Islands of stark contrasts and complex syncretisms, the comoros hold a major key to the history of the western Indian Ocean area. An invaluable resource for anyone interested in the history, economics, cultures, languages, geography, geology, or politics of the western Indian Ocean.
The fourth edition of Historical Dictionary of Togo contains a chronology, an introduction, an extensive bibliography, and a dictionary section has over 100 cross-referenced dictionary entries on important personalities, politics, economy, foreign relations, religion, and culture.
Historical Dictionary of South Africa, Third Edition contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has more than 600 cross-referenced entries on important personalities as well as aspects of the country's politics, economy, foreign relations, religion, and culture.
Madagascar, widely known as the "Great Island," is just off the coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean, but in many ways it hardly resembles its mainland neighbors. Its flora and fauna are quite distinct, and the folkways and culture of its population are intriguingly different from that of the continental countries. This revised and expanded edition fills us in on the changes that have occurred over the past decade while still covering the long and intricate history of the country. It starts with the earliest settlers, continues through the period of French colonial rule, and then describes more intensively the period of independence, with all its aspirations, failures, and renewed hopes. This is done in a broad introduction, an extensive chronology, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on significant persons, places, and events; ethnic groups and religions; and economic, social, and cultural aspects. Also included is a bibliography offering further reading.
There are very serious environmental problems facing the planet. Biodiversity loss has reached unprecedented levels. Climate change is progressing so rapidly that within this century we are likely to see substantial sea level rise. There has been dramatic loss of tropical rainforests. Plastic pollution is killing wildlife and polluting our oceans. Various movements old and new are addressing these green issues. Civil society activism has taken on new strategies with the emergence of new technologies and global networks of green activists have formed. A new generation of green activists are emerging and boldly criticizing the status quo. At the same time, in some parts of the world, green movements that looked like they were beginning to gain a political foothold or were even doing quite well are in retreat. The reasons are complex. Some suffer from lack of funding and hostile political and legal environments. Others are being attacked by populist politicians who see green activism as a threat. The second edition of Historical Dictionary of the Green Movement contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced on green movements, green politics, green trends, and major environmental agreements and events. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about the green movement.
Reaching back into earlier periods when the Swazi nation was being formed, there are entries on Swazi kings, queens, and others who played significant roles. The colonial era is also clearly delineated, and entries on important people, places, and events important to Swaziland's contemporary history are also included. The considerable material provided in the dictionary is buttressed by a solid introduction, a chronology, and especially a substantial bibliography.
Ever since the end of World War II, and even more so since 1960, when seventeen African colonies became independent of colonial rule, the African continent has been ravaged by a series of wars. These wars have ranged from liberation struggles against former colonial powers to power struggles between different factions in the aftermath of independence. They have ranged from border wars between newly independent states to civil wars between ethnic groups. As with many conflicts, outside forces were drawn into these wars, and major powers outside the continent intervened on one side or the other for a variety of reasons: political ideology, Cold War considerations, ethnic alignments, and stemming the flow of violence. Whether referring to Algeria's struggle for independence from French colonial rule, Nigeria's internal struggles to achieve a balanced state after the British departure, the Rwandan genocide of 1994, or the current ethnic cleansing in Darfur, the second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Civil Wars in Africa covers all of the wars that have occurred in Africa since independence. This is done through a chronology broken down by country, a list of acronyms and abbreviations, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and cross-referenced dictionary entries covering the wars, conflicts, major political and military figures, child soldiers, mercenaries, and blood diamonds.
The Heart of Darkness, this is the image that most in the West hold of pre-colonial Africa. Joseph Conrad's description of a continent lacking in civilization, commerce, and Christianity is familiar to many readers. Historians have been working to dispel this notion before since the institution of African independence after World War II. Collins seeks to familiarize the reader with pre-colonial Africa, the Africa that began with the migrations of the Bantu from their homeland in 500 B.C. and ended with European control in the 19th century, revealing the culture, events, achievement and rulers of Africa from this time.
A comprehensive history of Western Sahara--an arid land bordering Morocco in the north, Algeria in the northeast, Mauritania in the east and the south, and the Atlantic coastline in the west--bitterly contested since 1975 by Morocco and the guerrillas of the Polisario Front. This edition of the Dictionary updates and supplements the first edition of 1982. Some 700 alphabetical entries range from major personalities, political movements, wars, and treaties to places, ethnic groups, and economic resources, with extensive entries on the OAU and the UN. Includes an introduction, map, detailed chronology, chart of tribal and ethnic groups, and heavily augmented bibliography. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Created in an attempt to help clarify the foundations of the religion to outsiders while permitting members to deepen their own understanding. It presents the Founders and numerous leaders and pioneers, many of the basic principles and precepts, as well as aspects of its organization and administration.