The Geo-Platinum 87 Symposium, held at the Open University during April 1987, was designed as a forum for presentation of new research results on the occurrence, genesis, geochemistry, mineralogy and analysis of the platinum-group elements (PGE). With the support of the Open University and the Mineral Industry Research Organisation, the symposium was attended by 115 representatives of university departments, research institutions and members of the mining and mineral exploration industries. An introduction to the symposium was provided by two invited papers from C. J. Morrissey (Riofinex North) and C. R. N. Clark (Johnson Matthey) which were designed to give perspective to the goals of PGE research work. The first of these papers gave a provocative insight into the aims and objectives of an exploration manager, examining the influence of supply, demand and perceived world reserves on exploration strategy. The second invited paper gave a valuable view of the industrial uses, market trends and predicted changes in the commercial value of the platinum-group elements from the standpoint of a refining company and supplier. These invited papers are reproduced in this volume and are followed by twenty four full papers and twenty abstracts that reflect the wide range of research topics presented at the symposium.
The platinum-group elements (PGE) include platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium. They are currently receiving world-wide attention as an attractive exploration target because they offer the dual attraction of rare, high value precious metals as well as major industrial applications. Platinum has aesthetic qualities, combined with a permanent lustre, which encourage its use in the manufacture of jewellery and, like gold, it also finds an investment role. Platinum, rhodium and palladium have important applications as catalysts, enabling petroleum and other fuels and chemicals to be produced efficiently from crude oil. This book gives a practical set of guidelines for implementing a programme of PGE exploration, detecting subtle indications of mineralization and assessing the economic potential of a group of mafic or ultramafic rocks. Background material is given on the economic and geological framework of the PGE in the first chapter, while theoretical aspects of magma chemistry are covered in the next three. Chapters 5 and 6 review current world-wide exploration activity within the context of available reserves of PGE, and in Chapter 7 factors which need to be considered in exploration for new deposits are outlined. The last chapter discusses evaluation guidelines. As the PGE are both costly and almost indestructible they are normally recycled; nevertheless, a substantial annual input of new metal is needed to replace process losses, to permit increases in capacity in the dependent industries and to provide for new uses. For example, a major new market for platinum will be created if the European Community countries are required to fit catalytic converters to new cars. At present, South Africa and the USSR are the sources of most of the western world's newly mined PGE, with virtually all the South African production derived from the Bushveld Complex. Much of the material presented in this book is based on the author's experience of these rocks, and emphasis is given to the dominant role played by magmatic sulphides as potent collectors of PGE. Consumers of minerals and metals, however, prefer to have a diversity of supply and a new PGE producer is therefore likely to attract a ready market. Not only does the book provide a wealth of practical information for mining geologists, it also contains much of interest to those in natural resource management and investment.
PERTH Western Australia March 2000 Increasingly explorationists are seeking to find new ore deposits in poorly prospected areas, be they geographically remote, such as in the Arctic, or geologically remote, such as those under sedimentary cover. Modern prospecting techniques, including low-detection-level geochemistry and the use of advanced geophysical instrumentation have greatly assisted explorers but fundamental to any soundly based exploration program remains an understanding of the geological framework of ore deposits. This allows the development of deposit models on macroscopic and mesoscopic scales. This book by Dr. Franeo Pirajno draws on his extensive and wide global experience. To set the scene for a discussion of ore deposit generation Franeo details the Earths internal structures and mantle dynamics. He then explores the impact of mantle plumes on the crust and in particular their role in the production of magmatic environments, and in continental scale rifting. This includes a descriptive section on magmatic provinces around the globe, which highlights the importance of plumes. Any study of Earth processes needs to take into account the effects of extraterrestrial bombardment, and in particular the results from the impacts of large bolides. The effects of these impacts on the atmosphere and on life have now been recognised as profound. It is likely that the effect ofthese impacts on the Earth's crust is as equally profound.
Accurate determination of trace elements is critical in various fields of science and technology. Direct measurement of trace elements in samples with complex matrices is often impractical, either due to analytical sensitivity limitations or matrix interferences. Preconcentration procedures are generally needed to eliminate matrix interferences and/or enrich minute amounts of analytes to a level for reliable measurements. Preconcentration Techniques for Trace Elements provides up-to-date information on various preconcentration techniques and detailed discussions regarding such topics as the dissolution of matrices, coprecipitation, solvent extraction, electrochemical means, ion exchange, sorption, chromatographic methods, flotation, membranes, volatization, polymer foam sorbents, fire assay, isotachophoresis, and filter papers. This comprehensive volume, featuring contributions from 21 experts from nine countries, will provide valuable reference material for all scientists and technicians dealing with trace analysis of real-world samples.
This book gives an overview of all the gold extraction processes along with their mechanistic study and environmental impact. Different approaches in gold extraction are discussed including traditional pyrometallurgy, amalgamation, leaching by cyanide or non-cyanide lixiviants and emerging bioleaching using micro-organisms, in detail.
Analytical Methods, Environmental Assessment and Health Effects
Author: Fathi Zereini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
To date the investigations of metal emissions from automotive catalysts has focused mainly on platinum. Since 1993, however, platinum has been increasingly replaced by palladium as the predominant substance in pollution-control catalysts. Now the release of palladium in automotive catalysts is becoming just a critical problem as that of platinum. The editors present the latest research results related to all aspects of palladium emissions in the environment, as well as an assessment of their effects on the environment and health. The book focuses on the following topics: analytical methods; sources of palladium emissions; occurrence, chemical behaviour and fate in the environment; bioavailability and biomonitoring; and health-risk potential.
Within the last decade, the high and continuing demand for gold has prompted a global gold rush on a scale never before seen, not even in the heady days of Ballarat, California and the Yukon. Gold is being sought on every continent and, with very few exceptions, in every country around the world. Such interest and fierce competition has demanded considerable innovation and improvement in exploration techniques paralleled by a rapid expansion of the geological database and consequent genetic modelling for the many different types of gold deposits now recognized. This proliferation of data has swamped the literature and left explorationist and academic alike unable to sift more than a small proportion of the accumulating information. This new book represents an attempt to address this major problem by providing succinct syntheses ofall major aspects ofgold metallogeny and exploration, ranging from the chemical distribution of gold in the Earth's crust, and the hydrothermal chemistry of gold, to Archaean and Phanerozoic lode deposits, epithermal environments, chemical sediments, and placer deposits, and culminates in chapters devoted to geochemical and geophysical exploration, and the economics of gold deposits. Each chapter is written by geoscientists who are acknowledged internationally in their respective fields, thus guaranteeing a broad yet up-to-date coverage. In addition, each chapter is accompanied by reference lists which provide readers with access to the most pertinent and useful publications.
Based on the Tenth International Basement Tectonics Conference held at the University of Minnesota-Duluth in August 1992, this volume contains 19 papers, 13 of which focus on the Middle Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift. An introductory essay discussing the Middle Proterozoic to Cambrian rifting in central North America is followed by contributions addressing topics including the Midcontinent Rift in Michigan and Minnesota, the Port Coldwell veins of northern Ontario, and petrography and sedimentation in the western Lake Superior region. The last five papers deal with the pre-Mount Simon basins of Ohio, the English Graben and the newly proposed East Continent Rift Complex, the Reelfoot Rift/Rough Creek Graben in the evolution of the Illinois Basin, and the A-type sheet granites in the Oklahoma Aulacogen of Cambrian age. Bandw illustrations. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
The book (Special Issue) presents impressive new results related to a wide spectrum of occurrences of platinum-group minerals (PGM) and natural compounds enriched in platinum-group elements (PGE), which are associated with various complexes and deposits, such as Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes, layered intrusions and placers. The geographical locations of the involved deposits and complexes include, on a truly international scale, different areas of the Urals, Western and Eastern Sayans and Gornaya Shoria in Siberia, Southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in China, Northern Michigan, USA, South Africa and Zimbabwe, etc. Of particular interest is the first description of a new species of PGM, thalhammerite (approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association), which is a new species of palladium-silver sulfobismuthide discovered in the Noril’sk region of Russia. Additionally, comprehensive reviews, on compositional variations in Pt–Fe alloy minerals and processes of transformations of PGM in exogenic environments, are presented which will also attract attention from international readers.
Written by leading experts in the field, this work summarises the important aspects relating to layered intrusions, with almost universal coverage of the subject. Each chapter is a complete review of a theme or specific geological intrusion. The first part of the book covers the general principles and processes which apply to all intrusions. Those chapters on individual intrusions concentrate on factual information. A detailed full colour geological map of the Skaergaard intrusion is also included. This book will appeal to a wide audience - university libraries, research students in igneous petrology, state organisations such as exploration companies - as well as being an ideal textbook for university courses on igneous petrology, and geochemistry and petrography.
This book is written by a leading authority on the subject of magmatic sulfide deposits. An overview of deposit types, accompanied by a summary of the resources of nickel, copper and platinum-group elements in the world’s principal known deposits, is followed by a summary of the relevant physical chemistry. The core of the book comprises a discussion about the geology and geochemistry of each of the deposit types in turn, accompanied by the implications of this data to the origin of the deposits in the light of our understanding of the chemical processes involved. A final chapter focuses on the use of the genetic concepts in exploration.
Basic magmatic rocks make up approximately three-quarters of the crust ofthe present day Earth. Because we can observe and study the volcanic products of present day tectonic regimes comprehensively, we can shed light on ancient tectono-magmatic provinces, and thereby deduce the petrogenesis and evolution of the oldest basic rocks. This is the primary objective of this book. The book was conceived in order to provide a comprehensive review of the basic rocks produced during the first half of the Precambrian, i.e. the Archaean and early Proterozoic, to about 1.8 Ga years ago. Two major questions are addressed. First, what basic magmas were generated during the early Precambrian: were these magmas globally uniform, and to what extent were prevailing tectonic controls and compo sitions analogous to those of the present day? Clearly, this can be answered only by bringing together fundamental information about all relevant basic magmatic events. Second, is there any systematic temporal variation in the nature of basic suites, and what implications might such variations have on our interpretations of early Earth history? Are there important differences between early Archaean, late Archaean, Proterozoic and modern basic magmatic suites? The book uses two approaches to address these questions. Early chapters examine the fundamental characteristics of these basic rocks, whilst later chapters assess regional distribution and development by providing an overview of each major early Precambrian craton.