The German language holds an ambivalent and controversial place in the modern history of European Jews, representing different—often conflicting—historical currents. It was the language of the German classics, of German Jewish writers and scientists, of Central European Jewish culture, and of Herzl and the Zionist movement. But it was also the language of Hitler, Goebbels, and the German guards in Nazi concentration camps. The crucial role of German in the formation of Jewish national culture and politics in the late nineteenth century has been largely overshadowed by the catastrophic events that befell Jews under Nazi rule. German as a Jewish Problem tells the Jewish history of the German language, focusing on Jewish national movements in Central and Eastern Europe and Palestine/Israel. Marc Volovici considers key writers and activists whose work reflected the multilingual nature of the Jewish national sphere and the centrality of the German language within it, and argues that it is impossible to understand the histories of modern Hebrew and Yiddish without situating them in relation to German. This book offers a new understanding of the language problem in modern Jewish history, turning to German to illuminate the questions and dilemmas that largely defined the experience of European Jews in the age of nationalism.
This monumental work of Alex Bein, noted scholar and chief librarian of the Israeli National Library, is the most authoritative survey of Jewish culture and Jewish problems in the Diaspora. First published in two massive volumes in German, it is here made available in a single volume in English.
During the time of the Third Reich a vibrant “Jew research” arose. In its core it combined religious and racial studies to reinvigorate Christian anti-Judaism and to substantiate the political measures against the Jews on a new scientific basis.
Will appeal to readers interested in psychoanalysis, in Jewish studies, in cultural studies, and in the whole question of "the body," which has been so intensely discussed in recent years. Maps the dissemination of and possible interrelationships among these corporeal signifiers in Germanophone cultures between the Enlightenment and the Shoah. Geller is known as a pioneer in Jewish studies, especially in its cultural studies mode.
German-Italian Relations and the Jewish Question in Italy, 1922-1945
Author: Meir Michaelis
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Analyzes the various stages by which the fascist regime passed from anti-racialism to racial antisemitism on the German model, by focusing on the impact of German-Italian relations on the evolution of the racial question in Italy. Shows how fascist antisemitic policy was shaped by the necessities of the Axis agreement from the beginning, despite the fundamental conflicts of interest and the different positions toward racism. Examines direct and indirect German interference in Italian policy, as well as the reaction of Italian Jews to fascism. Based on unpublished records.
"The Jewish Problem and its Final Solution: Modernity and Destiny" traces two-thousand years of the West's Jewish Problem from its emergence at the birth of Christianity to its modern secular adaptation as the "Jewish Question." The book describes the backlash of western society to the legal promise of Jewish emancipation in the nineteenth century. That promise had a backlash in the form of antisemitic political parties and, in the 20th century, German National Socialism with a political platform and agenda for achieving a final solution to the West's two-thousand years Jewish Problem. It is consoling to believe that the Holocaust is, as often described by scholars and clergy, was an event unique in History. This book rejects that assertion as dangerous, as feeding Denial regarding the true nature of the danger Jews face in the Diaspora. It describes instead a systematic history of a pathology first described in 1882 by the early Zionist Leon Pinsker. The Jewish Problem is a pathology in which a tiny Jewish minority is feared as alien and demonic, a gospel-described threat to Christendom. To German science Jews were considered a pathogen justifying extermination, a deadly virus endangering human existence itself. Christian doctrine generally saw the solution to its Jewish Problem as the disappearance of Jews through conversion. To secular society, conversion has no value. With modern science and technology, society has available a far more effective solution to the West's Jewish Problem. Israeli Holocaust historian Alex Bein warned that "almost all periods of great violence... have caught the Jews by surprise... persecutions began with particular severity and intensity especially when the Jews position was so secure... there was no thought of attacks and major violence-at least not in their country, their house." Vice President Biden issued a similar warning to his Jewish audience in 2014: [You know] "in your bones [that] there is really only one absolute guarantee, and that's the state of Israel."
Selected Sources on the Destruction of the Jews of Germany and Austria, Poland, and the Soviet Union
Author: Yits?a? Arad
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
These 213 documents on the theory, planning, and execution of, and reaction and resistance to, the Nazi plan to exterminate European Jews date from the 1920s through the closing days of World War II and focus on the experience of eastern Europe. ø The crystallization of the principles of Nazi anti-Semitism, the policies of the Third Reich toward the Jews, the period of segregation and enclosed ghettos, and the stages through which the ?final solution? were implemented are some of the topics covered. Other documents shed light on Jewish public activities and the organization of the Underground and Jewish self-defense. Many of the documents of Jewish origin were not published previously. This comprehensive collection is essential for understanding the history of the Holocaust.
For more than a century, Nietzsche's views about Jews and Judaism have been subject to countless polemics. The Nazis infamously fashioned the philosopher as their anti-Semitic precursor, while in the past thirty years the pendulum has swung in the opposite direction. The increasingly popular view today is that Nietzsche was not only completely free of racist tendencies but also was a principled adversary of anti-Jewish thought. Nietzsche’s Jewish Problem offers a definitive reappraisal of the controversy, taking the full historical, intellectual, and biographical context into account. As Robert Holub shows, a careful consideration of all the evidence from Nietzsche’s published and unpublished writings and letters reveals that he harbored anti-Jewish prejudices throughout his life. Nietzsche’s Jewish Problem demonstrates how this is so despite the apparent paradox of the philosopher’s well-documented opposition to the crude political anti-Semitism of the Germany of his day. As Holub explains, Nietzsche’s "anti-anti-Semitism" was motivated more by distaste for vulgar nationalism than by any objection to anti-Jewish prejudice. A richly detailed account of a controversy that goes to the heart of Nietzsche’s reputation and reception, Nietzsche’s Jewish Problem will fascinate anyone interested in philosophy, intellectual history, or the history of anti-Semitism.
Revolutionary Antisemitism in Germany from Kant to Wagner
Author: Paul Lawrence Rose
Publisher: Princeton University Press
In this compelling narrative of antisemitism in German thought, Paul Rose proposes a fresh view of the topic. Beginning with an examination of the attitudes of Martin Luther, he challenges distinctions between theologically derived (medieval) and secular, "racial" (modern) antisemitism, arguing that there is an unbroken chain of antisemitic feeling between the two periods. Originally published in 1990. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
The Jewish Question in German Literature, 1749-1939 is an erudite and searching literary study of the uneasy position of the Jews in Germany and Austria from the first pleas for Jewish emancipation during the Enlightenment to the eve of the Holocaust. Trying to avoid hindsight, and drawing on a wide range of literary texts, Ritchie Robertson offers a close examination of attempts to construct a Jewish identity suitable for an increasingly secular world. He examines both literary portrayals of Jews by Gentile writers - whether antisemitic, friendly, or ambivalent - and efforts to reinvent Jewish identities by the Jews themselves, in response to antisemitism culminating in Zionism. No other study by a single author deals with German-Jewish relations so comprehensively and over such a long period of literary history. Robertson's new work will prove stimulating for anyone interested in the modern Jewish experience, as well as for scholars and students of German fiction, prose, and political culture.
Why discuss the Jewish Question? Because it is here, and because its emergence into American thought should contribute to its solution, and not to a continuance of those bad conditions which surround the Question in other countries. The Jewish Question has existed in the United States for a long time. Jews themselves have known this, even if Gentiles have not. There have been periods in our own country when it has broken forth with a sullen sort of strength which presaged darker things to come. Many signs portend that it is approaching an acute stage. Not only does the Jewish Question touch those matters that are of common knowledge, such as financial and commercial control, usurpation of political power, monopoly of necessities, and autocratic direction of the very news that the American people read; but it reaches into cultural regions and so touches the very heart of American life. This question reaches down into South America and threatens to become an important factor in Pan-American relations. It is interwoven with much of the menace of organized and calculated disorder which troubles the nations today. It is not of recent growth, but its roots go deep, and the long Past of this Problem is counterbalanced by prophetic hopes and programs which involve a very deliberate and creative view of the Future. This little book is the partial record of an investigation of the Jewish Question. It is printed to enable interested readers to inform themselves on the data published in The Dearborn Independent prior to Oct. 1, 1920. The demand for back copies of the paper was so great that the supply was exhausted early, as was also a large edition of a booklet containing the first nine articles of the series. The investigation still proceeds, and the articles will continue to appear as heretofore until the work is done. The motive of this work is simply a desire to make facts known to the people. Other motives have, of course, been ascribed to it. But the motive of prejudice or any form of antagonism is hardly strong enough to support such an investigation as this. Moreover, had an unworthy motive existed, some sign of it would inevitably appear in the work itself. We confidently call the reader to witness that the tone of these articles is all that it should be. The International Jew and his satellites, as the conscious enemies of all that Anglo-Saxons mean by civilization, are not spared, nor is that unthinking mass which defends anything that a Jew does, simply because it has been taught to believe that what Jewish leaders do is Jewish. Neither do these articles proceed upon a false emotion of brotherhood and apology, as if this stream of doubtful tendency in the world were only accidentally Jewish. We give the facts as we find them; that of itself is sufficient protection against prejudice or passion.
A magisterial history of the Jews in Nazi Germany and the regime's policies towards them in the years prior to World War II and the Holocaust. Written by arguably the world's leading scholar on the subject. Himself a survivor, Friedlander has been a leading figure in Holocaust studies for decades and this book represents a definitive summing up of his research and that of hundreds of other historians. NAZI GERMANY AND THE JEWS: THE YEARS OF PERSECUTION is perhaps the richest examination of the subject yet written, and, crucially, one that never loses sight of the experiences of individuals in its discussion of Nazi politics and the terrible statistics and technological and administrative sophistication of the Final Solution.
Going beyond the fanatical anti-Semitism of Hitler and his chiefs, Schleunes analyzes "the internal structure of the [Nazi] regime, the role of its bureaucracies, and the rivalries between competing power groups ... to trace the early stages of discrimination against Jews and their exclusion from public life that led ultimately to their deaths."--p.vii.
A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution
Author: Richard S. Levy
Written by top scholars in an accessible manner, this unique encyclopedia offers worldwide coverage of the origins, forms, practitioners, and effects of antisemitism, leading to the Holocaust and surviving to the present day. * 650 A-Z entries by over 200 scholars from 21 countries * Illustrations such as caricatures, political cartoons, maps, and pictures of famous antisemites and historical episodes * Citations of recent literature that follow each entry * Detailed index listing people, places, concepts, and events that enables users to find information about subjects not treated in dedicated articles * Direction at the end of each entry to other articles with special relevance to the topic
The essays in this volume boldly map the historically resonant intersections between Jewishness and queerness, between homophobia and anti-Semitism, and between queer theory and theorizations of Jewishness. With important essays by such well-known figures in queer and gender studies as Judith Butler, Daniel Boyarin, Marjorie Garber, Michael Moon, and Eve Sedgwick, this book is not so much interested in revealing—outing—"queer Jews" as it is in exploring the complex social arrangements and processes through which modern Jewish and homosexual identities emerged as traces of each other during the last two hundred years.
German Biblical Interpretation and the Jews, from Herder and Semler to Kittel and Bultmann
Author: Anders Gerdmar
Exploring the link between German biblical interpretation and anti-Semitism, this book is a fresh, comprehensive study of leading German exegetes, concluding that although Nazism brought anti-Semitic exegesis to a head, age-old thought structures provided powerful legitimation for oppression.