Raciolinguistics reveals the central role that language plays in shaping our ideas about race. The book brings together a team of leading scholars- working both within and beyond the United States- to share powerful, much-needed research that helps us understand the increasingly vexed relationships between race, ethnicity, and language in our rapidly changing world. Combining the innovative, cutting-edge approaches of race and ethnic studies with fine-grained linguistic analyses, chapters cover a wide range of topics including the language use of African American Jews and the struggle over the very term "African American, " the racialized language education debates within the increasing number of "majority-minority" immigrant communities as well as Indigenous communities in the U.S., the dangers of multicultural education in a Europe that is struggling to meet the needs of new migrants, and the sociopolitical and cultural meanings of linguistic styles used in Brazilian favelas, South African townships, Mexican and Puerto Rican barrios in Chicago, and Korean American "cram schools, " among other sites. With rapidly changing demographics in the U.S.- population resegregation, shifting Asian and Latino patterns of immigration, new African American (im)migration patterns, etc.- and changing global cultural and media trends (from global Hip Hop cultures, to transnational Mexican popular and street cultures, to Israeli reality TV, to new immigration trends across Africa and Europe, for example)- Raciolinguistics shapes the future of studies on race, ethnicity, and language. By taking a comparative look across a diverse range of language and literacy contexts, the volume seeks not only to set the research agenda in this burgeoning area of study, but also to help resolve pressing educational and political problems in some of the most contested racial, ethnic, and linguistic contexts in the world.
Raciolinguistic Perspectives on Dual Language Education in the United States
Author: Nelson Flores
Publisher: Multilingual Matters Limited
This book adopts a raciolinguistic perspective to examine the ways in which dual language education programs in the US often reinforce the racial inequities that they purport to challenge. The chapters adopt a range of methodologies, disciplines and language foci to challenge mainstream and scholarly discourses on dual language education.
"This handbook is the first volume to offer a sustained theoretical exploration of all aspects of language and race from a linguistic anthropological perspective. A growing number of scholars hold that rather than fixed and pre-determined, race is created out of continuous and repeated discourses emerging from individuals and institutions within specific histories, political economic systems, and everyday interactions. This handbook demonstrates how linguistic analysis brings a crucial perspective to this project by revealing the ways in which language and race are mutually constituted as social realities. Not only do we position issues of race, racism, and racialization as central to language-based scholarship, but we also examine these processes from an explicitly critical and anti-racist perspective. The process of racialization-an enduring yet evolving social process steeped in centuries of colonialism and capitalism-is central to linguistic anthropological approaches. This volume captures state-of-the-art research in this important and necessary yet often overlooked area of inquiry and points the way forward in establishing future directions of research in this rapidly expanding field, including the need for more studies of language and race in non-U.S. contexts. Covering a range of sites from Angola, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Italy, Liberia, the Philippines, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States, and unceded Indigenous territories, the handbook offers theoretical, reflexive takes on the field of language and race, the larger histories and systems that influence these concepts, the bodies that enact and experience them, and finally, the expressions and outcomes that emerge as a result"--
Looking like a Language, Sounding like a Race examines the emergence of linguistic and ethnoracial categories in the context of Latinidad. The book draws from more than twenty-four months of ethnographic and sociolinguistic fieldwork in a Chicago public school, whose student body is more than 90% Mexican and Puerto Rican, to analyze the racialization of language and its relationship to issues of power and national identity. It focuses specifically on youth socialization to U.S. Latinidad as a contemporary site of political anxiety, raciolinguistic transformation, and urban inequity. Jonathan Rosa's account studies the fashioning of Latinidad in Chicago's highly segregated Near Northwest Side; he links public discourse concerning the rising prominence of U.S. Latinidad to the institutional management and experience of raciolinguistic identities there. Anxieties surrounding Latinx identities push administrators to transform "at risk" Mexican and Puerto Rican students into "young Latino professionals." This institutional effort, which requires students to learn to be and, importantly, sound like themselves in highly studied ways, reveals administrators' attempts to navigate a precarious urban terrain in a city grappling with some of the nation's highest youth homicide, dropout, and teen pregnancy rates. Rosa explores the ingenuity of his research participants' responses to these forms of marginalization through the contestation of political, ethnoracial, and linguistic borders.
Abstract: This article presents what we term a raciolinguistic perspective, which theorizes the historical and contemporary co-naturalization of language and race. Rather than taking for granted existing categories for parsing and classifying race and language, we seek to understand how and why these categories have been co-naturalized, and to imagine their denaturalization as part of a broader structural project of contesting white supremacy. We explore five key components of a raciolinguistic perspective: (i) historical and contemporary colonial co-naturalizations of race and language; (ii) perceptions of racial and linguistic difference; (iii) regimentations of racial and linguistic categories; (iv) racial and linguistic intersections and assemblages; and (v) contestations of racial and linguistic power formations. These foci reflect our investment in developing a careful theorization of various forms of racial and linguistic inequality on the one hand, and our commitment to the imagination and creation of more just societies on the other. (Race, language ideologies, colonialism, governmentality, enregisterment, structural inequality)*
Refugee and Immigrant Students' Literacy Practices Across Contexts
Author: Sumyat Thu
Drawing on critical race theory scholarship and literacy studies with a focus on translingual and transnational, this dissertation argues that the dominant ideology of literacy needs to be understood at the intersections of language and race. In an antiracist and public scholarship framework, this study offers a portrait of literacy practices across contexts by four college students from the diasporic Burmese community in Duwamish (Greater Seattle). Through interview conversations, self-talk reflections, writing samples across contexts, and counterstory artifacts produced for a community exhibit at a local Asian Pacific American museum, this study examines how multilingual students of color practice literacy as they move across home, school, work, community, and digital spaces in different relationships to the White, monolingual English ideology. The findings present that the ways participant collaborators (the term used for students in this study) mentally and socio-emotionally navigate the White monolingual English ideology is entangled with their metacognitive awareness of and relationship to their intersectional identities, of which the most salient are transnational refugee and immigrant identity, racial identity construct, and multilingual college student identity. In experiencing and engaging specifically with the dominant ideology of literacy, participant collaborators show a range of different metacognitive relationships from compliance and internationalization to recognizing raciolinguistic oppression as is and engaging in conscious resistance of the stock stories of the ideology. Participant collaborators hold these multiple competing critical reflections, stock stories and assumptions, ways of knowing and processing as part of their literacy metacognition. This study offers implications for examining the intersections of race, language, and literacy as well as for writing and literacy pedagogy in order to make our pedagogical efforts be more antiracist and translingual.
ABSTRACT: This qualitative study explored Spanish-speaking teacher credential students' beliefs about academic language that might promote or inhibit their decision to become bilingual teachers. Data includes interviews with 11 bilingual teacher candidates who were heritage Spanish speakers. Findings show that most were only aware of English-only educational contexts and did not know that bilingual teaching and the bilingual authorization pathway were options. Their schooling experience fostered English hegemony; even their Spanish classes were pervaded by linguistic purism and elitism. Schools taught them that their registers of Spanish, which they learned at home, were insufficient, inappropriate or incorrect. Consequently, they questioned their ability to become bilingual teachers. Language register and social class were intimately connected in the data. Participants viewed bilingual education as a pathway toward more equitable educational opportunities for Latinx students. Implications include the need for bilingual teacher preparation to address critical sociolinguistics concepts that explore the relationships between language, race and ethnicity in education. Future research is needed to explore how heritage Spanish speaking bilingual teachers enact their beliefs about equity through bilingual education, the challenges they face, and the ways that teacher education programs and professional development providers could support their work.
Colin Baker is Emeritus Professor at Bangor University, UK. He is the author of over 140 research publications, a best-selling book for parents of bilingual children and an encyclopedia, all on the subject of bilingualism, as well as the six previous editions of this textbook. He is the former co-editor of the Bilingual Education and Bilingualism book series for Multilingual Matters and was editor of the International Journal of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education for 15 years. Wayne E. Wright is Professor and Barbara I. Cook Chair of Literacy and Language, Purdue University, USA. He has published extensively on bilingual education and bilingualism, and is the co-editor of the Journal of Language, Identity, and Education and the Bilingual Education and Bilingualism book series for Multilingual Matters.
This book offers insights on the study of natural language as a complex adaptive system. It discusses a new way to tackle the problem of language modeling, and provides clues on how the close relation between natural language and some biological structures can be very fruitful for science. The book examines the theoretical framework and then applies its main principles to various areas of linguistics. It discusses applications in language contact, language change, diachronic linguistics, and the potential enhancement of classical approaches to historical linguistics by means of new methodologies used in physics, biology, and agent systems theory. It shows how studying language evolution and change using computational simulations enables to integrate social structures in the evolution of language, and how this can give rise to a new way to approach sociolinguistics. Finally, it explores applications for discourse analysis, semantics and cognition.
A growing body of scholarship has suggested that K-12 Teachers of Color are uniquely positioned to enact instructional and institutional changes in classrooms and schools that expand educational opportunities for Students of Color; yet, a holistic understanding of the situational dynamics in which social change occurs remains insufficiently theorized, examined, and practiced. In this dissertation, I contribute to addressing this gap by investigating the racially transformative practices of four Teachers of Color serving a predominantly low-income Student of Color population in Los Angeles, California. Applying my place-based raciolinguistics framework as a theoretical and methodological approach, I examine how racialized dimensions of inequities are reproduced and transformed in schools through micro-level interactional processes, situated within broader historical, structural, and sociopolitical contexts. Designed as a yearlong critical ethnomethodological study with a humanizing approach to research, I draw on 110 hours of video and audio recording, ethnographic field notes, interviews, and artifacts as data to examine various social spaces in which Teachers of Color engage in racial justice work, including classrooms, teacher union meetings, professional development, school-wide events, and community protests. Through my multidisciplinary, multi-scalar framework and embodied raciolinguistic analysis, I describe how Teachers of Color draw on collective racialized experiences to recognize and transform place-based dynamics of marginalization. In addition, I detail how place-based dynamics influence the way Teachers of Color strategically foreground particular aspects of their social identities to mobilize students, families, teachers, and community members towards social change in the interests of marginalized communities. I also demonstrate the fluidity and constructed nature of "leadership" by documenting how the transformative resistance of Teachers of Color at the intersections of multiple identities and oppressions shape the extent to which they are seen and treated as "leaders" in certain contexts. Considering the multi-faceted nature of racially transformative practices, particularly social activities that are seemingly mundane yet contribute significantly to ongoing struggles for liberation and justice, I argue that teachers' racially transformative practices are often overlooked, misunderstood, and underappreciated--factors which contribute to issues of teacher preparation, retention, and sustainability. Offering a more comprehensive framework of social change that considers the embodied and place-based dimensions of racially transformative practices enacted over time, as well as an analytic tool for examining and amplifying the invisibilized labor and racial justice leadership of Teachers of Color, I provide implications for teachers, teacher educators, educational leaders, and researchers seeking to prepare, support, and retain Teachers of Color who work towards social transformation and restoration of humanity for and alongside marginalized students, teachers, families, and communities.
A Framework toward Dismantling the Mono-Mainstream Assumption
Author: Alexandra Babino
Publisher: Springer Nature
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
This book names and confounds the mono-mainstream assumption that invisibly frames much research, the ideologies that normalize monolingualism, monoculturalism, monoliteracy, mononationalism, and/or monomodal ways of knowing. In its place, the authors propose multi- and trans- lenses of these phenomena steeped in a raciolinguistic perspective on Bourdieu’s reflexive sociology to move toward a more accurate, multidimensional view of racialized peoples’ literacy and language practices. To achieve this, they first engage in a comprehensive review of literacies, languaging, and a critical sociocultural framework. Then, the distinct testimonios of four women underscore this framework in practice, followed by action steps for research, policy, and pedagogy. This book will be of particular interest to literacy and language education researchers.
Contributors explore a range of sociolinguistic topics, including language variation, language ideologies, bi/multilingualism, language policy, linguistic landscapes, and multimodality. Each chapter provides a critical overview of the limitations of modernist positivist perspectives, replacing them with novel, up-to-date ways of theorizing and researching. [Publisher]