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Preventing Prenatal Harm

Should the State Intervene? Second Edition

Author: Deborah Mathieu

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 208

View: 199

Arguing that the state must meet strict conditions to justify interfering in at-risk pregnancies, Deborah Mathieu examines the legal and ethical concerns that arise when governments mandate the behavior of pregnant women. She explores both the pregnant woman's right to decide what happens to her body and the future child's right to be protected from avoidable damage. Mathieu addresses such topics as reproductive hazards in the workplace, mandated fetal therapy, forced lifestyle changes for pregnant women, and the future child's right to sue for lack of prenatal care. The controversy raises key issues of rights, duties, and the scope of legitimate state action, thus posing fundamental challenges to the fields of medicine, biomedical ethics, law, and public policy. This edition has been completely updated and expanded. Mathieu presents new arguments for acceptable types of state intervention and provides specific examples. This edition also incorporates recent court decisions, especially cases involving substance abuse. The book includes both an updated bibliography and an updated reference list of relevant court cases.

Preventing Prenatal Harm

Should the State Intervene?

Author: D. Mathieu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 156

View: 928

The issues explored in this book have unfortunately come to be known as 'maternal-fetal conflicts'. The phrase is unsatisfactory because it is misleading: It places the emphasis on the well-being of the fetus instead of on the born child (who will bear the burden of any harm done prenatally); it assumes a conflict between a pregnant women and her offspring (while the issue is usually more complex and more broadly based); and it incorrectly implies that all pregnant women are appropriately regarded as mothers. For these reasons, I have chosen to avoid the phrase 'matern- fetal conflict' altogether, and will instead speak in terms of 'preventable prenatal harm'. I mention this at the outset, for those of you familiar with 'maternal-fetal conflicts' who might be wondering if I am addressing the same issues. Yes. But I am trying to look at them in a new - and I hope more fruitful - way. I would like to thank the other participants in the Hastings Center's maternal-fetal project - especially those who disageed with me - for being so thought-provoking. And I owe a lasting debt of gratitude to Henry Ruth and Allen Buchanan for their invaluable counsel.

Children of Choice

Freedom and the New Reproductive Technologies

Author: John A. Robertson

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 291

View: 186

Cloning, genetic screening, embryo freezing, in vitro fertilization, Norplant, RU486--these are the technologies revolutionizing our reproductive landscape. Through the lens of procreative liberty--meaning both the freedom to decide whether or not to have children as well as the freedom to control one's reproductive capacity--John Robertson, a leading legal bioethicist, analyzes the ethical, legal, and social controversies surrounding each major technology and opens up a multitude of fascinating questions: Do frozen embryos have the right to be born? Should parents be allowed to select offspring traits? May a government force welfare recipients to take contraceptives? Robertson's arguments examine the broad range of consequences of each reproductive technology and offers a timely, multifaceted analysis of the competing interests at stake for patients, couples, doctors, policymakers, lawyers, and ethicists.

Preventing Prenatal Harm

Should the State Intervene?

Author: D. Mathieu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 156

View: 944

The issues explored in this book have unfortunately come to be known as 'maternal-fetal conflicts'. The phrase is unsatisfactory because it is misleading: It places the emphasis on the well-being of the fetus instead of on the born child (who will bear the burden of any harm done prenatally); it assumes a conflict between a pregnant women and her offspring (while the issue is usually more complex and more broadly based); and it incorrectly implies that all pregnant women are appropriately regarded as mothers. For these reasons, I have chosen to avoid the phrase 'matern- fetal conflict' altogether, and will instead speak in terms of 'preventable prenatal harm'. I mention this at the outset, for those of you familiar with 'maternal-fetal conflicts' who might be wondering if I am addressing the same issues. Yes. But I am trying to look at them in a new - and I hope more fruitful - way. I would like to thank the other participants in the Hastings Center's maternal-fetal project - especially those who disageed with me - for being so thought-provoking. And I owe a lasting debt of gratitude to Henry Ruth and Allen Buchanan for their invaluable counsel.

Feminist Perspectives in Medical Ethics

Author: Helen B. Holmes

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 315

View: 910

The fields of medical ethics and women's studies have experienced unprecedented growth. This work aims to show how a feminist perspective advances biomedical ethics. It uncovers inconsistencies in traditional arguments and argues for the importance of hitherto ignored factors in decision making.

Rights, Duties and the Body

Law and Ethics of the Maternal-Fetal Conflict

Author: Rosamund Scott

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN:

Category: Law

Page: 480

View: 245

If a pregnant woman refuses medical treatment needed by the fetus - for instance for religious reasons - or conducts some aspect of her life in a way which risks fetal harm, there may arise an instance of "maternal-fetal conflict". This is an unfortunate term, since pregant women are generally renowned for their self-sacrificing behaviour, but it may well reflect the reality of certain maternal choices and actions. Should a pregnant woman have the legal right to refuse medical treatment needed by the fetus, or should she owe it a legal duty of care which precludes her acting in ways which may harm it? Does the debate hinge simply upon the appropriateness, or otherwise, of legally compelling presumed moral obligations, or is it more complex than this? Indeed, what are a pregnant woman't moral obligations towards her fetus? In England and in some US states, courts have held that a pregnant woman has the right to refuse medical treatment needed by the fetus. In similar fashion, the idea of a general maternal legal duty of care toward the fetus has been rejected, most recently in Canada. The cases, however, leave the impression of an uncomfortable split between the ethics and the law, as if the problem were entirely one of not legally enforcing presumed moral duties. The effect is both puzzling and polarising: puzzling in that the cases leave unanswered - as largely they must - the huge question of a pregnant woman's moral rights and duties; polarising in that the cases leave troubling tensions about a pregnant woman's rights in the face of fetal harm or death. The tendency is to deny these by ever more strongly asserting a woman's rights. In turn this encourages a reaction in favour of fetal rights, one which is unlikely to attend to a woman's interests and difficulties in pregnancy. This could have serious legal repercussions for various instances of maternal-fetal conflict, including in those US states or other jurisdictions which have yet to address these issues. It might also increase the pressures on the issue of abortion. This book, which seeks a way between these polarised positions, tries to explain and justify a woman's moral and legal rights in pregnancy and, at the same time, to explore the extent of her moral duties toward the fetus. The aim is to resolve, as far as possible, the ethical, legal and social tensions which undoubtedly surround this area. Innovatively in work on this issue (and unusually in the field of medical law and ethics) the author adopts a joint philosophical and legal approach directed to issues both of principle and policy, revealing strong conceptual links between the ethics and the law. In addition to an ethical exploration of the maternal-fetal relationship, the author explores and analyses the relevant English, American, Canadian (and sometimes Australian) arguments from the law of treatment refusal, abortion, tort and rescue, as well as relevant jurisprudence from the European Court of Human Rights. This important book breaks new ground and will be of great interest to academics in law and philosophy, lawyers, health professionals, policy-makers and students of medical law and ethics. "It is rare to find a book which so skilfully combines legal and moral analysis of a controversial medical issue. Rosamund Scott has produced what is undoubtedly one of the finest pieces of medico-legal writing of recent years. This is a clever, human and immensely readable work." Alexander McCall Smith, Professor of Medical Law, University of Edinburgh "This book concerns one of the most personally agonizing and morally complex issues in medical ethics. It is a work of great philosophical sophistication, combining breadth of vision with acute sensitivity to the nuances of women's experiences. It will soon become the standard work in philosophical, legal and political debate on maternal-fetal conflicts." Roger Crisp, Uehiro Fellow and Tutor in Philosophy, St Anne's College, Oxford

The Politics of Pregnancy

Policy Dilemmas in the Maternal-Fetal Relationship

Author: Janna C Merrick

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN:

Category: Law

Page: 262

View: 260

Here is a comprehensive overview and analysis of issues concerning the maternal-fetal relationship, from abortion to surrogate motherhood. Unlike many books which cover reproductive issues in general, this book focuses in-depth on one aspect of reproduction--the maternal-fetal relationship--to give readers a detailed study of the many issues involved. The Politics of Pregnancy discusses public policy dimensions of this relationship and posits new, critical political dilemmas. Many chapters in this unique book also provide significant clinical information as well as conceptual analysis. The Politics of Pregnancy offers great diversity in terms of the disciplinary backgrounds of the authors and their ideological perspectives. Authors come from many fields, including sociology, political science, pediatrics, ethics, and psychiatry, and provide diverse, sometimes opposing, analytical positions. Some of the topics they debate include: maternal substance use during pregnancy prenatal technology pregnancy and workplace hazards court-ordered obstetrical intervention fetal experimentation Readers interested in public and health care policy, nursing, feminism, pediatrics, or ethics, will find The Politics of Pregnancy to be a stimulating and thought-provoking book. This volume also makes an excellent discussion tool for graduate courses in these areas.

Preventing Birth

Contemporary Methods and Related Moral Controversies

Author: James W. Knight

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 358

View: 965

European Tort Law

Author: Cees van Dam

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN:

Category: Law

Page: 654

View: 420

The new edition of European Tort Law provides an extensive revision and update of the only English language handbook in this constantly evolving area. The coverage in the new edition has been expanded with material on the latest developments in legislation, legal literature, and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the highest courts in France, Germany, and England. The first part of the book, Systems of Liability, provides chapters on the state of tort law in France, Germany, and England, and the European Union. A concluding chapter gives an overall view of the European field, linking the variety of rules with cultural diversity, examining the consequences for European harmonization, and emphasizing the importance of a European policy discourse. The second part, Requirements for Liability, analyses and compares the classic requirements for liability in a comparative and supranational perspective: rights and protected interests, intention and negligence, breach of statutory duty, stricter rules of liability, causation, damage, damages, and contributory negligence. It also discusses the role of tort law in protecting human rights against violations by the state and by multinational corporations. The final part, Categories of Liability, assesses how national and supranational rules are applied in a number of categories, such as in liability for motor vehicles, defective products, and defective premises, in liability for children, employees, and subsidiaries, as well as in cases of nuisance, environmental liability, and liability of public bodies.

Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology

Author: Narendra Malhotra

Publisher: JP Medical Ltd

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 908

View: 216

Fourth edition presenting clinicians with latest developments in ultrasound in obstetrics and gynaecology. Includes AIUM Guidelines and protocols from Thomas Jefferson University.

Quality of Life and Human Difference

Genetic Testing, Health Care, and Disability

Author: David Wasserman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 273

View: 334

Discusses the role of quality assessments in social policy, raised by prenatal testing for disability.

Suffering and Bioethics

Author: Ronald M. Green

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 274

Long before it cured disease, medicine aimed to relieve suffering-but despite that precedence, the relief of suffering often takes a back seat in today's biomedical research and treatment. Modern bioethics, too, has been slow to come to terms with suffering. Attention to ethical quandaries has sometimes displaced attention to the experience of patients. This book seeks to place suffering at the center of bioethical thinking once again. Among the questions its contributors explore are: What is the meaning of suffering? How does it relate to pain? If there can be pain without suffering, can there be suffering without pain? Does suffering require advanced cognitive abilities? Can animals suffer? Many believe that we have strong obligations to relieve or minimize suffering; what are the limits of these obligations? Does the relief of suffering justify the termination of a patient's life, as proponents of euthanasia maintain? What is the bearing of suffering on the cherished bioethical principle of autonomy? Can suffering impair a patient's ability to make reasoned choices? To what extent must the encounter with suffering be an important component of medical education? Do religious traditions ever move from efforts to explain and relieve suffering to positions that justify and promote it? The aim of this book is to undertake a new foray into this "foreign territory" of suffering. With a foreword by the distinguished bioethicist Daniel Callahan, its twenty-two chapters, authored by leading scholars in science and bioethics, are organized so as to examine suffering in its biological, psychological, clinical, religious, and ethical dimensions.

Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women's Health Nursing - E-Book

Author: Sharon Smith Murray

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 880

View: 651

With easy-to-read coverage of nursing care for women and newborns, Foundations of Maternal-Newborn & Women's Health Nursing, 6th Edition shows how to provide safe, competent care in the clinical setting. Evidence-based guidelines and step-by-step instructions for assessments and interventions help you quickly master key skills and techniques. Also emphasized is the importance of understanding family, communication, culture, client teaching, and clinical decision making. Written by specialists in maternity nursing, Sharon Smith Murray and Emily Slone McKinney, this text reflects the latest QSEN competencies, and the accompanying Evolve website includes review questions to prepare you for the NCLEX® exam! Nursing Care Plans help you apply the nursing process to clinical situations. Procedure boxes provide clear instructions for performing common maternity skills, with rationales for each step. UNIQUE! Therapeutic Communications boxes present realistic nurse-patient dialogues, identifying communication techniques and showing to respond when encountering communication blocks. Communication Cues offer tips for interpreting patients’ and families’ verbal and nonverbal communication. Critical Thinking exercises focus on clinical situations designed to test your skills in prioritizing and critical thinking. Updated drug guides list important indications, adverse reactions, and nursing considerations for the most commonly used medications. Check Your Reading helps you assess your mastery of key content. Critical to Remember boxes highlight and summarize need-to-know information. Want to Know boxes provide guidelines for successful client education. Glossary provides definitions of all key terms. NEW! Safety Alerts help you develop competencies related to QSEN and safe nursing practice. NEW! Unfolding case studies help you apply what you’ve learned to practice. UPDATED Evidence-Based Practice boxes highlight the latest research and the most current QSEN (Quality and Safety Education for Nurses) practice guidelines for quality care. UPDATED content includes the late preterm infant, fetal heart rate pattern identification, obesity in the pregnant woman, and the QSEN competencies.

Preventing Harm and Respecting Liberty

Ethical and Legal Implications of New Prenatal Therapies

Author: Deborah R. Mathieu

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Prenatal care

Page: 492

View: 772

Feminism & Bioethics : Beyond Reproduction

Beyond Reproduction

Author: Susan M. Wolf Faculty Associate at the Center for Biomedical Ethics and Associate Professor of Law and Medicine University of Minnesota Law School

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 416

View: 660

Medical Law and Moral Rights

Author: Carl Wellman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 215

View: 391

Medical Law and Moral Rights discusses live issues arising in modern medical practice. Do patients undergoing intolerable irremediable suffering have a moral right to physician-assisted suicide? Ought they to have a comparable legal right? Do the moral duties of a mother to care for and not abuse her child also apply to her fetus? Ought fetuses to be given legal rights requiring pregnant women to submit to medical treatment without their consent? Ought single women, homosexual couples or persons carrying serious genetic defects to have a legal right to procreate? Ought a physician to perform an abortion requested for some frivolous reason? Ought physicians to be permitted to refuse to provide medically futile treatment demanded by their patients? An examination of relevant court cases shows how United States law answers these questions. The author then advocates improvements in the law to make it respect our moral rights more fully. To justify his conclusions, he proposes original conceptions of the human rights to life, procreational autonomy, privacy, equitable treatment and personal security. Thus, these essays test the usefulness of the theory of rights explained and defended in An Approach to Rights and elsewhere.

Maternal & Child Health Nursing

Care of the Childbearing & Childrearing Family

Author: Adele Pillitteri

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 1778

View: 735

Growing research shows that many children from immigrant and refugee families are not doing well in school, due in part to linguistic and cultural disadvantages. Teaching dual-language learners requires cultural sensitivity, an understanding of language acquisition, and intentional teaching strategies. Combining research and techniques, this resource helps early childhood educators support dual-language learners as they develop the skills necessary for school readiness and success.

Ourselves Unborn

A History of the Fetus in Modern America

Author: Sara Dubow

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Fetus

Page: 320

View: 199

INTRODUCTION: FETAL STORIES; 1. Discovering Fetal Life, 1870s-1920s; 2. Interpreting Fetal Bodies, 1930s-1970s; 3. Defining Fetal Personhood, 1973-1976; 4. Defending Fetal Rights: 1970s-1990s; 5. Debating Fetal Pain, 1984-2007; EPILOGUE: FETAL MEANINGS; NOTES; BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Prevention, Recognition and Management of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Author: Raja A. S. Mukherjee

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 488

View: 307

This book presents clinical assessment and management solutions for those people who are exposed to Alcohol in Pregnancy. Over the last few decades we have begun to understand the enduring effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing fetus. The consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure - Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders is a lifelong disorder and affects children and adults. It is a condition which is significantly under-recognised for many reasons. Assessment and diagnosis requires the input of multiple different professionals, and referral pathways are often poorly developed or non-existent. Information to support and guide these professionals in practical ways, what to do and how to help, remains limited. This book seeks to fill some of that gap by offering professionals, clear and useable research-based information and guidance that will help in their practice whilst also being a useful resource for anyone new to this increasingly recognised area of work. The book is divided into four broad areas bringing together chapters authored by experts in their field including those with lived experiences. Part one focuses on presenting an overview of the condition, and approaching women about their alcohol use and risk followed by part two focusing more around diagnostic issues. Part three follows with management advice, and part four revolves around policy and health prevention in general. Each chapter is designed to offer insight but also practical tips and support in an accessible manner. The book offers an essential guide for a broad range of health and social care professionals working with this condition.

Women and Health Research

Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume 2, Workshop and Commissioned Papers

Author: Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 264

View: 501

There is a growing perception that biomedical research has focused more on the health problems of men relative to those of women and that women have been denied access to advances in medical diagnosis and therapy as a result of being excluded from clinical studies. Women and Health Research, Volume 2, addresses issues connected with women's participation in clinical studies: ethical issues related to recruitment, retention, and the inclusion of pregnant women and other women of childbearing age; legal issues such as liability, compensation for injury, constitutional concerns, and federal regulations; and health consequences associated with exclusion or underrepresentation. The commissioned papers focus on the research participation of women from specific racial and ethnic groups and on whether women have been underrepresented in biomedical research, based on a systematic survey of clinical studies reported in a prominent medical journal.