This book provides a introductory non-rigorous overview of the Riemann Hypothesis. Complimenting a run through of the Riemann Hypothesis, this book provides a expanded theory of the Prime Number Theorem. The Riemann Hypothesis is directly tied to the Prime counting function. A proof of the Riemann Hypothesis would be amazing but also more research into the nature of Prime Numbers would add to that excitement. You may ask why are Prime Numbers important. As from a mathematical curiosity, Prime Numbers are used in Internet encryption and other secret access application. The enigma surrounding the distribution of Primes is what makes it so useful in the world of cryptology. In later chapters I describe new discoveries I found between Zeta zeros and physics to further support the physics approach to proving RH. The next chapter starts were the excitement begins when it comes to the distribution of Prime Numbers and that is the discovery of the Zeta function by Leonhard Euler.
This book presents research results concerning the distribution of prime numbers. The first major result discussed is the supremum for the maximal prime gaps. By an implementation of a binomial coefficient the maximal prime gaps supremum bound is proved, simultaneously establishing the infimum for primes in the short interval. Subsequently, a novel application of the theory of the primorial function establishes the tailored logarithmic integral, which is a superior adaptation of the classical Gauss' logarithmic integral. The tailored integral due to its radically improved accuracy over the Gauss' logarithmic integral, constitutes the supremum bound of estimation of the prime counting function. It presents the possibility to estimate the prime counting function with unprecedented accuracy.
The Riemann Hypothesis has become the Holy Grail of mathematics in the century and a half since 1859 when Bernhard Riemann, one of the extraordinary mathematical talents of the 19th century, originally posed the problem. While the problem is notoriously difficult, and complicated even to state carefully, it can be loosely formulated as "the number of integers with an even number of prime factors is the same as the number of integers with an odd number of prime factors." The Hypothesis makes a very precise connection between two seemingly unrelated mathematical objects, namely prime numbers and the zeros of analytic functions. If solved, it would give us profound insight into number theory and, in particular, the nature of prime numbers. This book is an introduction to the theory surrounding the Riemann Hypothesis. Part I serves as a compendium of known results and as a primer for the material presented in the 20 original papers contained in Part II. The original papers place the material into historical context and illustrate the motivations for research on and around the Riemann Hypothesis. Several of these papers focus on computation of the zeta function, while others give proofs of the Prime Number Theorem, since the Prime Number Theorem is so closely connected to the Riemann Hypothesis. The text is suitable for a graduate course or seminar or simply as a reference for anyone interested in this extraordinary conjecture.
A fascinating journey into the mind-bending world of prime numbers Cicadas of the genus Magicicada appear once every 7, 13, or 17 years. Is it just a coincidence that these are all prime numbers? How do twin primes differ from cousin primes, and what on earth (or in the mind of a mathematician) could be sexy about prime numbers? What did Albert Wilansky find so fascinating about his brother-in-law's phone number? Mathematicians have been asking questions about prime numbers for more than twenty-five centuries, and every answer seems to generate a new rash of questions. In Prime Numbers: The Most Mysterious Figures in Math, you'll meet the world's most gifted mathematicians, from Pythagoras and Euclid to Fermat, Gauss, and Erd?o?s, and you'll discover a host of unique insights and inventive conjectures that have both enlarged our understanding and deepened the mystique of prime numbers. This comprehensive, A-to-Z guide covers everything you ever wanted to know--and much more that you never suspected--about prime numbers, including: * The unproven Riemann hypothesis and the power of the zeta function * The "Primes is in P" algorithm * The sieve of Eratosthenes of Cyrene * Fermat and Fibonacci numbers * The Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search * And much, much more
One notable new direction this century in the study of primes has been the influx of ideas from probability. The goal of this book is to provide insights into the prime numbers and to describe how a sequence so tautly determined can incorporate such a striking amount of randomness. The book opens with some classic topics of number theory. It ends with a discussion of some of the outstanding conjectures in number theory. In between are an excellent chapter on the stochastic properties of primes and a walk through an elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem. This book is suitable for anyone who has had a little number theory and some advanced calculus involving estimates. Its engaging style and invigorating point of view will make refreshing reading for advanced undergraduates through research mathematicians.
The prime numbers appear to be distributed in a very irregular way amongst the integers, but the prime number theorem provides a simple formula that tells us (in an approximate but well-defined sense) how many primes we can expect to find that are less than any integer we might choose. This is indisputably one of the the great classical theorems of mathematics. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduates, this textbook demonstrates how the tools of analysis can be used in number theory to attack a famous problem.
1. People were already interested in prime numbers in ancient times, and the first result concerning the distribution of primes appears in Euclid's Elemen ta, where we find a proof of their infinitude, now regarded as canonical. One feels that Euclid's argument has its place in The Book, often quoted by the late Paul ErdOs, where the ultimate forms of mathematical arguments are preserved. Proofs of most other results on prime number distribution seem to be still far away from their optimal form and the aim of this book is to present the development of methods with which such problems were attacked in the course of time. This is not a historical book since we refrain from giving biographical details of the people who have played a role in this development and we do not discuss the questions concerning why each particular person became in terested in primes, because, usually, exact answers to them are impossible to obtain. Our idea is to present the development of the theory of the distribu tion of prime numbers in the period starting in antiquity and concluding at the end of the first decade of the 20th century. We shall also present some later developments, mostly in short comments, although the reader will find certain exceptions to that rule. The period of the last 80 years was full of new ideas (we mention only the applications of trigonometrical sums or the advent of various sieve methods) and certainly demands a separate book.
Bernhard Riemann and the Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics
Author: John Derbyshire
Publisher: Joseph Henry Press
In August 1859 Bernhard Riemann, a little-known 32-year old mathematician, presented a paper to the Berlin Academy titled: "On the Number of Prime Numbers Less Than a Given Quantity." In the middle of that paper, Riemann made an incidental remark a guess, a hypothesis. What he tossed out to the assembled mathematicians that day has proven to be almost cruelly compelling to countless scholars in the ensuing years. Today, after 150 years of careful research and exhaustive study, the question remains. Is the hypothesis true or false? Riemann's basic inquiry, the primary topic of his paper, concerned a straightforward but nevertheless important matter of arithmetic defining a precise formula to track and identify the occurrence of prime numbers. But it is that incidental remark the Riemann Hypothesis that is the truly astonishing legacy of his 1859 paper. Because Riemann was able to see beyond the pattern of the primes to discern traces of something mysterious and mathematically elegant shrouded in the shadows subtle variations in the distribution of those prime numbers. Brilliant for its clarity, astounding for its potential consequences, the Hypothesis took on enormous importance in mathematics. Indeed, the successful solution to this puzzle would herald a revolution in prime number theory. Proving or disproving it became the greatest challenge of the age. It has become clear that the Riemann Hypothesis, whose resolution seems to hang tantalizingly just beyond our grasp, holds the key to a variety of scientific and mathematical investigations. The making and breaking of modern codes, which depend on the properties of the prime numbers, have roots in the Hypothesis. In a series of extraordinary developments during the 1970s, it emerged that even the physics of the atomic nucleus is connected in ways not yet fully understood to this strange conundrum. Hunting down the solution to the Riemann Hypothesis has become an obsession for many the veritable "great white whale" of mathematical research. Yet despite determined efforts by generations of mathematicians, the Riemann Hypothesis defies resolution. Alternating passages of extraordinarily lucid mathematical exposition with chapters of elegantly composed biography and history, Prime Obsession is a fascinating and fluent account of an epic mathematical mystery that continues to challenge and excite the world. Posited a century and a half ago, the Riemann Hypothesis is an intellectual feast for the cognoscenti and the curious alike. Not just a story of numbers and calculations, Prime Obsession is the engrossing tale of a relentless hunt for an elusive proof and those who have been consumed by it.
Mathematics for Innovation in Industry and Science
Author: Gerrit van Dijk
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
This volume contains the proceedings of the conference "Casimir Force, Casimir Operators and the Riemann Hypothesis Mathematics for Innovation in Industry and Science" held in November 2009 in Fukuoka (Japan). The conference focused on the following topics: Casimir operators in harmonic analysis and representation theory Number theory, in particular zeta functions and cryptography Casimir force in physics and its relation with nano-science Mathematical biology Importance of mathematics for innovation in industry "