Fundamental Spanish is a clear, concise grammar book for teachers and beginner to intermediate self-learners. The book is structured so that each chapter becomes the base for the next. Once a lesson is understood, it becomes the basis for the next. The sequence of learning is orderly, logical and clear. There are tons of written and oral exercises to facilitate and guide learning so that self-learners can test their own progress and practice speaking and understanding. A pronunciation chart is provided and pronunciation tips are given throughout the book as reminders that the ultimate goal of this grammar book is not only to be able to read and write Spanish, but also to speak and understand Spanish. For the teachers: Fundamental Spanish is based on the idea of the task chain; the successful completion of one sequence of gramar is dependent on the successful completion of the task before. The book builds the grammatical base lesson by lesson. The order and clarity of the explanations will give you the flexibility to move as quickly or as slowly as you wish as you teach grammar and conversation. It can also be used to review any elements that your particular class requires.
A Study in Memory of Vittorio Grevi and Giovanni Tranchina
Author: Stefano Ruggeri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The protection of fundamental rights in the field of transnational criminal inquiries is of great delicateness in the current tangled web of domestic and international legal sources. Due to this complex scenario, this research has been carried out from a four-level perspective. The first part provides a critical analysis of the multilevel systems of protecting fundamental rights from the perspective of supranational and constitutional case law, and in the field of international and organized crime. The second part focuses on EU judicial cooperation in three main fields: financial and serious organized crime, mutual recognition tools, and individual rights protection. The third part provides the perspectives of ten domestic legal systems in two fields, i.e., obtaining evidence abroad and cooperation with international criminal tribunals. The fourth part analyses cross-border inquiries in comparative law, providing a reconstruction of different models of obtaining evidence overseas.
Ten years after the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union became part of binding primary law, and twenty years since its adoption, this volume assess the application of the EU Charter in the Member States. How often, and in particular by which actors, is the EU Charter invoked at the national level? In what type of situations is it used? Has the approach of national courts in general, and of constitutional courts in particular, to EU law to EU fundamental rights law changed following the entry into force of the Charter? What sort of interplay does the Charter generate with the national bill of rights and the European Convention? Is the life with the Charter on the national level a harmonious 'praktische Konkordanz' or rather a messy 'ménage à trois'? These and other questions are discussed in the four parts that form the book. Part I is dedicated to the normative foundations. Part II sets out Member States' Perspectives, providing a structured, in-depth account of the Charter's operation in 16 different Member States. Part III provides a detailed evaluation of selected rights contained within the Charter. Part IV synthesises the materials presented up to that point to develop a series of broader perspectives, looking to discover underlying lessons about the relationship between EU fundamental rights law and national legal systems.
The book gives insight into the structures and developments of the fundamental rights protection in Europe which is effective at the levels of the national Constitutions, the European Convention of Human Rights and, for the EU member States of the EU Fundamental Rights Charter. The contributions of renowned academics from various European countries demonstrate the functional interconnection of these protection systems which result in an increasing convergence. Basic questions are reflected, such as human dignity as foundation of fundamental rights or positive action as a specific form of equality as well as the concept of rights convergence. In this latter contribution the forms of direct reception of a different legal order and of the functional transfer of principles and concepts are analyzed. Particular reference is made to the EU Charter, the United Kingdom Human Rights Act as well as to France and Germany. It becomes obvious how important interpretation is for the harmonization of national and conventional fundamental rights protection. Traditional institutional approaches like the dualist transformation concept in Germany are functionally set aside in the harmonization process through constitutional interpretation. Specific studies are dedicated to the field of the EU Fundamental Rights Charter and to the European impacts on the national fundamental rights protection in selected countries such as the “new democracies” Poland, Romania and Kosovo as well as more traditional systems such as Spain, Italy, the Nordic countries or Turkey.
The remarkable volume collects essays and studies on the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and its application. Its aim is to offer a series of contributions, made by distinguished scholars and legal experts, on the Charter considered as a living legal instrument, with a view to understanding whether, five years after its entry into force and fifteen years after its first proclamation, it is being taken seriously, and whether its use and effective impact within the legal orders and practice of the European Union and Member States can realistically improve in the coming years.The contributions are structured and organized around three main themes, “The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as a Legal Instrument: General Issues”, “The Charter and Social Rights”, and “Assessing the Legal Impact of the Charter at the National Level”. Scholars and experts participating in the book have conducted, under the supervision of its editor, extensive and in-depth analysis on the many issues raised by each of these themes. The result is a fascinating and varied collection of essays that combines high academic quality with great practical usefulness.
Publisher: Wydawnictwo Instytutu Wymiaru Sprawiedliwości
The observation that mater semper certa est remains accurate under most legal systems in the world. Maternity is defined as the personal status (filiation) of a woman who gave birth to a child. It is typically complemented by the fatherhood of the man from whom the child biologically originates (often quem nuptiae demonstrant). However, in some states, a kind of competitive way of acquiring the legal status of mother and father (or “homosexual parents A and B”) has been introduced via concluding a contract with a surrogate mother. Usually with a woman coming from poorer societies and with the assistance of professional intermediaries and organizers. The postulates to change substantive family law, or at least to recognize the effects of foreign law and procedures (a kind of “procreative tourism”), appear nowadays also in states generally prohibiting surrogate motherhood. The issues discussed in this volume concern both national law and international court cases. Recent examples include the opinion of the European Court of Human Rights of 10 April 2019 initiated by the French Cour de cassation, the judgement of the German Bundesgerichtshofof 20 March 2019, and dilemmas of Polish administrative courts. Focusing on the international perspective, the present volume as well as an accompanying book in Polish are the results of the international cooperation of over 30 experts from both member states and observer states of the Council of Europe. The monograph is structured “from the general to the detail” and includes a comprehensive view as well: from the issues of philosophy and sociology of law, to human rights standards of national constitutions and international agreements, to principles of ordre public of forum and their protection with measures of private, public, and penal law. This allows readers, including legislators and judges, the better understanding of the fundamental legal problems that surrogate motherhood brings, both in states where law creates them in a narrower or wider extent, and in other countries of the world, to which these problems can be imported with the movement of people and with de lege lata and de lege ferenda postulates.
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines the key political, social and economic rights of EU citizens and residents in EU law. In its present form it was approved in 2000 by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the European Commission. However its legal status remained uncertain until the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in December 2009. The Charter obliges the EU to act and legislate consistently with the Charter, and enables the EU's courts to strike down EU legislation which contravenes it. The Charter applies to EU Member States when they are implementing EU law but does not extend the competences of the EU beyond the competences given to it in the treaties. This Commentary on the Charter, the first in English, written by experts from several EU Member States, provides an authoritative but succinct statement of how the Charter impacts upon EU, domestic and international law. Following the conventional article-by-article approach, each commentator offers an expert view of how each article is either already being interpreted in the courts, or is likely to be interpreted. Each commentary is referenced to the case law and is augmented with extensive references to further reading. Six cross-cutting introductory chapters explain the Charter's institutional anchorage, its relationship to the Fundamental Rights Agency, its interaction with other parts of international human rights law, the enforcement mechanisms, extraterritorial scope, and the all-important 'Explanations'.
Testimony by Witnesses at the Hearings Before the Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures, House of Representatives, Sixty-ninth Congress, First Session in Opposition to H.R. 10, a Bill Extending the Use of Metric Weights and Measures in Merchandising
Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures
Need to brush up on your Spanish? Intermediate Spanish For Dummies is your key to success in building your writing skills and bolstering your confidence. It gives you the straight talk and nitty-gritty detail that will see you successfully through any major or minor roadblocks to communicating in Spanish. This friendly, hands-on workbook is loaded with practical examples and useful exercises so you can practice how native speakers use the language. From vocabulary and numbers to juggling tenses, you’ll get a clear understanding of the nuances of Spanish style and usage that will have you writing like a native in no time. Plus, you’ll find multiple charts that provide conjugations for all types of Spanish verbs. You’ll get up to speed with Spanish grammar, master essential differences between Spanish and English language usage, and be able to communicate effectively when traveling or conducting business. Discover how to: Use fundamental Spanish grammar, from nouns, adjectives, and adverbs to pronouns, prepositions, and conjunctions Select and conjugate Spanish verbs correctly Understand the importance of grammatical gender in Spanish Avoid the most common writing mistakes Use numbers and express dates and times Name countries and nationalities in Spanish Expand your Spanish vocabulary exponentially Get comfortable with the subjunctive Combine verbs with confidence and competence Sharpen your Spanish-language skills the fun and easy way with Intermediate Spanish For Dummies.
The book explores, from a comparative and inter-disciplinary perspective, the relationship between fundamental rights and private law in Europe, a debate usually referred to as Drittwirkung or ‘horizontal effect of fundamental rights’. It discusses the different models of ‘horizontal effect’ and the impact that fundamental rights may have in shaping tort law, especially the position of child tortfeasors. The book concentrates on several European jurisdictions, namely France, Italy, Germany, Portugal, Sweden, Finland, and England and Wales. At a crossroad between human rights and European private law, this study draws insights from several legal fields (international, European, tort, constitutional and child law), sociology, psychology, and feminist studies. It also considers policy implications and advances proposals which would ensure the optimisation of the effect, and maximisation of the effectiveness, of fundamental rights in tort law, and more generally in private law. This book departs from traditional legal doctrines and offers a more pragmatic, comprehensive and just legal analysis of the role of fundamental rights in private law. It will be of interest to undergraduate and postgraduate students, academics, practitioners, policy-makers and activists with an interest in human rights, tort law, comparative law, children’s rights and European private law.
The orthodox view is that rights complement democracy. This book critically examines this view in the context of EU fundamental rights, specifically in situations where EU law requires member states to respect EU fundamental rights. It first sets out a legal theoretical account of how human rights can complement democracy. It argues that they can do so only if they are understood as both the conditions for the democratic process, and the outcome of such a democratic process. In light of this legal theoretical account of human rights, this book examines the demands which the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU) imposes on the national orders in respect of EU fundamental rights. The conclusion reached is that the demands which EU fundamental rights impose on national legal orders entail a cost for the democratic legitimacy of those legal orders. Ultimately, accepting the demands of the CJEU in respect of EU fundamental rights may require the national legal order to abandon its commitment to protecting the human rights which are the foundation of the national legal order’s very legitimacy.
This book introduces profound reflections of Xavier Zubiri (1898-1983) on the history of philosophy to English-speaking audiences. The book discusses the transcendental in Western philosophy and how a firm grasp of it reveals underlying unity, but also fundamental problems that Zubiri believed require a complete rethinking of certain theories.
The entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 caused the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights to be granted binding effect. This raised a host of intriguing questions. Would this transform the EU's commitment to fundamental rights? Should it transform that commitment? How, if at all, can we balance competing rights and principles? (The interaction of the social and the economic spheres offers a particular challenge). How deeply does the EU conception of fundamental rights reach into and bind national law and practice? How deeply does it affect private parties? How much flexibility has been left to the Court in making these interpretative choices? What is the likely effect of another of the reforms achieved by the Lisbon Treaty, the commitment of the EU to accede to the ECHR? This book addresses all of these questions in the light of five years of practice under the Charter as a binding instrument.