Many good phaselocked loops (PLL) books exist. However, how to acquire the input frequency from an unlocked state is rarely covered. This book explores the methods for achieving this locked state for a variety of conditions. Using a minimum of mathematics, it introduces engineers to performance limitations of phase/frequency detector based PLL, the quadricorrelator method for both continuous and sampled mode, sawtooth ramp-and-sample phase detector, self-sweeping self-extinguishing topology, and sweep methods using quadrature mixer based lock detection. Digital implementations versus analog are also considered.
Phase-Locked Loops for Wireless Communications: Digitial, Analog and Optical Implementations, Second Edition presents a complete tutorial of phase-locked loops from analog implementations to digital and optical designs. The text establishes a thorough foundation of continuous-time analysis techniques and maintains a consistent notation as discrete-time and non-uniform sampling are presented. New to this edition is a complete treatment of charge pumps and the complementary sequential phase detector. Another important change is the increased use of MATLAB®, implemented to provide more familiar graphics and reader-derived phase-locked loop simulation. Frequency synthesizers and digital divider analysis/techniques have been added to this second edition. Perhaps most distinctive is the chapter on optical phase-locked loops that begins with sections discussing components such as lasers and photodetectors and finishing with homodyne and heterodyne loops. Starting with a historical overview, presenting analog, digital, and optical PLLs, discussing phase noise analysis, and including circuits/algorithms for data synchronization, this volume contains new techniques being used in this field. Highlights of the Second Edition: Development of phase-locked loops from analog to digital and optical, with consistent notation throughout; Expanded coverage of the loop filters used to design second and third order PLLs; Design examples on delay-locked loops used to synchronize circuits on CPUs and ASICS; New material on digital dividers that dominate a frequency synthesizer's noise floor. Techniques to analytically estimate the phase noise of a divider; Presentation of optical phase-locked loops with primers on the optical components and fundamentals of optical mixing; Section on automatic frequency control to provide frequency-locking of the lasers instead of phase-locking; Presentation of charge pumps, counters, and delay-locked loops. The Second Edition includes the essential topics needed by wireless, optics, and the traditional phase-locked loop specialists to design circuits and software algorithms. All of the material has been updated throughout the book.
Phase lock loop frequency synthesis finds uses in a myriad of wireless applications - from local oscillators for receivers and transmitters to high performance RF test equipment. As the security and reliability of mobile communication transmissions have gained importance, PLL and frequency synthesisers have become increasingly topical subjects. Phase Lock Loops & Frequency Synthesis examines the various components that make up the phase lock loop design, including oscillators (crystal, voltage controlled), dividers and phase detectors. Interaction amongst the various components are also discussed. Real world problems such as power supply noise, shielding, grounding and isolation are given comprehensive coverage and solved examples with MATHCAD programs are presented throughout. * Presents a comprehesive study of phase lock loops and frequency synthesis in communication systems * Written by an internationally-recognised expert in the field * Details the problem of spurious signals in PLL frequency synthesizers, a topic neglected by available competing titles * Provides detailed theorectical background coupled with practical examples of state-of-the-art device design * MATHCAD programs and simulation software to accompany the design exercises and examples This combination of thorough theoretical treatment and guidance on practical applications will appeal to mobile communication circuit designers and advanced electrical engineering students.
Featuring an extensive 40 page tutorial introduction, this carefully compiled anthology of 65 of the most important papers on phase-locked loops and clock recovery circuits brings you comprehensive coverage of the field-all in one self-contained volume. You'll gain an understanding of the analysis, design, simulation, and implementation of phase-locked loops and clock recovery circuits in CMOS and bipolar technologies along with valuable insights into the issues and trade-offs associated with phase locked systems for high speed, low power, and low noise.
This book is intended for the graduate or advanced undergraduate engineer. The primary motivation for writing the text was to present a complete tutorial of phase-locked loops with a consistent notation. As such, it can serve as a textbook in formal classroom instruction, or as a self-study guide for the practicing engineer. A former colleague, Kevin Kreitzer, had suggested that I write a text, with an emphasis on digital phase-locked loops. As modem designers, we were continually receiving requests from other engineers asking for a definitive reference on digital phase-locked loops. There are several good papers in the literature, but there was not a good textbook for either classroom or self-paced study. From my own experience in designing low phase noise synthesizers, I also knew that third-order analog loop design was omitted from most texts. With those requirements, the material in the text seemed to flow naturally. Chapter 1 is the early history of phase-locked loops. I believe that historical knowledge can provide insight to the development and progress of a field, and phase-locked loops are no exception. As discussed in Chapter 1, consumer electronics (color television) prompted a rapid growth in phase-locked loop theory and applications, much like the wireless communications growth today. xiv Preface Although all-analog phase-locked loops are becoming rare, the continuous time nature of analog loops allows a good introduction to phase-locked loop theory.
Phase-Locked and Frequency-Feedback Systems: Principles and Techniques presents the operating principles and methods of design of phase-locked and frequency-feedback systems. This book is divided into 10 chapters that provide step-by-step design procedures and graphical aids, with illustrations bearing on real problems experienced in these systems. This work specifically tackles the application of these systems as FM demodulators with lowered thresholds. Chapters 1 and 2 deal briefly with the elements of linear systems, feedback theory, and noise, providing the minimum background for the material presented in the remainder of the text. Chapter 3 describes the characteristics of the major components that comprise the loops and the performance of the conventional and multi-loop FM demodulators. Chapters 4 to 7 present the basic describing equations and design for the FM feedback (FMFB) and phase-locked loop (PLL). These chapters further illustrate step-by-step design procedures with performance characteristics for low-threshold angle demodulation using typical design examples. Chapter 8 highlights the design principles, which are extended to the design of advanced demodulators featuring demodulation thresholds lower than those of the simple PLL or FMFB. Chapter 9 focuses on digital FM demodulation and PLL applications other than FM demodulation. Lastly, Chapter 10 presents the methods of testing and evaluating loop performance. Undergraduate and graduate level students, as well as practicing engineers, will find this book invaluable.
Advanced concepts for wireless technologies present a vision of technology that is embedded in our surroundings and practically invisible. From established radio techniques like GSM, 802.11 or Bluetooth to more emerging technologies, such as Ultra Wide Band and smart dust motes, a common denominator for future progress is the underlying integrated circuit technology. Wireless Technologies responds to the explosive growth of standard cellular radios and radically different wireless applications by presenting new architectural and circuit solutions engineers can use to solve modern design problems. This reference addresses state-of-the art CMOS design in the context of emerging wireless applications, including 3G/4G cellular telephony, wireless sensor networks, and wireless medical application. Written by top international experts specializing in both the IC industry and academia, this carefully edited work uncovers new design opportunities in body area networks, medical implants, satellite communications, automobile radar detection, and wearable electronics. The book is divided into three sections: wireless system perspectives, chip architecture and implementation issues, and devices and technologies used to fabricate wireless integrated circuits. Contributors address key issues in the development of future silicon-based systems, such as scale of integration, ultra-low power dissipation, and the integration of heterogeneous circuit design style and processes onto one substrate. Wireless sensor network systems are now being applied in critical applications in commerce, healthcare, and security. This reference, which contains 25 practical and scientifically rigorous articles, provides the knowledge communications engineers need to design innovative methodologies at the circuit and system level.
This unique first-of-its-kind resource provides practical coverage of the design and implementation of frequency measurement receivers, which aid in identifying unknown signals. The technologies used in frequency measurement interferometry-based on-delay lines and filters are explored in this book. Practitioners also find concrete examples of microwave photonics implementations. The designs and concepts that cover conventional photonic instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) circuits are explained. This book provides details on new designs for microwave photonic circuits and reconfigurable frequency measurement (RFM) circuits using diodes and MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). This book explains the many diverse applications of frequency measurement that are used in defense, radar, and communications. The instrumentation used to perform frequency measurements is explained, including the use of block analysis for network and spectrum analyzers and calibration techniques. Readers learn the advantages of using frequency measurement based on microwave/RF techniques, including immunity to electromagnetic interference, low loss, compatibility with fiber signal distribution, and parallel processing signals. Moreover, readers gain insight into the future of frequency measurement receivers. The book examines both the underpinnings and the implementation of frequency measurement receivers using many diverse technological platforms.
This is a book about real-world design techniques for analog circuits: amplifiers, filters, injection-locked oscillators, phase-locked loops, transimpedance amplifiers, group delay correction circuits, notch filters, and spectrum regrowth in digital radio frequency (RF) transmitters, etc. The book offers practical solutions to analog and RF problems, helping the reader to achieve high-performance circuit and system design. A variety of issues are covered, such as: How to flatten group delay of filters How to use reciprocity to advantage How to neutralize a parasitic capacitance How to deepen a notch by adding only two components to the network How to demodulate a signal using the secant waveform and its benefit How to flatten the frequency response of a diode detector When to use a transimpedance amplifier and how to maximize its performance How to recover non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data when alternating current (AC) coupling is required Why phase noise corrupts adjacent communication channels Simple method to prevent false locking in phase-locked loops How to improve the bandwidth of amplification by using current conveyors A very simple impedance matching technique requiring only one reactive component How to use optimization Quadrature distortion and cross-rail interference This book is meant to be a handbook (or a supplemental textbook) for students and practitioners in the design of analog and RF circuitry with primary emphasis on practical albeit sometimes unorthodox circuit realizations. Equations and behavioral simulations result in an abundance of illustrations, following a "words and pictures" easy-to-understand approach. Teachers will find the book an important supplement to a standard analog and RF course, or it may stand alone as a textbook. Working engineers may find it useful as a handbook by bookmarking some of the step-by-step procedures, e.g., the section on simplified impedance matching or group delay flattening.