The papers included in this issue of ECS Transactions were originally presented in the symposium ¿Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 16¿, held during the PRiME 2008 joint international meeting of The Electrochemical Society and The Electrochemical Society of Japan, with the technical cosponsorship of the Japan Society of Applied Physics, the Korean Electrochemical Society, the Electrochemistry Division of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute, and the Chinese Society of Electrochemistry. This meeting was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 12 to 17, 2008.
For many years, the related fields of molten salts and ionic liquids have drifted apart, to their mutual detriment. Both molten salts and ionic liquids are liquid salts containing only ions - all that is different is the temperature! Both fields involve the study of Coulombic fluids for academic and industrial purposes; both employ the same principles; both require skilled practitioners; both speak the same language; all then that is truly different is their semantics, and how superficial is that? The editors of this book, recognising that there was so much knowledge, both empirical and theoretical, which can be passed from the molten salt community to the ionic liquid community, and vice versa, organised a landmark meeting in Tunisia, designed to bridge the gap and heal the rift. Leaders from both communities met for a week for a mutual exchange, with a high tutorial content intermixed with cutting edge findings. This volume is a condensate of the principal offerings of that week, and emphasises the success which was achieved. Indeed, four future biannual meetings, under the title of “EUCHEM Conferences on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids”, have now been planned as a direct result of this meeting of minds. Topics discussed in this volume include structure, dynamics, electrochemistry, interfacial and thermodynamic properties, spectroscopy, synthesis, and theoretical studies. Experimental and theoretical methods for investigating these data are elaborated, as are techniques for data collection and analysis. This book represents the first serious discussion on the transfer of these methods and techniques between the differing temperature regimes, and is a major contribution to the future of both fields.
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Electrostatic Effects in Soft Matter and Biophysics Les Houches, France 1–13 October 2000
Author: Christian Holm
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Soft Condensed Matter commonly deals with materials that are mechanically soft and, more importantly, particularly prone to thermal fluctuation effects. Charged soft matter systems are especially interesting: they can be manufactured artificially as polyelectrolytes to serve as superabsorbers in dypers, as flocculation and retention agents, as thickeners and gelling agents, and as oil-recovery process aids. They are also abundant in living organisms, mostly performing important structural (e.g. membranes) and functional (e.g. DNA) tasks. The book describes the many areas in soft matter and biophysics where electrostatic interactions play an important role. It offers in-depth coverage of recent theoretical approaches, advances in computer simulation, and novel experimental techniques. Readership: Advanced undergraduate level in physics, physical chemistry, and theoretical biochemistry.
The Electronic and Statistical-Mechanical Theory of sp-Bonded Metals and Alloys
Author: Jürgen Hafner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The development of the modern theory of metals and alloys has coincided with great advances in quantum-mechanical many-body theory, in electronic structure calculations, in theories of lattice dynamics and of the configura tional thermodynamics of crystals, in liquid-state theory, and in the theory of phase transformations. For a long time all these different fields expanded quite independently, but now their overlap has become sufficiently large that they are beginning to form the basis of a comprehensive first-principles the ory of the cohesive, structural, and thermodynamical properties of metals and alloys in the crystalline as well as in the liquid state. Today, we can set out from the quantum-mechanical many-body Hamiltonian of the system of electrons and ions, and, following the path laid out by generations of the oreticians, we can progress far enough to calculate a pressure-temperature phase diagram of a metal or a composition-temperature phase diagram of a binary alloy by methods which are essentially rigorous and from first prin ciples. This book was written with the intention of confronting the materials scientist, the metallurgist, the physical chemist, but also the experimen tal and theoretical condensed-matter physicist, with this new and exciting possibility. Of course there are limitations to such a vast undertaking as this. The selection of the theories and techniques to be discussed, as well as the way in which they are presented, are necessarily biased by personal inclination and personal expertise.
During the last decade, various powerful experimental tools have been developed, such as small angle X-ray and neutron scattering, X-ray and neutron reflection from interfaces, neutron spin-echo spectroscopy and quasi-elastic multiple light scattering and large scale computer simulations. Due to the rapid progress brought about by these techniques, one witnesses a resurgence of interest in the physicochemical properties of colloids, surfactants and macromolecules in solution. Although these disciplines have a long history, they are at present rapidly transforming into a new, interdisciplinary research area generally known as complex liquids or soft condensed matter physics: names that reflect the considerable involvement of the chemical and condensed matter physicists. This book is based on lectures given at a NATO ASI held in the summer of 1991 and discusses these new developments, both in theory and experiment. It constitutes the most up-to-date and comprehensive summary of the entire field.
The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. • This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. • Includes contributions from experts in this field of research. • Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions • Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics
This state-of-the-art volume presents the new developments in fundamental research and in industrial applications of Molten Salts. Special attention is placed on recent developments of special topics such as Electrodeposition of Refractory Metals (Niobium, Molybdenum), and Organic Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Molten Salts.
An Overview of a Rapidly Expanding Area in Chemistry Exploring the future in chemical analysis research, Ionic Liquids in Chemical Analysis focuses on materials that promise entirely new ways to perform solution chemistry. It provides a broad overview of the applications of ionic liquids in various areas of analytical chemistry, in
This volume and its two companion volumes, entitled Tetrahedrally-Bonded Amorphous Semiconductors and Physics of Disordered Materials, are our way of paying special tribute to Sir Nevill Mott and to express our heartfelt wishes to him on the occasion of his eightieth birthday. Sir Nevill has set the highest standards as a physicist, teacher, and scientific leader. Our feelings for him include not only the respect and admiration due a great scientist, but also a deep affection for a great human being, who possesses a rare combination of outstanding personal qualities. We thank him for enriching our lives, and we shall forever carry cherished memories of this noble man. Scientists best express their thanks by contributing their thoughts and observations to a Festschrift. This one honoring Sir Nevill fills three volumes, with literally hundreds of authors meeting a strict deadline. The fact that contributions poured in from all parts of the world attests to the international cohesion of our scientific community. It is a tribute to Sir Nevill's stand for peace and understanding, transcending national borders. The editors wish to express their gratitude to Ghazaleh Koefod for her diligence and expertise in deciphering and typing many of the papers, as well as helping in numerous other ways. The blame for the errors that remain belongs to the editors.
Using 372 references and 211 illustrations, this book underlines the fundamentals of electrochemistry essential to the understanding of laboratory experiments. It treats not only the fundamental concepts of electrode reactions, but also covers the methodology and practical application of the many versatile electrochemical techniques available. Underlines the fundamentals of electrochemistry essential to the understanding of laboratory experiments Treats the fundamental concepts of electrode reactions Covers the methodology and practical application of the many versatile electrochemical techniques available
Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energy storage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a central role in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development on lithium secondary batteries. The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineers starting out in the field. The chapters in this book have been thoroughly edited by a collective of experts to achieve a cohesive book with a consistent style, level, and philosophy. They cover a wide range of topics, including principles and technologies of key materials such as the cathode, anode, electrolyte, and separator. Battery technologies such as design, manufacturing processes, and evaluation methods as well as applications are addressed. In addition, analytical methods for determining electrochemical and other properties of batteries are also included. Hence, this book is a must-have for everyone interested in obtaining all the basic information on lithium secondary batteries.
This book summarizes the latest knowledge in the science and technology of ionic liquids and polymers in different areas. Ionic liquids (IL) are actively being investigated in polymer science and technology for a number of different applications. In the first part of the book the authors present the particular properties of ionic liquids as speciality solvents. The state-of-the art in the use of ionic liquids in polymer synthesis and modification reactions including polymer recycling is outlined. The second part focuses on the use of ionic liquids as speciality additives such as plasticizers or antistatic agents. The third part examines the use of ionic liquids in the design of functional polymers (usually called polymeric ionic liquids (PIL) or poly(ionic liquids)). Many important applications in diverse scientific and industrial areas rely on these polymers, like polymer electrolytes in electrochemical devices, building blocks in materials science, nanocomposites, gas membranes, innovative anion sensitive materials, smart surfaces, and a countless set range of emerging applications in different fields such as energy, optoelectronics, analytical chemistry, biotechnology, nanomedicine or catalysis.