This book responds to the opening up of electricity markets to competition, which has completely changed the nature of power generation. The building of new generation and transmission capacity and the setting of the energy mix between nuclear, gas and renewable resources are mainly left to private initiative and investors. The authors and the editor of this book explore whether or not market forces offer a sustainable future for electricity generation. They employ economic theory and method to answer questions such as: Will the market be able to ensure adequacy of generation capacity and secu.
Handbook of Multi-Commodity Markets and ProductsOver recent decades, the marketplace has seen an increasing integration, not only among different types of commodity markets such as energy, agricultural, and metals, but also with financial markets. This trend raises important questions about how to identify and analyse opportunities in and manage risks of commodity products. The Handbook of Multi-Commodity Markets and Products offers traders, commodity brokers, and other professionals a practical and comprehensive manual that covers market structure and functioning, as well as the practice of trading across a wide range of commodity markets and products. Written in non-technical language, this important resource includes the information needed to begin to master the complexities of and to operate successfully in today’s challenging and fluctuating commodity marketplace. Designed as a practical practitioner-orientated resource, the book includes a detailed overview of key markets – oil, coal, electricity, emissions, weather, industrial metals, freight, agricultural and foreign exchange – and contains a set of tools for analysing, pricing and managing risk for the individual markets. Market features and the main functioning rules of the markets in question are presented, along with the structure of basic financial products and standardised deals. A range of vital topics such as stochastic and econometric modelling, market structure analysis, contract engineering, as well as risk assessment and management are presented and discussed in detail with illustrative examples to commodity markets. The authors showcase how to structure and manage both simple and more complex multi-commodity deals. Addressing the issues of profit-making and risk management, the book reveals how to exploit pay-off profiles and trading strategies on a diversified set of commodity prices. In addition, the book explores how to price energy products and other commodities belonging to markets segmented across specific structural features. The Handbook of Multi-Commodity Markets and Products includes a wealth of proven methods and useful models that can be selected and developed in order to make appropriate estimations of the future evolution of prices and appropriate valuations of products. The authors additionally explore market risk issues and what measures of risk should be adopted for the purpose of accurately assessing exposure from multi-commodity portfolios. This vital resource offers the models, tools, strategies and general information commodity brokers and other professionals need to succeed in today’s highly competitive marketplace.
Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Second Session, on H.R. 4614, an Act Making Appropriations for Energy and Water Development for the Fiscal Year Ending September 30, 2005, and for Other Purposes
Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development
Weather derivatives provide a tool for weather risk management, and the markets for these exotic financial products are gradually emerging in size and importance. This unique monograph presents a unified approach to the modeling and analysis of such weather derivatives, including financial contracts on temperature, wind and rain. Based on a deep statistical analysis of weather factors, sophisticated stochastic processes are introduced modeling the time and space dynamics. Applying ideas from the modern theory of mathematical finance, weather derivatives are priced, and questions of hedging analyzed. The treatise contains an in-depth analysis of typical weather contracts traded at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME), including so-called CDD and HDD futures. The statistical analysis of weather variables is based on a large data set from Lithuania. The monograph includes the research done by the authors over the last decade on weather markets. Their work has gained considerable attention, and has been applied in many contexts. Contents:Financial Markets for WeatherStatistics of Weather:Data Description and Exploratory AnalysisSpatial-Temporal ModellingWeather Derivatives:Continuous-Time Models for Temperature and Wind SpeedPricing of Forward Contracts on Temperature and Wind SpeedExtensions of Temperature and Wind Speed ModelsOptions on Temperature and WindPrecipitation DerivativesUtility-Based Approaches to Pricing Weather Derivatives Readership: Researchers in mathematical/quantitative finance, environmental/energy economics. Keywords:Weather Derivatives;Stochastic Processes;HDD;CDD;Autoregressive Moving Average Time Series;Futures Contracts;Options;Utility Pricing;Girsanov Transform;Esscher Transform;Precipitation;Temperature;Wind SpeedKey Features:A rigorous stochastic modeling of weather factors like temperature, wind and rain based on continuous-time autoregressive processes and Lévy processesPricing of weather derivatives like futures and options based on modern mathematical finance theoryThis book is unique in combining sophisticated stochastic models with the modern theory of mathematical finance to weather derivatives. It provides a unified approach to weather marketsReviews: "The monograph will also be useful for those dealing with energy markets, agriculture, insurance and financial engineering, and will stimulate further research in this important direction." Anatoliy Swishchuk University of Calgary
Approaching the theme from an antitrust perspective and focusing on telecommunications and television broadcasting, this volume examines how traditional European competition law doctrines and principles can be applied to this converging sector. The application of antitrust rules to the communications sector is often one of the most controversial areas of law and policy. The shift towards a more competition law oriented form of regulation is one of the main principles inspiring the recent reform of European sectorial regulation enshrined in the 2002 Electronic Communication Package. The Package was adopted in 2002 and is in the process of being implemented throughout the Union. This monograph provides a detailed description of the new regulatory package and highlights the interplay between regulatory provisions and EC competition law. It then follows the pattern of a typical antitrust analysis containing chapters on the definition of relevant market in the sector and various forms of abuses of market power. The book also critically examines the Commission's practice and policy in the field of merger control and considers its relationship with wider regulatory policies. Finally it analyses the sector from the perspective of the 'European' public interest and the changed nature of communications as a public service.
A Survey of Experience in North America, Europe and Australia
Author: Peter Forsyth
Category: Business & Economics
Prior to liberalization, there was little scope for predatory behaviour in the aviation market. However, following deregulation, new entrants sought to compete with entrenched incumbents. Low-cost carriers (LCCs) gained significant market share, which in turn provoked many different kinds of defensive response. Having put pressure on established carriers, low-cost airlines are themselves feeling the pressure of competition from new operators. While it is normal and natural for airlines to react to competition - modifying their services, the ways in which they offer them and their prices - when does aggressive commercial behaviour go too far and become predation? This book considers what exactly is meant by 'predation' in the aviation environment, and explores the strategies LCCs adopt in order to gain market share, as well as the strategies of the established airlines in response to competition from new entrants to the market. It also addresses the key question of what competition policy should do to ensure intensive competition. Competition versus Predation in Aviation Markets brings together contributions from around the world, from airlines, government agencies, leading academics and consultants, providing a wealth of perspectives on a business practice crucial to airline survival.