Proceedings of the Third Microquasars Workshop, Granada Workshop on Galactic Relativistic Jet Sources, Granada, Spain, 11 - 13 September 2000
Author: Alberto J. Castro-Tirado
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The study of microquasars, sources in our Galaxy displaying powerful relativistic jets, is a rapidly advancing field in astrophysics. New instrumentation on the ground (MERLIN, SCUBA, VLA, and VLT) and aboard satellites (ASCA, BSAX, ISO, IXAE and RXTE) has provided important results, and much more is expected to come from Chandra and XMM-Newton. In the future, powerful instrumentation will come online in sub-mm (ALMA) and gamma rays (INTEGRAL), extending our coverage to important regions for the study of microquasars. Energy transport via relativistic jets is one of the most important physical mechanisms taking place in compact objects, either in binary systems or in the nuclei of active galaxies. Large efforts have been devoted to proper understanding of the disk-jet connection, and even the effects of rotation or magnetic fields. Several important advances have been made recently, both from the point of view of the theoretical treatment of jets and the different new observational tests. All of them are reflected in this book, the first one devoted to the study of these enigmatic objects.
This exhaustive work sheds new light on unsolved questions in gamma-ray astrophysics. It presents not only a complete introduction to the non-thermal Universe, but also a description of the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov technique and the MAGIC telescopes. The Fermi-LAT satellite and the HAWC Observatory are also described, as results from both are included. The physics section of the book is divided into microquasars and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), and includes extended overviews of both. In turn, the book discusses constraints on particle acceleration and gamma-ray production in microquasar jets, based on the analyses of MAGIC data on Cygnus X-1, Cygnus X-3 and V404 Cygni. Moreover, it presents the discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emissions from Cygnus X-1, using Fermi-LAT data. The book includes the first joint work between MAGIC, Fermi-LAT and HAWC, and discusses the hypothetical PWN nature of the targets in depth. It reports on a PWN population study that discusses, for the first time, the importance of the surrounding medium for gamma-ray production, and in closing presents technical work on the first Large-Size-Telescope (LST; CTA Collaboration), along with a complete description of the camera.
The Common Physics of AGN, Microquasars, and Gamma-ray Bursts : Ann Arbor, Michigan, 14-17 December 2005
Author: Philip A. Hughes
Publisher: AIP Conference Proceedings / A
Highly collimated flows of plasma (jets), with speeds comparable to that of light, are a ubiquitous feature of our Universe. While the global dynamics of extragalactic jets is reasonably well understood, their composition and internal structure, and the role of magnetic fields, remain obscure. Major questions remain concerning the physics of the gamma-ray emission itself. This proceedings includes the eight invited talks presented at this conference.
The discovery of the ?rst case of superluminal radio jets in our galaxy in 1994 from the bright and peculiar X-ray source GRS 1915+105 has opened the way to a major shift in the direction of studies of stellar-mass accreting binaries. The past decade has seen an impressive increase in multi-wavelength studies. It is now known that all black hole binaries in our galaxy are radio sources and most likely their radio emission originates from a powerful jet. In addition to the spectacular events related to the ejection of superluminal jets, steady jets are known from many systems. Compared with their supermassive cousins, the nuclei of active galaxies, stellar-mass X-ray binaries have the advantage of varying on time scales accessible within a human life (sometimes even much shorter than a second). This has led to the ?rst detailed studies of the relation between accretion and ejection. It is even possible that, excluding their “soft” periods, the majority of the power in gal- tic sources lies in the jets and not in the accretion ?ows. This means that until a few years ago we were struggling with a physical problem, accretion onto compact objects, without considering one of the most important components of the system. Models that associate part of the high-energy emission and even the fast aperiodic variability to the jet itself are now being proposed and jets can no longer be ignored.
This work will be of interest to a wide range of academics. It provides a comprehensive round-up of the proceedings and papers delivered at the 2006 Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, held at Rice University in Houston, Texas, USA. The contributions come from scientists interested in this emerging field. They discuss the progress in topics covering everything from stellar evolution and envelopes, to opacities, radiation transport and x-ray photoionized plasmas.
Gamma ray astronomy, the branch of high energy astrophysics that studies the sky in energetic ?-ray photons, is destined to play a crucial role in the exploration of nonthermal phenomena in the Universe in their most extreme and violent forms. The great potential of this discipline offers impressive coverage of many OC hot topicsOCO of modern astrophysics and cosmology, such as the origin of galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays, particle acceleration and radiation processes under extreme astrophysical conditions, and the search for dark matter."
A Second Workshop on the Nature of the High-Energy Unidentified Sources
Author: K.S. Cheng
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Nearly one half of the point-like gamma-ray sources detected by EGRET instrument of the late Compton satellite are still defeating our attempts at identifying them. To establish the origin and nature of these enigmatic sources has become a major problem of current high-energy astrophysics. The second workshop on Multiwavelength Approach to Unidentified Gamma-ray Sources intends to shed new and fresh light on the problem of the nature of these mysterious sources and the objects behind them. The proceedings contain 46 contributed papers in this subject, which cover theoretical models on gamma-ray sources as well as the best multiwavelength strategies for the identification of the promising candidates. The topics of this conference also include energetic phenomena ocurring both in galactic and extragalactic scenarios, phenomena that might lead to the appearance of what we have called high-energy unidentified sources. The book will be of interest for all active researchers in the high-energy astrophysics and related research areas as well as for scientists and graduate students interested in understanding the recent progress in this field.
Accretion flows, winds and jets of compact astrophysical objects and stars are generally described within the framework of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) flows. Analytical analysis of the problem provides profound physical insights, which are essential for interpreting and understanding the results of numerical simulations. Providing such a physical understanding of MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects is the main goal of this book, which is an updated translation of a successful Russian graduate textbook. The book provides the first detailed introduction into the method of the Grad-Shafranov equation, describing analytically the very broad class of hydrodynamical and MHD flows. It starts with the classical examples of hydrodynamical accretion onto relativistic and nonrelativistic objects. The force-free limit of the Grad-Shafranov equation allows us to analyze in detail the physics of the magnetospheres of radio pulsars and black holes, including the Blandford-Znajek process of energy extraction from a rotating black hole immersed in an external magnetic field. Finally, on the basis of the full MHD version of the Grad-Shafranov equation the author discusses the problems of jet collimation and particle acceleration in Active Galactic Nuclei, radio pulsars, and Young Stellar Objects. The comparison of the analytical results with numerical simulations demonstrates their good agreement. Assuming that the reader is familiar with the basic physical and mathematical concepts of General Relativity, the author uses the 3+1 split approach which allows the formulation of all results in terms of physically clear language of three dimensional vectors. The book contains detailed derivations of equations, numerous exercises, and an extensive bibliography. It therefore serves as both an introductory text for graduate students and a valuable reference work for researchers in the field.
The GLAST Symposia provide a forum for the exchange of information across a broad range of scientific investigations. GLAST, NASA's new gamma-ray observatory, opens a new window into the universe. GLAST data will enable scientists to answer questions that arise within a broad range of topics, including super massive black hole systems, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts, the origin of cosmic rays, and searches for signals of new physics.
On Recent Developments in Theoretical and Experimental General Relativity, Gravitation and Relativistic Field Theories : Proceedings of the MG10 Meeting Held at Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-26 July 2003
2nd International Symposium on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy
Author: Felix A. Aharonian
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
The second in a series of conferences was attended by leading experts in the field of gamma-ray astronomy as well as students and postdocs from many universities and research centers. The symposium covered the basic observational and many theoretical topics related to ground and space-based gamma-ray astronomy and cosmology.
Proceedings of the Fourth International Meeting on High Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy
Author: F.A. Aharonian
Publisher: Amer Inst of Physics
The fourth in a series of major international conferences in the field of Gamma-Ray Astronomy, attended by leading experts as well as young scientists from many universities and research centers. The symposium covered the basic observational and many theoretical topics related to ground and space-based Gamma-Ray Astronomy, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology.
Proceedings of the MPE/USM/MPA/ESO Joint Astronomy Conference Held in Munich, Germany, 7-11 November 2005
Author: Bernd Aschenbach
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The year 2005, which marked the 100th anniversary of the 'annus mirabilis', the year in which Albert Einstein published three of his most important scientific papers, was the perfect opportunity to review and to present the current scientific understanding of relativistic topics. This book provides an up-to-date reference on the theory of gravity, relativistic astrophysics and cosmology. It is a useful reference tool for both the expert and the new-comer in these fields.