How did state power impinge on the religion of the ordinary person? This perennial issue has been sharpened as historians uncover the process of 'confessionalization' or 'acculturation', by which officials of state and church collaborated in ambitious programs of Protestant or Catholic reform, intended to change the religious consciousness and the behaviour of ordinary men and women. In the belief that specialists in one area of the globe can learn from the questions posed by colleagues working in the same period in other regions, this volume sets the topic in a wider framework. Thirteen essays, grouped in themes affording parallel views of England and Europe, Tsarist Russia, and Ming China, show a spectrum of possibilities for what early modern governments tried to achieve by regulating religious life, and for how religious communities evolved in new directions, either in keeping with or in spite of official injunctions.
In a truly contemporary analysis of Moscow's relations with its neighbors and other strategic international actors, Nikolas K. Gvosdev and Christopher Marsh use a comprehensive vectors approach, dividing the world into eight geographic zones. Each vector chapter looks at the dynamics of key bilateral relationships while highlighting major topical issues—oil and energy, defense policy, economic policy, the role of international institutions, and the impact of major interest groups or influencers—demonstrating that Russia formulates multiple, sometimes contrasting, foreign policies. Providing rich historical context as well as exposure to the scholarly literature, Russian Foreign Policy: Interests, Vectors, and Sectors offers an incisive look at how and why Russia partners with some states while it counter-balances others.
This book provides a rare window into the micropolitics of contemporary authoritarian rule through a comparison of religious-state relations in Russia and China - two countries with long histories of religious repression, and even longer experiences with authoritarian politics. Drawing on extensive fieldwork in multiple sites in these countries, this book explores what religious and political authority want from one another, how they negotiate the terms of their relationship, and how cooperative or conflicting their interactions are. This comparison reveals that while tensions exist between the two sides, there is also ample room for mutually beneficial interaction. Religious communities and their authoritarian overseers are cooperating around the core issue of politics - namely, the struggle for money, power and prestige - and becoming unexpected allies in the process.
This book challenges the modern myth that tolerance grows as societies become less religious. The myth inseparably links the progress of toleration to the secularization of modern society. This volume scrutinizes this grand narrative theoretically and empirically, and proposes alternative accounts of the varied relationships between diverse interpretations of religion and secularity and multiple secularizations, desecularizations, and forms of toleration. The authors show how both secular and religious orthodoxies inform toleration and persecution, and how secularizations and desecularizations engender repressive or pluralistic regimes. Ultimately, the book offers an agency-focused perspective which links the variation in toleration and persecution to the actors of secularization and desecularization and their cultural programs.
The response of states to demands for free exercise of religion or belief varies greatly across the world. In some places, religions come as close as imaginable to autonomous existences with little interference from government. In other cases religion finds itself grinding out a meagre living, if at all, under the jealously watchful eye of the state. This book provides a legal and normative overview of the variety of responses to minority religions available to states. Exploring case studies ranging from Islamic regions such as Indonesia, Pakistan, and the wider Middle East, to Western Europe, Eastern Europe, China, Russia, Canada, and the Baltics, contributors include international scholars and experts in law, sociology, religious studies, and political science. This book offers invaluable perspectives on how minority religions are currently being received, reviewed, challenged, or ignored in different parts of the world.
This book examines the political consequences of growing religiosity in countries where politics are repressive and religious freedoms are in flux. The study compares how two authoritarian regimes - Russia and China - manage religion and how religious communities navigate restrictive political environments to pursue their own spiritual and economic interests.
Their Religion, Character, Customs, and Manufactures; The Evils Arising From the Opium Trade (Classic Reprint)
Author: Henry Charles Sirr
Publisher: Forgotten Books
Excerpt from China and the Chinese, Vol. 1: Their Religion, Character, Customs, and Manufactures; The Evils Arising From the Opium Trade Kong, in 1840, up to this time, the end of 1848, will fully bear out the assertion; and, in despite of commodious barracks, and hospitals, our poor fellows fall victims to the pestilential climate of hang-kong, in a fearful manner. The winter is exceedingly cold and piercing, and a north-east wind blows, whilst a burning sun scorches the head, and the transition, from the burning heat of summer, to the cutting blast of winter, injures the most robust. The ia tense heat of an almost vertical sun, whose rays are re ected by an arid rock, must necessarily prove injurious to health; but when this is combined with nights of piercing cold, when the thermometer falls below freezing point, and water freezes in the ewer, placed in a bed-chamber, the effect upon a European constitution must be disastrous. In fact, the winter in China is felt much more severely than in Russia, where the internal arrangements of the dwellings are such as to exclude all cold; in Russia, warm clothing will sufice to protect those who take exer cise in the Open air, which it will not do in China, for neither furs nor cloth will exclude the cutting north-east wind, which chills, and seems to penetrate8 china and the chinese. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works."