This work examines the significance of "Israel" for Christianity in the pre-Holocaust theology of Karl Barth, and the post-holocaust theologies developed by Jurgen Moltmann and Paul van Buren. Concluding that Barth's "radical traditionalism" is an unsuitable basis for developing apost-Holocaust theology, the author turns to more promising work expressed by the "messianic theology" of Moltmann and the "radical theology" of van Buren. The book then distinguishes the work of Moltmann and van Buren from the work known as Holocaust theology, and places their work in the light ofboth the Reformed tradition and the revision of Christian doctrine after Auschwitz. The study concludes by discussing both the resources and obstacles facing post-Holocaust Christian theology.
Where was God during the Holocaust? And where has God been since? How has our religious belief been changed by the Shoah? For more than half a century, these questions have haunted both Jewish and Christian theologians. Holocaust Theology provides a panoramic survey of the writings of more than one hundred leading Jewish and Christian thinkers on these profound theological problems. Beginning with a general introduction to Holocaust theology and the religious challenge of the Holocaust, this sweeping collection brings together in one volume a coherent overview of the key theologies which have shaped responses to the Holocaust over the last several decades, including those addressing perplexing questions regarding Christian responsibility and culpability during the Nazi era. Each reading is preceded by a brief introduction. The volume will be invaluable to Rabbis and the clergy, students, scholars of the Holocaust and of religion, and all those troubled by the religious implications of the tragedy of the Holocaust. Contributors include Leo Baeck, Eugene Borowitz, Stephen Haynes, Abraham Joshua Heschel, Steven T. Katz, Primo Levi, Jacob Neusner, John Pawlikowski, Rosemary Radford Reuther, Jonathan Sarna, Paul Tillich, and Elie Wiesel.
Writing the Holocaust provides students and teachers with an accessibly written overview of the key themes and major theoretical developments which continue to inform the nature of historical writing on the Holocaust. Holocaust studies is at a paradox: while historians of the Holocaust defend it as a legitimate and well-defined area of research, they write against a complex political and ideological background that undermines any claim for it as a normative field of historical study. Writing the Holocaust offers a lucid enquiry into this complex field by demonstrating the impact of current theories from the humanities and social sciences upon the treatment of Holocaust studies.
Since its first publication in 1988, the New Dictionary of Theology has been widely appreciated by students and readers as a trustworthy and informative guide. After almost thirty years, however, there are many new writers, issues and themes on the agenda, for theology does not stand still. Hence, this completely revised second edition includes over 400 new articles in the full set of over 800. Many of the original articles have been expanded and updated, and almost all have additional bibliographical references. Since material on biblical theology is now covered at length in IVP's New Dictionary of Biblical Theology, this volume is therefore more specifically a dictionary of historical and systematic theology. The New Dictionary of Theology: Historical and Systematic has an international team of contributors, and many are acknowledged experts in their fields. The Dictionary combines excellence in scholarship with a high standard of clarity and insight into current theological issues, yet it avoids being unduly technical. Students, teachers and ministers, as well as scholars and everyone seeking a better understanding of theology, will value it as an indispensable reference work. The volume is enhanced by a spacious and clear design, an extensive and easy-to-use cross-reference system and bibliographies which feature the best and most readily available works in English.
A great deal of contemporary law has a direct connection to the Holocaust. That connection, however, is seldom acknowledged in legal texts and has never been the subject of a full-length scholarly work. This book examines the background of the Holocaust and genocide through the prism of the law; the criminal and civil prosecution of the Nazis and their collaborators for Holocaust-era crimes; and contemporary attempts to criminally prosecute perpetrators for the crime of genocide. It provides the history of the Holocaust as a legal event, and sets out how genocide has become known as the "crime of crimes" under both international law and in popular discourse. It goes on to discuss specific post-Holocaust legal topics, and examines the Holocaust as a catalyst for post-Holocaust international justice. Together, this collection of subjects establishes a new legal discipline, which the author Michael Bazyler labels "Post-Holocaust Law."
Where was God when six million died? The twentieth century has never presented a more serious theological question. Over the past forty years it has haunted a series of writers. In this study, Dan Cohn-Sherbok explores the work of eight major Holocaust theologians. He argues that all ultimately fail to reconcile, as they must, the reality of suffering with the loving kindness of God. In the final chapter, he quarries from the Jewish tradition his own solution, which confronts the evil of Nazism but still leaves room for hope.
Many argue that Christians must address their own culpability in the destruction of Europe's Jewry. If post-Holocaust Christians only lament Christianity's sin the tradition will be ultimately left with little to say and no credibility. Post-Holocaust Christians must emphasize positive differences that Christianity can make, including: -- Repentant honesty about Christianity's anti-Jewish history -- New appreciation for the Jewish origins of Christianity, the Jewish identity of Jesus, and the continuing vitality of the Jewish people and their traditions -- Welcome liberation from liturgies and biblical interpretations that promote harmful Christian exclusivism
Theology and the Construction of Collective Memory
Author: K. Hannah Holtschneider
Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster
Focusing on the 1980s-90s, examines how Protestants in Germany interpret their self-understanding as part of the community which is defined by its connection to the Nazi past. Analyzes representations of the Holocaust and of the Christian-Jewish relationship in three German Protestant theological texts: the 1980 statement of the Rhineland synod of the Evangelical Church "Zur Erneuerung des Verhältnisses von Christen und Juden"; Marquardt's theological text "Von Elend und Heimsuchung der Theologie: Prolegomena zur Dogmatik" (1992); and Britta Jüngst's dissertation "Auf der Seite des Todes das Leben" (1996). The analysis of these texts is informed by the development of narratives of collective memory of the Holocaust in German society in the 1980s-90s, from the miniseries "Holocaust" to the Goldhagen controversy. All three texts admit the responsibility of Christianity and Christians for the Holocaust and build theologies that do not reject Jews. Contends that, contrary to their stated intentions, most Holocaust theologians do not truly listen to the Jewish perspective. Calls on practitioners of "theology after Auschwitz" to embrace Jews and Judaism in order to restore the credibility of Christian Churches which abandoned the Jews in Auschwitz.
Modern Jewish Theologians in Conversation with Christianity
Author: Marc Aaron Krell
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
This book deconstructs the boundaries between Jewish and Christian cultures while at the same time redefining what it means to be Jewish in relation to Christianity in the twentieth century. Consequently, this analysis reveals the emergence of modern Jewish theologies out of the complex negotiations between Jewish thinkers and their Christian milieu.
A Critical Examination of the Portrayal of Judas in Jesus Films (1902-2014)
Author: Carol A. Hebron
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
At the beginning of the 20th century, Judas was characterised in film as the epitome of evil: the villainous Jew. Film-makers cast Judas in this way because this was the Judas that audiences had come to recognize and even expect. But in the following three decades, film-makers - as a result of critical biblical study - were more circumspect about accepting the alleged historicity of the Gospel accounts. Carol A. Hebron examines the figure of Judas across film history to show how the portrayal becomes more nuanced and more significant, even to the point where Judas becomes the protagonist with a role in the film equal in importance to that of Jesus'. Hebron examines how, in these films, we begin to see a rehabilitation of the Judas character and a restoration of Judaism. Hebron reveals two distinct theologies: 'rejection' and 'acceptance'. The Nazi Holocaust and the exposure of the horrors of genocide at the end of World War II influenced how Judaism, Jews, and Judas, were to be portrayed in film. Rehabilitating the Judas character and the Jews was necessary, and film was deemed an appropriate medium in which to begin that process.
God and Humanity in Auschwitz synthesizes the findings of research developed over the last thirty years on the rise of anti-Semitism in our civilization. Donald J. Dietrich sees the Holocaust as a case study of how prejudice has been theologically enculturated. He suggests how it may be controlled by reducing aggressive energy before it becomes overwhelming. Dietrich studies the recent responses of Christian theologians to the Holocaust and the Jewish theological response to questions concerning God's covenant with Israel, which were provoked by Auschwitz. Social science has dealt with the psychosocial dynamics that have supported genocide and helps explain how ordinary persons can produce extraordinary evil. Dietrich shows how this research, combined with theological analyses, can help reconfigure theology itself. Such an approach may serve to help dissolve anti-Semitism, to aid in constructing such positive values as respect for human dignity, and to point the way to restricting future outbreaks of genocide. God and Humanity in Auschwitz surveys which religious factors created a climate that permitted the Holocaust. It also illuminates what social science has to tell us about developing a strategy that, when institutionally implemented, can channel our energies away from sanctioned murder toward a more compassionate society. The book has proven to be an essential resource for theologians, sociologists, historians, and political theorists.
A Commoner Reads the World's Holy Writ and Rejects Traditional Religion
Author: Frank Bolger Kelly
Publisher: Dog Ear Publishing
A former Roman Catholic, Frank Bolger Kelly has long wondered why thinking humans as a whole in the 21st century have not yet been able to disenthrall themselves from the demonstrable falsehoods and sectarian nonsense of organized religion. A few years ago, Kelly decided to sit down with the "sacred" scriptures of several of the world's major religions, the alleged bedrocks of these various creeds, in a last-ditch effort to achieve holy inspiration. Instead, he became wholly disenchanted, and Scoffing at Scripture: A Commoner Reads the World's Holy Writ and Rejects Traditional Religion is the result. Far from representing that all-elusive "Word of God," creedal scripture the world over, it seems to Kelly, merely cloaks the tribal agendas and cultural designs of the world's priestly (and virtually allmale) elites. With the general reader in mind, the author has grouped together a series of compact discussions of religion and scripture for cross-cultural comparative reference. Kelly's intent is to facilitate critical analysis of the world's holy writ and, in particular, to encourage younger, skeptical readers of a secular mind to confront the doctrinal, scriptural, and ritual absurdities of those faiths into which they were born and continue to be indoctrinated. Frank Bolger Kelly grew up in an Irish Catholic family in the Bronx, New York, matriculated to a noted Jesuit college in New England, and subsequently did time at a prestigious non-sectarian institution of higher learning in the Midwest. It was during his enlightening time at the latter that Kelly first began seriously to question not only his own religious upbringing but the scriptural bases of all the world's major religions. Kelly was quickly convinced that the vast majority of "the faithful" the world over, commoners like himself, just might reconsider their religious roots and motivations in a new light if they actually bothered to immerse themselves for a time in their own "sacred scriptures," rather than merely fake familiarity with them. Actually to read scripture in all its antiquated, tendentious, sectarian absurdity, Kelly reasoned, is to take a first, giant step in renouncing irrational creeds of all kinds. Thus was born Scoffing at Scripture: A Commoner Reads the World's Holy Writ and Rejects Traditional Religion, a book from which the author hopes the open-minded reader will draw a secularly pure, spiritual sustenance.
"Stephen Haynes, whose volume The Bonhoeffer Phenomenon probed the many conflicting ways in which Bonhoeffer has been understood by Christians for their own uses, now brings new clarity to the vexed and controversial question of Bonhoeffer's relationship to Jews and the Jewish people. Haynes's text analyzes the historical record and Bonhoeffer's maturing theology and offers an analysis of Bonhoeffer himself, his work, and his legacy for a generation learning from the Holocaust."--BOOK JACKET.
Germans, Jews, and the Meaning of the Volk in the Theology of Paul Althaus
Author: Ryan Tafilowski
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
At the twilight of the Weimar Republic, politicians, scientists, and theologians were engaged in debates surrounding the so-called “Jewish Question.” When the Nazi Party came to power in 1933, these discussions took on a new sense of urgency and poignancy. As state measures against Jews unfolded, theological conceptions of the meaning of “Israel” and “Judaism” began to impact living, breathing Jewish persons. In this study, Ryan Tafilowski traces the thought of the Lutheran theologian Paul Althaus (1888–1966), who once greeted the rise of Hitler as a “gift and miracle of God,” as he negotiated the “Jewish Question” and its meaning for his understanding of Germanness across the Weimar Republic, the Nazi years, and the post-war period. In particular, the study uncovers the paradoxical categories Althaus used to interpret the ongoing theological significance of the Jewish people, whom he considered both an imminent threat to German ethnic identity and yet a mysterious cipher by which Germans might decode their own spiritual destiny in world history. Sketching the peculiar contours of Althaus’ theology of Israel, this study offers a fresh interpretation of the Erlangen Opinion on the Aryan Paragraph, which is an important artifact not only of the Kirchenkampf, but also of the complex and ambivalent history of Christian antisemitism. By bringing Althaus into conversation with some of the most influential theologians of the twentieth century—from Karl Barth and Emil Brunner to Rudolf Bultmann and Dietrich Bonhoeffer—Tafilowski broadens the scope of his inquiry to vital questions of political theology, ethnic identity, social ethics, and ecclesiology. As Christian theologians must once again reckon with questions of national self-understanding under the pressures of mass migration and resurgent nationalisms, this investigation into the logic of ethno-nationalist theologies is a timely contribution.
Stephen Haynes takes a hard look at contemporary Christian theology as he explores the pervasive Christian "witness-people" myth that dominates much Christian thinking about the Jews in both Christian and Jewish minds. This myth, an ancient theological construct that has put Jews in the role of living symbols of God's dealings with the world, has for centuries, according to Haynes, created an ambivalence toward the Jews in the Christian mind with often disastrous results. Tracing the witness-people myth from its origins to its manifestations in the modern world, Haynes finds the myth expressed in many unexpected places: the writings of Karl Barth, the novels and essays of Walker Percy, the "prophetic" writings of Hal Lindsey, as well as in the work of some North American Holocaust theologians such as Alice L. and A. Roy Eckardt, Paul van Buren, and Franklin Littell.
Dietrich Bonhoeffer's Collision with Prusso-German History
Author: John A. Moses
Publisher: Berghahn Books
Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a uniquely reluctant and distinctly German Lutheran revolutionary. In this volume, the author, an Anglican priest and historian, argues that Bonhoeffer's powerful critique of Germany's moral derailment needs to be understood as the expression of a devout Lutheran Protestant. Bonhoeffer gradually recognized the ways in which the intellectual and religious traditions of his own class - the Bildungsbürgertum - were enabling Nazi evil. In response, he offered a religiously inspired call to political opposition and Christian witness-which cost him his life. The author investigates Bonhoeffer's stance in terms of his confrontation with the legacy of Hegelianism and Neo-Rankeanism, and by highlighting Bonhoeffer's intellectual and spiritual journey, shows how his endeavor to politicially reeducate the German people must be examined in theological terms.