There is now a serious discussion taking place about the moment at which human beings will be surpassed and replaced by the machine. On the one hand we are designing machines which embed more and more human intelligence, but at the same time we are in danger of becoming more and more like machines. In these circumstances, we all need to consider: • What can we do? • What should we do? • What are the alternatives of doing it? This book is about the human-centred alternative of designing systems and technologies. This alternative is rooted in the European tradition of human-centredness which emphasises the symbiosis of human capabilities and machine capacity. The human-centred tra dition celebrates the diversity of human skill and ingenuity and provides an alternative to the 'mechanistic' paradigm of 'one best way', the 'sameness of science' and the 'dream of the exact language'. This alternative vision has its origin in the founding European human-centred movements of the 1970s. These include the British movement of Socially Useful Technology, the Scandinavian move ment of Democratic Participation, and the German movement of Humanisation of Work and Technology. The present volume brings together various strands of human-centred systems philosophy which span the conceptual richness and cultural diversity of the human-centred movements. The core ideas of human-centredness include human-machine symbiosis, the tacit dimension of knowl edge, the system as a tool rather than a machine, dialogue, partici pation, social shaping and usability.
Demand for integral and sustainable solutions is on the rise. As new ways of defining reality emerge, this generates the progression of more humanistic and sustainable construction of operating systems. Designing for Human-Machine Symbiosis Using the URANOS Model: Emerging Research and Opportunities is a pivotal reference source for the latest research on human-centered system modeling and methods to provide a generic system model to describe complex non-linear systems. Featuring extensive coverage across a range of relevant topics, such as pervasive computing systems, smart environments, and smart industrial machines, this book is ideally designed for researchers, engineers, and professionals seeking current research on the integration of human beings and their natural, informational, and socio-cultural environments into system design.
Technology is our conduit of power. In our modern world, technology is the gatekeeper deciding who shall have and who shall have not. Either technology works for you or you work for technology. It shapes the human race just as much as we shape it. But where is this symbiosis going? Who provides the directions, the intentions, the goals of this human-machine partnership? Such decisions do not derive from the creators of technology who are enmeshed in their individual innovations. They neither come from our social leaders who possess only sufficient technical understanding to react to innovations, not to anticipate or direct their progress. Neither is there evidence of some omnipotent 'invisible hand,' the simple fact is that no one is directing this enterprise. In Mind, Machine and Morality, Peter Hancock asks questions about this insensate progress and has the temerity to suggest some cognate answers. He argues for the unbreakable symbiosis of purpose and process, and examines the dangerous possibilities that emerge when science and purpose meet. Historically, this work is a modern-day child of Bacon's hope for the 'Great Instauration.' However, unlike its forebear, the focus here is on human-machine systems. The emphasis centers on the conception that the active, extensive face of modern philosophy is technology. Whatever we are to become is bound up not only in our biology but critically in our technology also. And to achieve rational progress we need to articulate manifest purpose. This book is one step along the purposive road. Drawing together his many seminal writings on human-machine interaction and adapting these works specifically for this collection, Peter Hancock provides real food for thought, delighting readers with his unique philosophical perspective and outstanding insights. This is theoretical work of the highest order and will open minds accordingly.
There is a growing consensus in the human factors/ergonomics community that human factors research has had little impact on significant applied problems. Some have suggested that the problem lies in the fact that much HF/E research has been based on the wrong type of psychology, an information processing view of psychology that is reductionistic and context-free. Ecological psychology offers a viable alternative, presenting a richer view of human behavior that is holistic and contextualized. The papers presented in these two volumes show the conceptual impact that ecological psychology can have on HF/E, as well as presenting a number of specific examples illustrating the ecological approach to human-machine systems. It is the first collection of papers that explicitly draws a connection between these two fields. While work in this area is only just beginning, the evidence available suggests that taking an ecological approach to human factors/ergonomics helps bridge the existing gap between basic research and applied problems.
Computer Science Workbench is a monograph series which will provide you with an in-depth working knowledge of current developments in computer technology. Every volume in this series will deal with a topic of importance in computer science and elaborate on how you yourself can build systems related to the main theme. You will be able to develop a variety of systems, including computer software tools, computer graphics, computer animation, database management systems, and computer-aided design and manufacturing systems. Computer Science Work bench represents an important new contribution in the field of practical computer technology. Tosiyasu L. Kunii Preface With the advent of digital computers some five decades ago and the wide spread use of computer networks recently, we have gained enormous power in gathering information and manufacturing. Yet, this increase in comput ing power has not given us freedom in a real sense, we are increasingly enslaved by the very machine we built for gaining freedom and efficiency. Making machines to serve mankind is an essential issue we are facing. Building human-centered systems is an imperative task for scientists and engineers in the new millennium. The topic of human-centered servant modules covers a vast area. In our projects we have focused our efforts on developing theories and techn!ques based on fuzzy theories. Chapters 2 to 12 in this book collectively deal with the theoretical, methodological, and applicational aspects of human centered systems. Each chapter presents the most recent research results by the authors on a particular topic.
How Computer-automated Inventing is Revolutionizing Law and Business
Author: Robert Plotkin
Publisher: Stanford University Press
The Genie in the Machine examines how computers are being used to automate the process of inventing, and explains the steps that high-tech companies, patent lawyers, inventors, and consumers should take to thrive in the upcoming Artificial Invention Age.
This edited volume is about how unprejudiced approaches to real human cognition can improve the design of AI. It covers many aspects of human cognition and across 12 chapters the reader can explore multiple approaches about the complexities of human cognitive skills and reasoning, always guided by experts from different but complimentary academic fields. A central concept is explained: blended cognition, the natural skill of human beings for combining constantly different heuristics during their several task-solving activities. Something that was sometimes observed like a problem as “bad reasoning”, is now the central key for the understanding of the richness, adaptability and creativity of human cognition. The topic of this book connects in a significant way with the disciplines of psychology, neurology, anthropology, philosophy, logics, engineering, logics, and AI. In a nutshell: understanding better humans for designing better machines. Any person with interests on natural and artificial reasoning should read this book as a primary source of inspiration and a way to achieve a critical thinking on these topics.
Forecasting new and emerging risks associated with new technologies is a hard and provocative challenge. A wide range of new and modified materials are being made available, and many of these have unknown consequences including nanomaterials, composites, biomaterials, and biocybernetics. Additionally, the greater complexity of man-machine processes and interfaces, the introduction of collaborative robots, and the excessive dependence on computers, as in the case of unmanned vehicles in transportation, could trigger new risks. Forecasting and Managing Risk in the Health and Safety Sectors is an essential reference source that combines theoretical underpinnings with practical relevance in order to introduce training activities to manage uncertainty and risks consequent to emerging technologies. Featuring research on topics such as energy policy, green management, and intelligence cycle, this book is ideally designed for government officials, managers, policymakers, researchers, lecturers, advanced students, and professionals.
This book is devoted to the examination of emerging practical issues related to automated and autonomous systems. The book highlights the significance of these emergent technologies that determine the course of our daily lives. Each unique chapter highlights human factors and engineering concerns across real-world applications, including matters related to aviation and healthcare, human-robot interaction, transportation systems, cybersecurity and cyber defense. This book also depicts the boundaries that separate humans from machine as we continue to become ever more immersed in and symbiotic with these fast-emerging technologies. Automation, across many occupations, has transitioned the human to a role of monitoring machines, presenting challenges related to vigilance and workload. This book identifies the importance of an approach to automated technology that emphasizes the "human user" at the center of the design process. Features Provides perspectives on the role of the individual and teams in complex technical systems such as aviation, healthcare, and medicine Presents the development of highly autonomous systems related to human safety and performance Examines solutions to human factors challenges presented by modern threats to data privacy and cybersecurity Discusses human perceptual and cognitive capabilities underwriting to the design of automated and autonomous systems • Provides in-depth, expert reviews of context-related developments in automation and human-robot teaming Human Performance in Automated and Autonomous Systems: Emerging Issues and Practical Perspectives applies scientific theory directly to real-world systems where automation and autonomous technology is implemented.
Third International Workshop, Symbiotic 2014, Helsinki, Finland, October 30-31, 2014, Proceedings
Author: Giulio Jacucci
This book constitutes the proceedings of the third International Workshop on Symbiotic Interaction, Symbiotic 2014, held in Helsinki, Finland, in October 2014. The 8 full papers and 5 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 16 submissions. They are organized in topical sections named: definitions of symbiotic interaction; reviews of implicit interaction; example applications; experimenting with users; and demos and posters.
Vol. 4, Issue 1/2018 - Rethinking AI: Neural Networks, Biometrics and the New Artificial Intelligence
Author: Ramón Reichert
Publisher: transcript Verlag
Category: Social Science
Digital Culture & Society is a refereed, international journal, fostering discussion about the ways in which digital technologies, platforms and applications reconfigure daily lives and practices. It offers a forum for inquiries into digital media theory, methodologies, and socio-technological developments. This issue shows: The meaning of AI has undergone drastic changes during the last 60 years of AI discourse(s). What we talk about when saying AI is not what it meant in 1958, when John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and their colleagues started using the term. Biological information processing is now firmly embedded in commercial applications like the intelligent personal Google Assistant, Facebook's facial recognition algorithm, Deep Face, Amazon's device Alexa or Apple's software feature Siri to mention just a few.
Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI 2018): Integrating People and Intelligent Systems, January 7-9, 2018, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Author: Waldemar Karwowski
This book reports on research on innovative human systems integration and human-machine interaction, with an emphasis on artificial intelligence and automation, as well as computational modeling and simulation. It covers a wide range of applications in the area of design, construction and operation of products, systems and services, including lifecycle development and human-technology interaction. The book describes advanced methodologies and tools for evaluating and improving interface usability, new models, as well as case studies and best practices in virtual, augmented and mixed reality systems, with a special focus on dynamic environments. It also discusses different factors concerning the human, hardware, and artificial intelligence software. Based on the proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI 2018), held on January 7-9, 2018, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, the book also examines the forces that are currently shaping the nature of computing and cognitive systems, such as the need for decreasing hardware costs; the importance of infusing intelligence and automation, and the related trend toward hardware miniaturization and power reduction; the necessity for a better assimilation of computation in the environment; and the social concerns regarding access to computers and systems for people with special needs. It offers a timely survey and a practice-oriented reference guide to policy- and decision-makers, human factors engineers, systems developers and users alike.
11th International Conference, UCAmI 2017, Philadelphia, PA, USA, November 7–10, 2017, Proceedings
Author: Sergio F. Ochoa
This book constitutes the refereed conference proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence, UCAmI 2017, held in Philadelphia, PA, USA in November 2017. The 60 revised full papers and 22 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 submissions. The papers are presented in six tracks and two special sessions. These are Ambient Assisted Living, Human-Computer Interaction, Ambient Intelligence for Health, Internet of Things and Smart Cities, Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks, Sustainability, Socio-Cognitive and Affective Computing, AmI-Systems and Machine Learning.
4th International Workshop, Symbiotic 2015, Berlin, Germany, October 7-8, 2015, Proceedings
Author: Benjamin Blankertz
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Symbiotic Interaction, Symbiotic 2015, held in Berlin, Germany, in October 2015. The 11 full papers and 8 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 23 submissions. The papers present an overview of the symbiotic relationships between humans and computers as well as novel advancements. The idea of symbiotic systems put forward in this workshop capitalises on the computers’ ability to implicitly detect the users goals and psycho-physiological states and thereby enhancing human-computer interaction (HCI). A special focus of this year’s Symbiotic Workshop will be on physiological computing approaches, e.g. using brain-computer interface (BCI) technology.