In the summer of 1803, Thomas Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on a journey to establish an American presence in a land of unqualified natural resources and riches. Is it fitting that, on the 200th anniversary of that expedition, the United States, together with international partners, should embark on another journey of exploration in a vastly more extensive region of remarkable potential for discovery. Although the oceans cover more than 70 percent of our planetâ€™s surface, much of the ocean has been investigated in only a cursory sense, and many areas have not been investigated at all. Exploration of the Seas assesses the feasibility and potential value of implementing a major, coordinated, international program of ocean exploration and discovery. The study committee surveys national and international ocean programs and strategies for cooperation between governments, institutions, and ocean scientists and explorers, identifying strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in these activities. Based primarily on existing documents, the committee summarizes priority areas for ocean research and exploration and examines existing plans for advancing ocean exploration and knowledge.
This book is about exploration for oil and gas and focuses particularly on seismic exploration in the hunt for hydrocarbons. The first part, "The Hunt for Hydrocarbons," gives general background informa tion, with an introductory chapter on the beginnings of the oil business followed by three chapters that in clude elements of petroleum geology, geophysical methods, and drilling and logging. The second part, "Seismic Exploration for Hydrocarbons," consists of two chapters that describe rudiments of the seismic method and velocity measurements; two chapters dis cussing theory based on wave propagation and the convolutional model; and a chapter devoted to each of the three phases of seismic exploration: acquisi tion, processing, and interpretation. I have concen trated on seismic exploration because most of the oil and gas that has been found has been located by this method, and it is the only method that has the poten tial for the increased precision needed in what Hal bouty (1982) calls "the deliberate search for the subtle trap. " In contrast to elementary and introductory books that present the seismic method superficially and qualitatively, this book develops the method quanti tatively, using only elementary mathematics (algebra and trigonometry), so that readers should be able to do things afterwards that they couldn't do before, and thereby get a deeper appreciation of the business of hunting for hydrocarbons. The book also probes into some sophisticated topics that wouldn't be mentioned IX x use in short courses at a variety of levels.
11th European Conference, EvoCOP 2011, Torino, Italy, April 27-29, 2011, Proceedings
Author: Peter Merz
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization, EvoCOP 2011, held in Torino, Italy, in April 2011. The 22 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 42 submissions. The papers present the latest research and discuss current developments and applications in metaheuristics - a paradigm to effectively solve difficult combinatorial optimization problems appearing in various industrial, economical, and scientific domains. Prominent examples of metaheuristics are evolutionary algorithms, simulated annealing, tabu search, scatter search, memetic algorithms, variable neighborhood search, iterated local search, greedy randomized adaptive search procedures, estimation of distribution algorithms, and ant colony optimization.
Focusing on Fritz Machlup, Connell presents the story of the Bellagio Group and its contribution to modern finance. Initiated by Machlup the Bellagio Group was made up of thirty-two non-government academic economists. During the years between 1964 and 1977 the Group met eighteen times and made a series of recommendations for policymakers.
Contains all the formal opinions and accompanying orders of the Federal Power Commission ... In addition to the formal opinions, there have been included intermediate decisions which have become final and selected orders of the Commission issued during such period.
Play is a paradox. Why would the young of so many species--the very animals at greatest risk for injury and predation--devote so much time and energy to an activity that by definition has no immediate purpose? This question has long puzzled students of animal behavior, and has been the focus of considerable empirical investigation and debate. In this first comprehensive and state-of-the-art review of what we have learned from decades of research on exploration and play in children and animals, Power examines the paradox from all angles. Covering solitary activity as well as play with peers, siblings, and parents, he considers the nature, development, and functions of play, as well as the gender differences in early play patterns. A major purpose is to explore the relevance of the animal literature for understanding human behavior. The nature and amount of children's play varies significantly across cultures, so the author makes cross-cultural comparisons wherever possible. The scope is broad and the range multidisciplinary. He draws on studies by developmental researchers in psychology and other fields, ethologists, anthropologists, sociologists, sociolinguists, early childhood educators, and pediatricians. And he places research on play in the context of research on such related phenomena as prosocial behavior and aggression. Finally, Power points out directions for further inquiry and implications for those who work with young children and their parents. Researchers and students will find Play and Exploration in Children and Animals an invaluable summary of controversies, methods, and findings; practitioners and educators will find it an invaluable compendium of information relevant to their efforts to enrich play experiences.
This is the first study to systematically review the available data on MSM in Low and Medium Income Countries and model the impact of responses to MSM on overall country epidemics, using Peru, Ukraine, Kenya, and Thailand as examples.