Scratching down numbers (stem-and-leaf); Schematic summaries (pictures and numbers); Easy re-expression; Effective comparison (including well-chosen expresion); Plots of relationship; Straightening out plots (using three points); Smoothing sequences; Optional sections for chapter 7; Parallel and wandering schematic plots; Delineations of batches of points; Using two-way analyses; Making two-way analyses; Advances fits; Three-way fits; Looking in two or more ways at batches of points; Counted fractions; Better smoothing; Counts in bin after bin; Product-ratio plots; Shapes of distribution; Mathematical distributions; Postscript.
If you know how to program, you have the skills to turn data into knowledge, using tools of probability and statistics. This concise introduction shows you how to perform statistical analysis computationally, rather than mathematically, with programs written in Python. By working with a single case study throughout this thoroughly revised book, you’ll learn the entire process of exploratory data analysis—from collecting data and generating statistics to identifying patterns and testing hypotheses. You’ll explore distributions, rules of probability, visualization, and many other tools and concepts. New chapters on regression, time series analysis, survival analysis, and analytic methods will enrich your discoveries. Develop an understanding of probability and statistics by writing and testing code Run experiments to test statistical behavior, such as generating samples from several distributions Use simulations to understand concepts that are hard to grasp mathematically Import data from most sources with Python, rather than rely on data that’s cleaned and formatted for statistics tools Use statistical inference to answer questions about real-world data
This is an introductory text on how to investigate datasets. It is intended to be a practical text for those who need to research large datasets. Therefore, it does not follow the standard contents for more typical introductory statistics textbooks. When you complete the material, you will be able to work with your data using data visualization and regression in order to make sense of it, and to use your findings to make decisions. The book makes use of the statistical software, SAS, and its menu system SAS Enterprise Guide. This can be used as a stand alone text, or as a supplementary text to a more standard course. There are some datasets to accompany this text. ID# 1640751, Data for Exploratory Data Analysis.
Praise for the Second Edition: "The authors present an intuitive and easy-to-read book. ... accompanied by many examples, proposed exercises, good references, and comprehensive appendices that initiate the reader unfamiliar with MATLAB." —Adolfo Alvarez Pinto, International Statistical Review "Practitioners of EDA who use MATLAB will want a copy of this book. ... The authors have done a great service by bringing together so many EDA routines, but their main accomplishment in this dynamic text is providing the understanding and tools to do EDA. —David A Huckaby, MAA Reviews Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is an important part of the data analysis process. The methods presented in this text are ones that should be in the toolkit of every data scientist. As computational sophistication has increased and data sets have grown in size and complexity, EDA has become an even more important process for visualizing and summarizing data before making assumptions to generate hypotheses and models. Exploratory Data Analysis with MATLAB, Third Edition presents EDA methods from a computational perspective and uses numerous examples and applications to show how the methods are used in practice. The authors use MATLAB code, pseudo-code, and algorithm descriptions to illustrate the concepts. The MATLAB code for examples, data sets, and the EDA Toolbox are available for download on the book’s website. New to the Third Edition Random projections and estimating local intrinsic dimensionality Deep learning autoencoders and stochastic neighbor embedding Minimum spanning tree and additional cluster validity indices Kernel density estimation Plots for visualizing data distributions, such as beanplots and violin plots A chapter on visualizing categorical data
In an exciting return to the roots of factor analysis, Allen Yates reviews its early history to clarify original objectives created by its discoverers and early developers. He then shows how computers can be used to accomplish the goals established by these early visionaries, while taking into account modern developments in the field of statistics that legitimize exploratory data analysis as a technique of discovery. The book presents a unique perspective on all phases of exploratory factor analysis. In doing so, the popular objectives of the method are literally turned upside down both at the stage where the model is being fitted to data and in the subsequent stage of simple structure transformation for meaningful interpretation. What results is a fully integrated approach to exploratory analysis of associations among observed variables, revealing underlying structure in a totally new and much more invariant manner than ever before possible.
Exploratory Data Analysis Using R provides a classroom-tested introduction to exploratory data analysis (EDA) and introduces the range of "interesting" – good, bad, and ugly – features that can be found in data, and why it is important to find them. It also introduces the mechanics of using R to explore and explain data. The book begins with a detailed overview of data, exploratory analysis, and R, as well as graphics in R. It then explores working with external data, linear regression models, and crafting data stories. The second part of the book focuses on developing R programs, including good programming practices and examples, working with text data, and general predictive models. The book ends with a chapter on "keeping it all together" that includes managing the R installation, managing files, documenting, and an introduction to reproducible computing. The book is designed for both advanced undergraduate, entry-level graduate students, and working professionals with little to no prior exposure to data analysis, modeling, statistics, or programming. it keeps the treatment relatively non-mathematical, even though data analysis is an inherently mathematical subject. Exercises are included at the end of most chapters, and an instructor's solution manual is available. About the Author: Ronald K. Pearson holds the position of Senior Data Scientist with GeoVera, a property insurance company in Fairfield, California, and he has previously held similar positions in a variety of application areas, including software development, drug safety data analysis, and the analysis of industrial process data. He holds a PhD in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has published conference and journal papers on topics ranging from nonlinear dynamic model structure selection to the problems of disguised missing data in predictive modeling. Dr. Pearson has authored or co-authored books including Exploring Data in Engineering, the Sciences, and Medicine (Oxford University Press, 2011) and Nonlinear Digital Filtering with Python. He is also the developer of the DataCamp course on base R graphics and is an author of the datarobot and GoodmanKruskal R packages available from CRAN (the Comprehensive R Archive Network).
Portraying data graphically certainly contributes toward a clearer and more penetrative understanding of data and also makes sophisticated statistical data analyses more marketable. This realization has emerged from many years of experience in teaching students, in research, and especially from engaging in statistical consulting work in a variety of subject fields. Consequently, we were somewhat surprised to discover that a comprehen sive, yet simple presentation of graphical exploratory techniques for the data analyst was not available. Generally books on the subject were either too incomplete, stopping at a histogram or pie chart, or were too technical and specialized and not linked to readily available computer programs. Many of these graphical techniques have furthermore only recently appeared in statis tical journals and are thus not easily accessible to the statistically unsophis ticated data analyst. This book, therefore, attempts to give a sound overview of most of the well-known and widely used methods of analyzing and portraying data graph ically. Throughout the book the emphasis is on exploratory techniques. Real izing the futility of presenting these methods without the necessary computer programs to actually perform them, we endeavored to provide working com puter programs in almost every case. Graphic representations are illustrated throughout by making use of real-life data. Two such data sets are frequently used throughout the text. In realizing the aims set out above we avoided intricate theoretical derivations and explanations but we nevertheless are convinced that this book will be of inestimable value even to a trained statistician.
Exploratory data analysis, also known as data mining or knowledge discovery from databases, is typically based on the optimisation of a specific function of a dataset. Such optimisation is often performed with gradient descent or variations thereof. In this book, we first lay the groundwork by reviewing some standard clustering algorithms and projection algorithms before presenting various non-standard criteria for clustering. The family of algorithms developed are shown to perform better than the standard clustering algorithms on a variety of datasets. We then consider extensions of the basic mappings which maintain some topology of the original data space. Finally we show how reinforcement learning can be used as a clustering mechanism before turning to projection methods. We show that several varieties of reinforcement learning may also be used to define optimal projections for example for principal component analysis, exploratory projection pursuit and canonical correlation analysis. The new method of cross entropy adaptation is then introduced and used as a means of optimising projections. Finally an artificial immune system is used to create optimal projections and combinations of these three methods are shown to outperform the individual methods of optimisation.