, contouring, visual analysis (or visualization), the derivation of various types of terrain parameters, and future development and applications.
Development and Applications in a Policy Support Environment
Author: Robert Joseph Peckham
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This publication is the first book on the development and application of digital terrain modeling for regional planning and policy support. It is a compilation of research results by international research groups at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, providing scientific support to the development and implementation of EU environmental policy. This practice-oriented book is recommended reading for practising environmental modelers and GIS experts working on regional planning and policy support applications.
Here's the first truly comprehensive guide to digital terrain modeling that provides you with a thorough, mathematically rigorous treatment of DTM generation, manipulation, and analysis techniques and applications in a single volume. It describes photogrammetric data capture, direct georeferencing systems, LIDAR, IFSAR and other data acquisition techniques, and explains how to determine the most appropriate DTM generation technique for any given project. You find a detailed treatment of DTM data structures, including storage and compression techniques for gridded data, as well as data filtering and smoothing procedures.
Digital terrain modeling has been a research area for more than 40 years in geo-sciences and has become a rather self-contained subject. Digital Terrain Modeling: Principles and Methodology is the only authored book to provide comprehensive coverage of recent developments in the field. The topics include terrain analysis, sampling strategy, acquisition methodology, surface modeling principles, triangulation algorithms, interpolation techniques, on-line and off-line quality control in data acquisition, DTM accuracy assessment and mathematical models for DTM accuracy prediction, multi-scale representation, data management, contouring, visual analysis (or visualization), the derivation of various types of terrain parameters, and future development and applications.
Terrain analysis has attracted research studies from geographers, surveyors, engineers and computer scientists. The contributions in this book represent the state-of-the-art of terrain analysis methods and techniques in areas of digital representation, morphological and hydrological models, uncertainty and applications of terrain analysis. The book will appeal to postgraduate and senior undergraduate students who take advanced courses in GIS and geographical analysis.
A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface topography or terrain. It is also widely known as a digital terrain model (DTM). A DEM can be represented as a raster (a grid of squares) or as a vector based triangular irregular network (TIN). DEMs are commonly built using remote sensing techniques, but they may also be built from land surveying. DEMs are used often in geographic information systems, and are the most common basis for digitally-produced relief maps. The terrain surface can be described as compromising of two different elements; random and systematic. The random (stochastic) elements are the continuous surfaces with continuously varying relief. It would take an endless number of points to describe exactly the random terrain shapes, but these can be described in practice with a network of point. It is usual to use a network that creates sloping triangles or regular quadrants. This book examines how the methods and data sources used to generate DEMs and calculate land surface parameters have changed over the past 25 years. The primary goal is to describe the state-of-the-art for a typical digital terrain modeling workflow that starts with data capture, continues with data preprocessing and DEM generation, and concludes with the calculation of one or more primary and secondary land surface parameters. Taken as a whole, this book covers the basic theory behind the methods, the instrumentation, analysis and interpretation that are embedded in the modern digital terrain modeling workflow, the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods that the terrain analyst must choose among, typical applications of the results emanating from these terrain modeling workflows, and future directions. This book is intended for researchers and practitioners who wish to use DEMs, land surface parameters, land surface objects and landforms in environmental projects. The book will also be valuable as a reference text for environmental scientists who are specialists in related fields and wish to integrate these kinds of digital terrain workflows and outputs into their own specialized work environments.
With the rapid urbanization, timely and comprehensive urban thematic and topographic information is highly needed. Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), as one of unique urban topographic information, directly affect subsequent urban applications such as smart cities, urban microclimate studies, emergency and disaster management. Therefore, both the accuracy and resolution of DTMs define the quality of consequent tasks. Current workflows for DTM extraction vary in accuracy and resolution due to the complexity of terrain and off-terrain objects. Traditional filters, which rely on certain assumptions of surface morphology, insufficiently generalize complex terrain. Recent development in semantic labeling of point clouds has shed light on this problem. Under the semantic labeling context, DTM extraction can be viewed as a binary classification task. This study aims at developing a workflow for automated point-wise DTM extraction from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds using a transfer-learning approach on ResNet. The workflow consists of three parts: feature image generation, transfer learning using ResNet, and accuracy assessment. First, each point is transformed into a feature image based on its elevation differences with neighbouring points. Then, the feature images are classified into ground and non-ground using ResNet models. The ground points are extracted by remapping each feature image to its corresponding points. Lastly, the proposed workflow is compared with two traditional filters, namely the Progressive Morphological Filter (PMF) and the Progress TIN Densification (PTD). Results show that the proposed workflow establishes an advantageous accuracy of DTM extraction, which yields only 0.522% Type I error, 4.84% Type II error and 2.43% total error. In comparison, Type I, Type II and total error for PMF are 7.82%, 11.6%, and 9.48%, for PTD are 1.55%, 5.37%, and 3.22%, respectively. The root mean squared error of interpolated DTM of 1 m resolution is only 7.3 cm. Moreover, the use of pre-trained weights largely accelerated the training process and enabled the network to reach unprecedented accuracy even on a small amount of training set. Qualitative analysis is further conducted to investigate the reliability and limitations of the proposed workflow.
Digital terrain models (DTMs) are three-dimensional (3D) models of the ground surface showing natural features such as ridges and breaklines. The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Synthesis 560: Practices for Construction-Ready Digital Terrain Models documents processes and strategies used by state departments of transportation (DOTs) for the use and transfer of DTMs from design into the construction phase of highway projects.
This DE Users Manual is designed to help potential users of digital elevation data understand and articulate their requirements in a way that their expectations are satisfied. if you have a dream that DEM's can help you do a better job, or you need to know more about DEM technologies and applications then this manual is for you.
"This book is the first attempt to synthesize knowledge on theory, methods, and applications of digital terrain analysis in the context of multiscale problems of soil science and geology. The content of the book is based on long-standing, interdisciplinary research of the author. The book is addressed to geomorphometrists, soil scientists, geologists, geoscientists, geomorphologists, geographers, and GIS scientists (at scholar, lecturer, and postgraduate student levels, with mathematical skills). This book is also intended for the GIS professionals in industry and research laboratories focusing on geoscientific and soil research. The book is divided into three parts. Part I represents main concepts, principles, and methods of digital terrain modeling. Part II discusses various aspects of the use of digital terrain analysis in soil science. Part III looks at applications of digital terrain modeling in geology"--
The only reference on the use of GIS and related technologies in terrain analysis In this landmark publication, reflecting the collaborative effort of thirteen research groups based in four countries, leading experts detail how GIS and related technologies, such as GPS and remote sensing, are now being used, with the aid of computer modeling, in terrain analysis. Continuing the innovative work of Professor Ian Moore, a visionary who saw terrain analysis as a robust method for modeling the large areas and complex spatial patterns of environmental systems, Terrain Analysis puts into action TAPES, or Terrain Analysis Programs for Environmental Sciences, Dr. Moore's innovative tool for terrain analysis. The book's contributors describe how TAPES are applied to specific geomorphologic problems, explain the algorithms used in current terrain analysis software, and examine the interpretation and use of terrain attributes in predictive models. With expert coverage of terrain analysis in the digital age, Terrain Analysis will be welcomed by ecologists, environmental engineers, geographers, and hydrologists who increasingly depend on GIS, GPS, and remote sensing.