Climate Physics involves understanding the structure and behaviour of the atmosphere and ocean, the principles of global measurement systems using remote sensing from space, and the elements of computer models, which make quantitative studies and predictions possible. This introductory course aims to clarify the basic mechanisms controlling climate, to apply relatively simple physics to the problem of climate change, and to provide a foundation for more advanced work.
Our current climate is strongly influenced by atmospheric composition, and changes in this composition are leading to climate change. Physics of Radiation and Climate takes a look at how the outward flow of longwave or terrestrial radiation is affected by the complexities of the atmosphere’s molecular spectroscopy. This book examines the planet in its current state and considers the radiation fluxes, including multiple scattering, photochemistry, and the ozone layer, and their impact on our climate overall. Starting from the physical fundamentals of how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the various components of the Earth’s atmosphere, the book covers the essential radiation physics leading to the radiative transfer equation. The book then develops the central physics of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and gases and particles: absorption, emission, and scattering. It examines the physics that describes the absorption and emission of radiation, using quantum mechanics, and scattering, using electromagnetism. It also dedicates a detailed chapter to aerosols, now recognized as a key factor of climate change. Written to be used for a first course in climate physics or a physics elective, the text contains case studies, sample problems, and an extensive reference list as a guide for further research. In addition, the authors: Provide a complete derivation of molecular spectroscopy from quantum mechanical first principles Present a formal derivation of the scattering of radiation by molecules and particles Include the latest results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) Physics of Radiation and Climate shows how radiation measurements are used to aid our understanding of weather and climate change and provides an introduction to the atmosphere. This book covers the key branches of physics with a specific focus on thermodynamics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics.
A quantitative introduction to the Earth's atmosphere for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate students, with an emphasis on underlying physical principles. This edition has been brought completely up-to-date, and now includes a new chapter on the physics of climate change which builds upon material introduced in earlier chapters, giving the student a broad understanding of some of the physical concepts underlying this most important and topical subject. In contrast to many other books on atmospheric science, the emphasis is on the underlying physics. Atmospheric applications are developed mainly in the problems given at the end of each chapter. The book is an essential resource for all students of atmospheric physics as part of an atmospheric science, meteorology, physics, Earth science, planetary science, or applied mathematics course.
Physics and the Environment directly connects the physical world to environmental issues that the world is facing today and will face in the future. It shows how the first and second laws of thermodynamics limit the efficiencies of fossil fuel energy conversions to less than 100%, while also discussing how clever technologies can enhance overall performance. It also extensively discusses renewable forms of energy, their physical constraints and how we must use science and engineering as tools to solve problems instead of opinion and politics. Dr. Kyle Forinash takes you on a journey of understanding our mature and well developed technologies for using fossil fuel resources and how we are unlikely to see huge gains in their efficiency as well as why their role in climate change ought to be an argument for their replacement sooner rather than later. He also discusses the newest technologies in employing renewable resources and how it is important to understand their physical constrains in order to make a smooth transition to them. An entire chapter is dedicated to energy storage, a core question in renewable energy as well as another chapter on the technical issues of nuclear energy. The book ends with a discussion on how no environmental solution, no matter how clever from a technical aspect, will succeed if there are cheaper alternative, even if those alternatives have undesirable features associated with them.
This book starts with the big picture, relating Einstein's famous mass-energy formula E = mc2 to the global climate; and then proceeds to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere, from the synoptic scale through to the microscale, including the interaction of living things with their environment. It covers a range of topics from the laboratory to the field, including the analysis of thermodynamic diagrams and dispersion of pollutants, simple micrometeorological experiments on a sports field, as well as a detailed study on the measurement of carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and tropical rainforests.Straightforward, simple models and short arguments are used wherever possible to promote physical understanding, for example, in the discussion of the greenhouse effect. The aim is to bring the reader to the point where he or she is able to understand and analyze weather charts in daily use around the world; obtain an appreciation of current experimental techniques; and also make informed, quantitative estimates in relation to current issues surrounding the current debate on climate change.
The extraordinary growth and development of atmospheric sciences during the last dec ades, and the concern for certain applied problems, such as those related to the environ ment, have prompted the introduction of college and university courses in this field. There is consequently a need for good textbooks. A few appropriate books have appeared in the last few years, aimed at a variety of levels and having different orientations. Most of them are of rather limited scope; in par ticular, a number of them are restricted to the field of dynamics and its meteorological applications. There is still a need for an elementary, yet comprehensive, survey of the terrestrial atmosphere. This short volume attempts to fill that need. This book is intended as a textbook that can be used for a university course at a second or third year level. It requires only elementary mathematics and such knowledge of physics as should be acquired in most first-year general physicS courses. It may serve in two ways. A general review of the field is provided for students who work or plan to work in other fields (such as geophysics, geography, environmental sciences, space research), but are interested in acquiring general information; at the same time, it may serve as a general and elementary introduction for students who will later specialize in some area of atmospheric science.
Energy Science: Principles, Technologies, and Impacts enables the reader to evaluate the key sources of energy available to us today on the basis of sound, quantitative understanding. Covering renewable, fossil fuel, and nuclear energy sources, the book relates the science behind these sources to the environmental and socioeconomic issues which surround their use to provide a balanced, objective overview. It also explores the practicalities of energy generation, storage, and transmission, to build a complete picture of energy supply, from wind turbines, nuclear reactors, or hydroelectric dams, to our homes.
This clear and accessible text describes the methods underlying short-term climate prediction at time scales of 2 weeks to a year. Although a difficult range to forecast accurately, there have been several important advances in the last ten years, most notably in understanding ocean-atmosphere interaction (El Nino for example), the release of global coverage data sets, and in prediction methods themselves. With an emphasis on the empirical approach, the text covers in detail empirical wave propagation, teleconnections, empirical orthogonal functions, and constructed analogue. It also provides a detailed description of nearly all methods used operationally in long-lead seasonal forecasts, with new examples and illustrations. The challenges of making a real time forecast are discussed, including protocol, format, and perceptions about users. Based where possible on global data sets, illustrations are not limited to the Northern Hemisphere, but include several examples from the Southern Hemisphere.
This book covers the basic physics of planetary atmospheres, providing an overview, followed by detailed discussion of key topics arranged by physical phenomenon. The emphasis is on acquiring and interpreting measurements, and the basic physics of instruments and models, with key definitions and historical notes given in the footnotes and glossary.