This book presents research results concerning the distribution of prime numbers. The first major result discussed is the supremum for the maximal prime gaps. By an implementation of a binomial coefficient the maximal prime gaps supremum bound is proved, simultaneously establishing the infimum for primes in the short interval. Subsequently, a novel application of the theory of the primorial function establishes the tailored logarithmic integral, which is a superior adaptation of the classical Gauss' logarithmic integral. The tailored integral due to its radically improved accuracy over the Gauss' logarithmic integral, constitutes the supremum bound of estimation of the prime counting function. It presents the possibility to estimate the prime counting function with unprecedented accuracy.
The Riemann Hypothesis has become the Holy Grail of mathematics in the century and a half since 1859 when Bernhard Riemann, one of the extraordinary mathematical talents of the 19th century, originally posed the problem. While the problem is notoriously difficult, and complicated even to state carefully, it can be loosely formulated as "the number of integers with an even number of prime factors is the same as the number of integers with an odd number of prime factors." The Hypothesis makes a very precise connection between two seemingly unrelated mathematical objects, namely prime numbers and the zeros of analytic functions. If solved, it would give us profound insight into number theory and, in particular, the nature of prime numbers. This book is an introduction to the theory surrounding the Riemann Hypothesis. Part I serves as a compendium of known results and as a primer for the material presented in the 20 original papers contained in Part II. The original papers place the material into historical context and illustrate the motivations for research on and around the Riemann Hypothesis. Several of these papers focus on computation of the zeta function, while others give proofs of the Prime Number Theorem, since the Prime Number Theorem is so closely connected to the Riemann Hypothesis. The text is suitable for a graduate course or seminar or simply as a reference for anyone interested in this extraordinary conjecture.
Bernhard Riemann and the Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics
Author: John Derbyshire
Publisher: Joseph Henry Press
In August 1859 Bernhard Riemann, a little-known 32-year old mathematician, presented a paper to the Berlin Academy titled: "On the Number of Prime Numbers Less Than a Given Quantity." In the middle of that paper, Riemann made an incidental remark a guess, a hypothesis. What he tossed out to the assembled mathematicians that day has proven to be almost cruelly compelling to countless scholars in the ensuing years. Today, after 150 years of careful research and exhaustive study, the question remains. Is the hypothesis true or false? Riemann's basic inquiry, the primary topic of his paper, concerned a straightforward but nevertheless important matter of arithmetic defining a precise formula to track and identify the occurrence of prime numbers. But it is that incidental remark the Riemann Hypothesis that is the truly astonishing legacy of his 1859 paper. Because Riemann was able to see beyond the pattern of the primes to discern traces of something mysterious and mathematically elegant shrouded in the shadows subtle variations in the distribution of those prime numbers. Brilliant for its clarity, astounding for its potential consequences, the Hypothesis took on enormous importance in mathematics. Indeed, the successful solution to this puzzle would herald a revolution in prime number theory. Proving or disproving it became the greatest challenge of the age. It has become clear that the Riemann Hypothesis, whose resolution seems to hang tantalizingly just beyond our grasp, holds the key to a variety of scientific and mathematical investigations. The making and breaking of modern codes, which depend on the properties of the prime numbers, have roots in the Hypothesis. In a series of extraordinary developments during the 1970s, it emerged that even the physics of the atomic nucleus is connected in ways not yet fully understood to this strange conundrum. Hunting down the solution to the Riemann Hypothesis has become an obsession for many the veritable "great white whale" of mathematical research. Yet despite determined efforts by generations of mathematicians, the Riemann Hypothesis defies resolution. Alternating passages of extraordinarily lucid mathematical exposition with chapters of elegantly composed biography and history, Prime Obsession is a fascinating and fluent account of an epic mathematical mystery that continues to challenge and excite the world. Posited a century and a half ago, the Riemann Hypothesis is an intellectual feast for the cognoscenti and the curious alike. Not just a story of numbers and calculations, Prime Obsession is the engrossing tale of a relentless hunt for an elusive proof and those who have been consumed by it.
This text covers exponential integrals and sums, 4th power moment, zero-free region, mean value estimates over short intervals, higher power moments, omega results, zeros on the critical line, zero-density estimates, and more. 1985 edition.
The prime numbers appear to be distributed in a very irregular way amongst the integers, but the prime number theorem provides a simple formula that tells us (in an approximate but well-defined sense) how many primes we can expect to find that are less than any integer we might choose. This is indisputably one of the the great classical theorems of mathematics. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduates, this textbook demonstrates how the tools of analysis can be used in number theory to attack a famous problem.
Mathematics for Innovation in Industry and Science
Author: Gerrit van Dijk
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
This volume contains the proceedings of the conference "Casimir Force, Casimir Operators and the Riemann Hypothesis Mathematics for Innovation in Industry and Science" held in November 2009 in Fukuoka (Japan). The conference focused on the following topics: Casimir operators in harmonic analysis and representation theory Number theory, in particular zeta functions and cryptography Casimir force in physics and its relation with nano-science Mathematical biology Importance of mathematics for innovation in industry "
Delving deeply into the mystery of prime numbers, this fascinating treatment of an ancient mathematical dilemma looks at Pythagorian mysticism, Goldbach's Conjecture, Fibonacci numbers, and Mersenne primes, among other related topics.