Teachers of Marginalized Students in India, Mexico, and Tanzania
Author: Thomas F. Luschei
This book draws on case studies from India, Mexico, and Tanzania to examine the complex processes that lead to the educational marginalization of children through differential access to teacher quality. Growing evidence indicates that access to good teachers can boost the academic success of disadvantaged children and narrow achievement gaps between more and less privileged students. Yet in many countries, stronger teachers are concentrated in the classrooms of more advantaged children. Using a teacher labor markets framework, the authors explore the actions of those who employ teachers the demand side and teachers themselves the supply side. Examining key junctures in the teacher career pipeline, from recruitment and training to retention and transfer, the authors find that the actions of the demand side often clash with teachers’ preferences to live and work in satisfactory environments or to be close to home and family. Too often, the misalignment of the demand and supply sides places marginalized children at a profound educational disadvantage.
The types of workers recruited into teaching and their allocation across classrooms can greatly influence a country's stock of human capital. This paper considers how markets and non-market institutions determine the quantity, wages, skills, and spatial distribution of teachers in developing countries. Schools are a major source of employment in developing countries, particularly for women and professionals. Teacher compensation is also a large share of public budgets. Teacher labor markets in developing countries are likely to grow further as teacher quality becomes a greater focus of education policy, including under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Theoretical approaches to teacher labor markets have emphasized the role of non-market institutions, such as government and unions, and other frictions in teacher employment and wages. The evidence supports the existence and importance of such frictions in how teacher labor markets function. In many countries, large gaps in pay and quality exist between teachers and other professionals; teachers in public and private schools; teachers on permanent and temporary contracts; and teachers in urban and rural areas. Teacher supply increases with wages, though teacher quality does not necessarily increase. However, most evidence comes from studies of short-term effects among existing teachers. Evidence on effects in the long-term, on the supply of new teachers, or on changes in non-pecuniary compensation is scarcer.
Every year, the World Bank’s World Development Report (WDR) features a topic of central importance to global development. The 2018 WDR—LEARNING to Realize Education’s Promise—is the first ever devoted entirely to education. And the time is right: education has long been critical to human welfare, but it is even more so in a time of rapid economic and social change. The best way to equip children and youth for the future is to make their learning the center of all efforts to promote education. The 2018 WDR explores four main themes: First, education’s promise: education is a powerful instrument for eradicating poverty and promoting shared prosperity, but fulfilling its potential requires better policies—both within and outside the education system. Second, the need to shine a light on learning: despite gains in access to education, recent learning assessments reveal that many young people around the world, especially those who are poor or marginalized, are leaving school unequipped with even the foundational skills they need for life. At the same time, internationally comparable learning assessments show that skills in many middle-income countries lag far behind what those countries aspire to. And too often these shortcomings are hidden—so as a first step to tackling this learning crisis, it is essential to shine a light on it by assessing student learning better. Third, how to make schools work for all learners: research on areas such as brain science, pedagogical innovations, and school management has identified interventions that promote learning by ensuring that learners are prepared, teachers are both skilled and motivated, and other inputs support the teacher-learner relationship. Fourth, how to make systems work for learning: achieving learning throughout an education system requires more than just scaling up effective interventions. Countries must also overcome technical and political barriers by deploying salient metrics for mobilizing actors and tracking progress, building coalitions for learning, and taking an adaptive approach to reform.
Offers insights into the challenges and prospects in preparing Indonesian youth for 21st century living, featuring studies focusing on various educational aspects, including teachers and teaching, schools, and the social context of education.
The Fifth Edition of the Handbook of Research on Teachingis an essential resource for students and scholars dedicated to the study of teaching and learning. This volume offers a vast array of topics ranging from the history of teaching to technological and literacy issues. In each authoritative chapter, the authors summarize the state of the field while providing conceptual overviews of critical topics related to research on teaching. Each of the volume's 23 chapters is a canonical piece that will serve as a reference tool for the field. The Handbook provides readers with an unaparalleled view of the current state of research on teaching across its multiple facets and related fields.
This book contributes to understanding of how individual teachers in developing countries grow and evolve throughout their careers. Based on the analysis of 150 autobiographies of teachers from a range of regions in the developing world including Central Asia, South Asia, East Africa and the Middle East, the author celebrates individual teachers’ voices and explores their narratives. What can these narratives tell us about ‘becoming’ and 'being’ a teacher, and the process of teacher development? What is different about ‘becoming’ and ‘being’ a teacher in the developing world? By analysing the distinct narratives, the author explores these central questions and discusses the implications for further teacher development and education in these regions. In doing so, she transforms teachers’ embodied knowledge into public knowledge, shining a light onto the challenges they face in the Global South and exploring how research can be advanced in the future. This uniquely researched book will be of interest and value to students and scholars of education in the developing world.
This volume brings together eight case studies which describe a variety of initiatives to create more effective schools for children of poverty, especially in the Third World. The initiatives reviewed published and unpublished documents and both qualitative and statistical studies were examined. Countries include Brazil, Burundi, Colombia, Ghana, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the United States. Each initiative was developed independently to address unique challenges and situations but taken as a group, the features of the approaches described in this volume can be viewed as a basis for considering the development of effective schools strategies in other contexts.
Contents: Strengthening the Role of Teachers in a Changing World: The International Conference on Education, Strengthening the Role of Teachers in a Changing World: Issues, Prospects and Priorities, Enhancing the Role of Teachers in a Changing World, The Reality of Change Teachers Triumphs and Tribulations and Facilitators of Change in the Multi-Cultural Language Classroom, Schoolbased In-Service Education of Teachers in Developing Versus Industrialised Countries: Comparative Policy Perspectives, Teacher Licensing: Compulsory or Voluntary? A Case Study, Strengthening the Role of Teachers in a Changing World: African Perspective, Strengthening the Role of Teachers in a Changing World: Asia-Pacific Perspective, Strengthening the Role of Teachers in a Changing World: European Perspective, Draft Declaration of the UNESCO s Forty-Fifth Session of the International Conference on Education.
This year’s edition brings together research and essays on comparative education trends and directions written by professional and scholarly leaders in the field. Topics covered include theoretical and methodological developments, reports on research-to-practice, area studies and the diversification of comparative and international education.
Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Teacher Education and Professional Development (InCoTEPD 2019), 13-14 November, 2019, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Social Science
The main theme of the proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Teacher Education and Professional Development (InCoTEPD 2019) is ‘’Teacher Education and Professional Development in Industry 4.0". The papers have been carefully grouped under the subthemes of teacher education and professional development, curriculum, learning materials, teaching-learning process, technology and media, and assessment in Industry 4.0 education. They also cover vocational education in the era in question and one section is devoted to Industrially disadvantaged societies. As these papers were presented at an internationally refereed conference dedicated to the advancement of theories and practices in education, they provide an opportunity for academics and professionals from various educational fields with cross-disciplinary interests to bridge the knowledge gap and promote research esteem and the evolution of pedagogy.
This book introduces how large-scale teacher reforms are implemented and impacting teachers around the world. Previous books on teacher policy or reforms have tended to focus on the background, development, and descriptions of teacher reforms.
Forming part of the regular work carried out by the ILO to serve as a basis for monitoring, with UNESCO, the application of the 1966 Recommendation concerning the status of teachers, this study sheds light on the specific conditions of teachers in developing countries.
Case Studies in Teacher Behavior Change in Africa and Asia
Author: Sarah Pouezevara
Publisher: RTI Press
Cultivating Dynamic Educators: Case Studies in Teacher Behavior Change in Africa and Asia responds to growing recognition by international education professionals, policy makers, and funding partners of the need for qualified teachers and interest in the subject of teacher professional development (also referred to as “teacher behavior change”). The book responds to important questions that are fundamental to improving teaching quality by influencing teaching practice. These questions include: How do we provide high-quality training at scale? How do we ensure that training transfers to change in practice? What methods are most cost-effective? How do we know what works? The book includes case studies describing different approaches to teacher behavior change and illustrates how specific implementation choices were made for each context. Individual chapters document lessons learned as well as methodologies used for discerning lessons. The key conclusion is that no single effort is enough on its own; teacher behavior change requires a system-wide view and concerted, coordinated inputs from a range of stakeholders.
1.1 OVERVIEW The teacher has an obvious interest in the determinants of personality. Only by knowing where personality comes from can he decide the extent to which the personalities of the children in his class are fixed by what happens outside school, and the extent to which they can be altered by what happens inside it. Personality is the result of interaction between inherited and environmental factors and we need now to look at the evidence for this view, taking heredity first. The first three years of life, during which, as we have seen, the effects of maternal deprivation seem particularly hard to reverse, are an example of what he psychologist calls a critical period in the development of the child. A critical period is, in fact, any stage in human or animal development during which the organism is maximally sensitive to the presence of certain kinds of stimuli. Denied these stimuli, behaviour which is regarded as characteristic of the species concerned does not develop, even though there is often a considerable gap in time between the critical period and the age at which the behaviour normally occurs. Thus, deprived of mothering themselves in infancy, Harlow's monkeys grew up incapable of mothering their own young, and the same may well hold true for humans, as any veteran social worker who has watched the depressing cycle of aggressive and violent mothering styles pas from one general to the next will readily attest.
This book provides a provocative but carefully argued addition to the theory and practice of education in developing countries. The book provides an ethical and empirical justification for support of formalistic teaching in primary and secondary schools in developing countries. It also refutes the application of progressive education principles to curriculum and pre- and in-service teacher education in such contexts. The central focus of this book is the formalistic teaching prevalent in the classrooms of many developing countries. Formalistic (‘teacher-centred’, ‘traditional’, ‘didactic’, ‘pedagogic’) teaching is appropriate in the many countries with revelatory epistemologies, unpopular and old-fashioned though these methods may seem in some western, especially Anglophone, ones. Formalism has been the object of many failed progressive curriculum and teacher education reforms in developing countries for some 50 years.