The Phaedo is acknowledged to be one of Plato's greatest masterpieces, showing him both as a philosopher and as a dramatist at the height of his powers. For its moving account of the execution of Socrates, the Phaedo ranks among the supreme literary achievements of antiquity. It is also a seminal document for many ideas deeply ingrained in western culture, and provides one of the best introductions to Plato's thought. This new edition is a revised version of the Clarendon Press translation, and is eminently suitable for readers new to Plato, and ideal for classroom use, thanks to the provision of Stephanus page and letter numbering.
Plato did not create his philosophy ex nihilo, but rather drew on four centuries of literary production in epic and lyric poetry, on ethnography and historiography, tragedy and comedy, medical and mathematical research, oratory and rhetorical theory, as well as on Presocratic philosophy. Words & Ideas offers a study of Plato's philosophical language against this cultural background, retracing to their origins the history and development of the key terms of the Theory of Forms as presented in the Phaedo. 'Form' or 'idea', 'ousia' or 'being', 'participation', 'presence' and 'community' are among the concepts investigated. The aim is to determine both the connotations of Plato's philosophical terms and the precise historical and philosophical contexts on which Plato drew in the formulation of his thoughts. In tracing the roots of Plato's philosophy, Words & Ideas demarcates afresh Plato's position regarding the protagonists of pre-Socratic philosophy: Parmenides and the Eleatics, Anaxagoras and Diogenes of Apollonia, Leucippus and Democritus, Philolaus and the Pythagoreans. This identifcation of his sources allows us, in many cases for the first time, to judge what in the arguments of the dialogues is Plato's own contribution and what is there only as part of a philosophical or pre-philosophical inheritance.
This book is an introduction to Islamic Philosophy, beginning with its Medieval inception, right through to its more contemporary incarnations. Using the language and conceptual apparatus of contemporary Anglo-American ‘Analytic’ philosophy, this book represents a novel and creative attempt to rejuvenate Islamic Philosophy for a modern audience. It adopts a ‘rational reconstructive’ approach to the history of philosophy by affording maximum hermeneutical priority to the strongest possible interpretation of a philosopher’s arguments while also paying attention to the historical context in which they worked. The central canonical figures of Medieval Islamic Philosophy – al-Kindi, al-Farabi, Avicenna, al-Ghazali, Averroes – are presented chronologically along with an introduction to the central themes of Islamic theology and the Greek philosophical tradition they inherited. The book then briefly introduces what the author collectively refers to as the ‘Pre-Modern’ figures including Suhrawardi, Mulla Sadra, and Ibn Taymiyyah, and presents all of these thinkers, along with their Medieval predecessors, as forerunners to the more modern incarnation of Islamic Philosophy: Political Islam.
Facial Aesthetics: Concepts and Clinical Diagnosis is a unique new illustrated resource for facial aesthetic surgery and dentistry, providing the comprehensive clinical textbook on the art and science of facial aesthetics for clinicians involved in the management of facial deformities, including orthodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, plastic and reconstructive surgeons and aesthetic dentists. It aims to provide readers with a comprehensive examination of facial aesthetics in the context of dentofacial and craniofacial diagnosis and treatment planning. This aim is achieved through coupling meticulous research and practical clinical advice with beautifully drawn supporting illustrations and diagrams. Structured over 24 logically arranged and easy-to-follow chapters, Part I of Facial Aesthetics covers the historical evidence for facial aesthetic canons and concepts in depth. It incorporates all aspects relevant to the work of the clinician, including the philosophical and scientific theories of facial beauty, facial attractiveness research, facial expression and the psychosocial ramifications of facial deformities. Part II of the book then goes on to examine clinical evaluation and diagnosis in considerable detail under four sections, from the initial consultation interview and acquisition of diagnostic records (section 1), complete clinical examination and analysis of the craniofacial complex (section 2), in depth analysis of each individual facial region using a top-down approach (section 3) and finally focussing on smile and dentogingival aesthetic evaluation (section 4). An in-depth, thoughtful, practical and absorbing reference, Facial Aesthetics will find an enthusiastic reception among facial aesthetic surgeons and aesthetic dentists with an interest in refining their understanding and appreciation of the human face and applying practical protocols to their clinical diagnosis and treatment planning. Key features: Examines facial aesthetics in a clinical context Promotes an interdisciplinary approach to facial aesthetic analysis Detailed description of the systematic clinical evaluation of the facial soft tissues and craniodentoskeletal complex Detailed, step-by-step aesthetic analysis of each facial region In-depth analysis of 2D and 3D clinical diagnostic records Evidence-based approach, from antiquity to contemporary scientific evidence, to the guidelines employed in planning the correction of facial deformities Treatment planning from first principles highlighted Clinical notes are highlighted throughout Clearly organized and practical format Highly illustrated in full colour throughout
This is the first collection of essays in which European and American philosophers explicitly think out their respective contributions and identities as environmental thinkers in the analytic and continental traditions. The American/European, as well as Analytic/Continental collaboration here bears fruit helpful for further theorizing and research. The essays group around three well-defined areas of questioning all focusing on the amelioration/management of environmentally, historically and traditionally diminished landscapes. The first part deals with differences between New World and the Old World perspectives on nature and landscape restoration in general, the second focuses on the meaning of ecological restoration of cultural landscapes, and the third on the meaning of the wolf and of wildness. It does so in a way that the strengths of each philosophical school—continental and analytic—comes to the fore in order to supplement the other’s approach. This text is open to educated readers across all disciplines, particularly those interested in restoration/adaptation ecology, the cultural construction of place and landscape, the ongoing conversation about wilderness, the challenges posed to global environmental change. The text may also be a gold mine for doctoral students looking for dissertation projects in environmental philosophy that are inclusive of continental and analytic traditions. This text is rich in innovative approaches to the questions they raise that are reasonably well thought out. The fact that the essays in each section really do resonate with one another directly is also intellectually exciting and very helpful in working out the full dimensions of each question raised in the volume.
These new translations present Plato's remarkable dramatization of the momentous events surrounding the trial of Socrates in 399 BC, on charges of irreligion and corrupting the young. The Euthyphro, Defence of Socrates, and Crito form a dramatic and thematic sequence, raising fundamentalquestions about the basis of moral, religious, legal, and political obligation. Plato explores these issues with a freshness and directness that have never been surpassed. In the Defence of Socrates, Plato seeks not only to clear his master's name, but also to defend the whole Socratic way of life, and therefore philosophy itself. The result is an oratorical masterpiece. The Euthyphro, an inquiry into the nature of piety, probes the relationship between religion andmorality. The Crito discusses the citizen's obligation to the state, in the context of a life-or-death issue confronting Socrates himself - whether or not to escape from prison. David Gallop's Introduction provides a stimulating philosophical and historical analysis of these texts, complemented by useful explanatory notes and an index of names, to make this edition invaluable to readers new to these timeless classics.
This volume brings together ten of the most celebrated Platonic myths, from eight of Plato's dialogues ranging from the early Protagoras and Gorgias to the late Timaeus and Critias. They include the famous myth of the cave from Republic as well as 'The Judgement of Souls' and 'The Birth of Love'. Each myth is a self-contained story, prefaced by a short explanatory note, while the introduction considers Plato's use of myth and imagery.
'Some of our greatest blessings come from madness Phaedrus is widely recognized as one of Plato's most profound and beautiful works. It takes the form of a dialogue between Socrates and Phaedrus and its ostensible subject is love, especially homoerotic love. Socrates reveals it to be a kind of divine madness that can allow our souls to grow wings and soar to their greatest heights. Then the conversation changes direction and turns to a discussion of rhetoric, which must be based on truth passionately sought, thus allying it to philosophy. The dialogue closes by denigrating the value of the written word in any context, compared to the living teaching of a Socratic philosopher. The shifts of topic and register have given rise to doubts about the unity of the dialogue, doubts which are addressed in the introduction to this volume. Full explanatory notes also elucidate issues throughout the dialogue that might puzzle a modern reader. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.