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Mini-Micro Fuel Cells

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: S. Kakaç

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 422

View: 795

This volume contains an archival record of the NATO Advanced Institute on Mini – Micro Fuel Cells – Fundamental and Applications held in Çesme – Izmir, Turkey, July 22–August 3, 2007. The ASIs are intended to be a high-level teaching activity in scientific and technical areas of current concern. In this volume, the reader may find interesting chapters on Mini- Micro Fuel Cells with fundamentals and applications. In recent years, fu- cell development, modeling and performance analysis has received much attention due to their potential for distributed power which is a critical issue for energy security and the environmental protection. Small fuel cells for portable applications are important for the security. The portable devices (many electronic and wireless) operated by fuel cells for providing all-day power, are very valuable for the security, for defense and in the war against terrorism. Many companies in NATO and non-NATO countries have concentrated to promote the fuel cell industry. Many universities with industrial partners committed to the idea of working together to develop fuel cells. As tech- logy advanced in the 1980s and beyond, many government organizations joined in spending money on fuel-cell research. In recent years, interest in using fuel cells to power portable electronic devices and other small equipment (cell phones, mobile phones, lab-tops, they are used as micro power source in biological applications) has increased partly due to the promise of fuel cells having higher energy density.

Silicon Micro-fabricated Miniature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

Author: Shawn Christopher Kelley

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 642

View: 929

Handbook of Fuel Cells

Fundamentals, Technology, and Applications

Author:

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Fuel cells

Page:

View: 958

Design, Fabrication, and Integration of a Fuel Cell for a Hybrid Micro Power System

Author: André D. Taylor

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 833

Fuel Cell and Distributed Generation Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan

PIER Final Project Report

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Distributed generation of electric power

Page: 375

View: 390

Smart Energy Management and Control for Fuel Cell Based Micro-Grid Connected Neighborhoods

Author: Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 116

Fuel cell power generation promises to be an efficient, pollution-free, reliable power source in both large scale and small scale, remote applications. DOE formed the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance with the intention of breaking one of the last barriers remaining for cost effective fuel cell power generation. The Alliance's goal is to produce a core solid-state fuel cell module at a cost of no more than $400 per kilowatt and ready for commercial application by 2010. With their inherently high, 60-70% conversion efficiencies, significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and negligible emissions of other pollutants, fuel cells will be the obvious choice for a broad variety of commercial and residential applications when their cost effectiveness is improved. In a research program funded by the Department of Energy, the research team has been investigating smart fuel cell-operated residential micro-grid communities. This research has focused on using smart control systems in conjunction with fuel cell power plants, with the goal to reduce energy consumption, reduce demand peaks and still meet the energy requirements of any household in a micro-grid community environment. In Phases I and II, a SEMaC was developed and extended to a micro-grid community. In addition, an optimal configuration was determined for a single fuel cell power plant supplying power to a ten-home micro-grid community. In Phase III, the plan is to expand this work to fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods (mini-grid). The economic implications of hydrogen cogeneration will be investigated. These efforts are consistent with DOE's mission to decentralize domestic electric power generation and to accelerate the onset of the hydrogen economy. A major challenge facing the routine implementation and use of a fuel cell based mini-grid is the varying electrical demand of the individual micro-grids, and, therefore, analyzing these issues is vital. Efforts are needed to determine the most appropriate means of implementing micro-grids and the costs and processes involved with their extended operation. With the development and availability of fuel cell based stand-alone power plants, an electrical mini-grid, encompassing several connected residential neighborhoods, has become a viable concept. A primary objective of this project is to define the parameters of an economically efficient fuel cell based mini-grid. Since pure hydrogen is not economically available in sufficient quantities at the present time, the use of reforming technology to produce and store excess hydrogen will also be investigated. From a broader perspective, the factors that bear upon the feasibility of fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods are similar to those pertaining to the electrification of a small town with a localized power generating station containing several conventional generating units. In the conventional case, the town or locality would also be connected to the larger grid system of the utility company. Therefore, in the case of the fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods, this option should also be available. The objectives of this research project are: To demonstrate that smart energy management of a fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhood can be efficient and cost-effective;To define the most economical micro-grid configuration; and, To determine how residential micro-grid connected fuel cell(s) can contribute to America's hydrogen energy future.

Energy technology dictionary with examples on usage

Author: Peter Baumgartner

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Energy industries

Page: 417

View: 920

Aerobic Miniature Microbial Fuel Cells

Author:

Publisher:

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Category:

Page: 3

View: 189

Distributed autonomous sensor (DAS) networks will require sustainable energy-scavenging power sources for persistent surveillance applications. Ideally, these power sources will scale with the sensor size (micro/nanoelectromechanical) to enable covert deployment and a small power budget. Based on their ability to sustain power production for years while scavenging energy from a variety of environments and nutrients, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a viable solution to power water-borne DAS networks. However, to date, nearly all MFCs are large and bulky (100 cu cm to cu m), making them significantly larger than many sensors and communication packages. Researchers in the NRL Chemistry and Oceanography Divisions have recently developed the first high power density miniature MFC (mini-MFC). The mini-MFC has a 2.0 sq cm cross-section and a 1.2 cu cm volume, making it orders of magnitude smaller than traditional MFCs. Additionally, the mini-MFC is designed to maximize current collection and proton diffusion to the cathode, enabling unprecedented power per area (3 W/sq m) and volume (500 W/cu m) when using graphite felt electrodes and Shewanella oneidensis cultured under micro-aerophilic conditions. These power densities are sustained when S. oneidensis biofilms on the anode are used with acellular media. Previous to this work, mixed consortia of bacteria with the ability to utilize electron donors efficiently needed to be used to produce current densities above 50 W/cu m. The mini-MFC design and size create a unique device that enhances power production per volume when compared to any other MFC design in the literature. These results are an indication that further size reductions may further increase power density and enable microbial energy scavengers to power DAS networks for Navy-relevant applications in the littoral water column.

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications

Fundamentals, Engineering and Advances

Author: Alexandra M. F. R. Pinto

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 821

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications: Fundamentals, Engineering and Advances presents the fundamental concepts, technological advances and challenges in developing, modeling and deploying fuel cells and fuel cell systems for portable devices, including micro and mini fuel cells. The authors review the fundamental science of direct alcohol fuel cells, covering, in detail, thermodynamics, electrode kinetics and electrocatalysis of charge-transfer reactions, mass and heat transfer phenomena, and basic modeling aspects. In addition, the book examines other fuels in DAFCs, such as formic acid, ethylene glycol and glycerol, along with technological aspects and applications, including case studies and cost analysis. Researchers, engineering professionals, fuel cell developers, policymakers and senior graduate students will find this a valuable resource. The book's comprehensive coverage of fundamentals is especially useful for graduate students, advanced undergraduate students and those new to the field. Provides a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of DAFCs and their basic components, design and performance Presents current and complete information on the state-of-the-art of DAFC technology and its most relevant challenges for commercial deployment Includes practical application examples, problems and case studies Covers the use of other fuels, such as formic acid, ethylene glycol and glycerol

Human Activity and the Environment

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Human ecology

Page:

View: 242

DTE Energy and Distributed Generation Technologies

A Systems Dynamics Perspective : a Practicum Submitted in Partial Fulfillment ... for the Degree of Master of Science, Resource Policy and Behavior ...

Author: Andrew J. Horning

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Electric power transmission

Page:

View: 534

Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels and Minichannels-- 2006

Presented at 4th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels and Minichannels, June 19-21, 2006, Limerick, Ireland

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Fluidic devices

Page: 1394

View: 989

American Glass Review

Author:

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Category: Glassworkers

Page:

View: 882

Business Week

Author:

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Category: Business

Page:

View: 198

The Economist

Author:

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Category: Commerce

Page:

View: 239

Design,fabrication and Experimental Study of a Mini Alkaline Fuel Cell for Micro-electronic and Mechanical Application

Author:

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Category: Fuel cells

Page: 86

View: 346

ISA Directory of Instrumentation

Author:

Publisher:

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Category: Scientific apparatus and instruments industry

Page:

View: 775

New Dimensions in Renewable Energy

Proceedings of the National Solar Energy Convention, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, December 28-30, 1992

Author: N. K. Bansal

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Energy policy

Page: 510

View: 691

New Scientist

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page:

View: 481

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications

Fundamentals, Engineering and Advances

Author: Alexandra M. F. R. Pinto

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 353

View: 668

Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells for Portable Applications: Fundamentals, Engineering and Advances presents the fundamental concepts, technological advances and challenges in developing, modeling and deploying fuel cells and fuel cell systems for portable devices, including micro and mini fuel cells. The authors review the fundamental science of direct alcohol fuel cells, covering, in detail, thermodynamics, electrode kinetics and electrocatalysis of charge-transfer reactions, mass and heat transfer phenomena, and basic modeling aspects. In addition, the book examines other fuels in DAFCs, such as formic acid, ethylene glycol and glycerol, along with technological aspects and applications, including case studies and cost analysis. Researchers, engineering professionals, fuel cell developers, policymakers and senior graduate students will find this a valuable resource. The book’s comprehensive coverage of fundamentals is especially useful for graduate students, advanced undergraduate students and those new to the field. Provides a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of DAFCs and their basic components, design and performance Presents current and complete information on the state-of-the-art of DAFC technology and its most relevant challenges for commercial deployment Includes practical application examples, problems and case studies Covers the use of other fuels, such as formic acid, ethylene glycol and glycerol