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The French Empire Between the Wars

Imperialism, Politics and Society

Author: Martin Thomas

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 408

View: 308

The French empire between the wars is the first study of the French colonial empire at its height in the twenty years following the First World War. Based on extensive archival research, it addresses current debates about French methods of rule and their impact on colonial peoples, the origins of decolonisation, and the role of popular imperialism in French society and culture. By considering the distinctiveness of the inter-war years as a discrete period of colonial change, this book addresses several larger issues, such as tracing the origins of decolonisation in the rise of colonial nationalism, and a re-assessment of the impact of inter-war colonial rebellions in Africa, Syria and Indochina. The book also connects French theories of colonial governance to the lived experience of colonial rule in a period scarred by war and economic dislocation. The author analyses colonial decision-making in Paris and the renewed threat of global war, as well as colonial economic conditions and forms of discrimination in the empire to illustrate the process of French imperial decline.

Fight or Flight

Britain, France, and their Roads from Empire

Author: Martin Thomas

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 640

View: 726

Although shattered by war, in 1945 Britain and France still controlled the world's two largest colonial empires, with imperial territories stretched over four continents. And they appeared determined to keep them: the roll-call of British and French politicians, soldiers, settlers and writers who promised in word and print at this time to defend their colonial possessions at all costs is a long one. Yet, within twenty years both empires had almost completely disappeared. The collapse was cataclysmic. Peaceable 'transfers of power' were eclipsed by episodes of territorial partition and mass violence whose bitter aftermath still lingers. Hundreds of millions across four continents were caught up in the biggest reconfiguration of the international system ever seen. In the meantime, even the most dogged imperialists, who had once stiffly defended imperial rule, ultimately bent to the wind of change. By the early 1950s Winston Churchill had retreated from his wartime pledge to keep Britain's Empire intact. And General de Gaulle, who quit the French presidency in 1946 complaining that France's new post-war democracy would never hang on to the country's imperial prizes, narrowly escaped assassination a generation later - after negotiating the humiliating French withdrawal from Algeria. Fight or Flight is the first ever comparative account of this dramatic collapse, explaining the end of the British and French colonial empires as an intertwined, even co-dependent process. Decolonization gathered momentum, not as an empire-specific affair, but as a global one, in which the wider march of twentieth-century history played a vital part: industrial concentration and global depression, World War and Cold War, Communism and other anti-colonial ideologies, mass consumerism and the allure of American popular culture. Above all, as Martin Thomas shows, the internationalization of colonial affairs made it impossible to contain colonial problems locally, spelling the end for Europe's two largest colonial empires in less than two decades from the end of the Second World War.

Empires of Intelligence

Security Services and Colonial Disorder After 1914

Author: Martin Thomas

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 428

View: 153

"Uses new and previously unexploited archival sources to craft an original and conceptually sophisticated discussion of the dynamics of colonial power."—Peter Jackson, author of France and the Nazi Menace: Intelligence and Policy-Making, 1933-39

The French Colonial Mind: Mental maps of empire and colonial encounters

Author: Martin Thomas

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 424

View: 219

What made France into an imperialist nation, ruler of a global empire with millions of dependent subjects overseas? Historians have sought answers to this question in the nation?s political situation at home and abroad, its socioeconomic circumstances, and its international ambitions. But all these motivating factors depended on other, less tangible forces, namely, the prevailing attitudes of the day and their influence among those charged with acquiring or administering a colonial empire. The French Colonial Mind explores these mindsets to illuminate the nature of French imperialism. ø The first of two linked volumes, Mental Maps of Empire and Colonial Encountersøbrings together fifteen leading scholars of French colonial history to investigate the origins and outcomes of imperialist ideas among France?s most influential ?empire-makers.? Considering French colonial experiences in Africa and Southeast Asia, the authors identify the processes that made Frenchmen and women into ardent imperialists. By focusing on attitudes, presumptions, and prejudices, these essays connect the derivation of ideas about empire, colonized peoples, and concepts of civilization with the forms and practices of French imperialism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The contributors to The French Colonial Mind place the formation and the derivation of colonialist thinking at the heart of this history of imperialism.

The French Colonial Mind

Author: Martin Thomas

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 864

View: 273

Volume 1: What made France into an imperialist nation, ruler of a global empire with millions of dependent subjects overseas? Historians have sought answers to this question in the nation’s political situation at home and abroad, its socioeconomic circumstances, and its international ambitions. But all these motivating factors depended on other, less tangible forces, namely, the prevailing attitudes of the day and their influence among those charged with acquiring or administering a colonial empire. The French Colonial Mind explores these mind-sets to illuminate the nature of French imperialism. The first of two linked volumes, this book brings together fifteen leading scholars of French colonial history to investigate the origins and outcomes of imperialist ideas among France’s most influential “empire-makers.” Considering French colonial experiences in Africa and Southeast Asia, the authors identify the processes that made Frenchmen and women into ardent imperialists. By focusing on attitudes, presumptions, and prejudices, these essays connect the derivation of ideas about empire, colonized peoples, and concepts of civilization with the forms and practices of French imperialism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The contributors to The French Colonial Mind place the formation and the derivation of colonialist thinking at the heart of this history of imperialism. Volume 2: Violence was prominent in France’s conquest of a colonial empire, and the use of force was integral to its control and regulation of colonial territories. What, if anything, made such violence distinctly colonial? And how did its practitioners justify or explain it? These are issues at the heart of The French Colonial Mind: Violence, Military Encounters, and Colonialism. The second of two linked volumes, this book brings together prominent scholars of French colonial history to explore the many ways in which brutality and killing became central to the French experience and management of empire. Sometimes concealed or denied, at other times highly publicized and even celebrated, French violence was so widespread that it was in some ways constitutive of colonial identity. Yet such violence was also destructive: destabilizing for its practitioners and lethal or otherwise devastating for its victims. The manifestations of violence in the minds and actions of imperialists are investigated here in essays that move from the conquest of Algeria in the 1830s to the disintegration of France’s empire after World War II. The authors engage a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from the violence of first colonial encounters to conflicts of decolonization. Each considers not only the forms and extent of colonial violence but also its dire effects on perpetrators and victims. Together, their essays provide the clearest picture yet of the workings of violence in French imperialist thought.

Writing Contemporary History

Author: Robert Gildea

Publisher: Bloomsbury USA Academic

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 254

View: 344

Writing Contemporary History brings together some of the world's most pre-eminent historians to discuss the core issues confronting students of contemporary history today. Tackling ten key questions of current historiographical debate, each chapter sets in parallel and in opposition the contributions of two scholars. Questions include- Does gender history have a future? When does colonial history end? What is cultural history now about? This volume takes to heart the central rationale of the Writing History series, namely to combine theoretical reflection with the practice of producing historical texts. It introduces the reader to a variety of important theoretical approaches in the field of contemporary history writing and asks how these approaches have shaped historical writing in this important sub-discipline. Writing Contemporary History an invaluable introduction to the central debates that have shaped the field of contemporary history.

The French Colonial Mind: Violence, military encounters and colonialism

Author: Martin Thomas

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 440

View: 348

Violence was prominent in France?s conquest of a colonial empire, and the use of force was integral to its control and regulation of colonial territories. What, if anything, made such violence distinctly colonial? And how did its practitioners justify or explain it? These are issues at the heart of The French Colonial Mind: Violence, Military Encounters, and Colonialism. The second of two linked volumes, this book brings together prominent scholars of French colonial history to explore the many ways in which brutality and killing became central to the French experience and management of empire. Sometimes concealed or denied, at other times highly publicized and even celebrated, French violence was so widespread that it was in some ways constitutive of colonial identity. Yet such violence was also destructive: destabilizing for its practitioners and lethal or otherwise devastating for its victims. The manifestations of violence in the minds and actions of imperialists are investigated here in essays that move from the conquest of Algeria in the 1830s to the disintegration of France?s empire after World War II. The authors engage a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from the violence of first colonial encounters to conflicts of decolonization. Each considers not only the forms and extent of colonial violence but also its dire effects on perpetrators and victims. Together, their essays provide the clearest picture yet of the workings of violence in French imperialist thought.

Trading in Birds

A History of Science, Economy, and Conservation in U.S.-Colombia Relations

Author: Camilo Quintero

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Colombia

Page: 257

View: 504

Ireland, India and Empire

Indo-Irish Radical Connections, 1919-64

Author: Kate O'Malley

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 851

Offering a fresh new perspective on the history of the end of Empire, with the Irish and Indian independence movements as its focus, this book details how each country’s nationalist agitators engaged with each other and exchanged ideas. Using previously unpublished sources from the Indian Political Intelligence collection, it chronicles the rise and fall of movements such as the Indian-Irish Independence League and the League Against Imperialism, whose histories have, until now, remained deeply hidden in the archives. O’Malley also highlights opaque aspects of the careers of popular figures from both Irish and Indian history including Subhas Chandra Bose, Jawaharlal Nehru, Eamon de Valera and Maud Gonne McBride at points when their paths crossed. This book encompasses aspects of Irish, Indian, British, Imperial and intelligence history and will be of interest to students, teachers and general history enthusiasts alike.

The Origins of the Second World War

Author: R. J. Overy

Publisher: Longman Publishing Group

ISBN:

Category: Europe

Page: 129

View: 570

The Origins of the Second World War explores the reasons why the Second World War broke out in September 1939 and not sooner, and why a European war expanded into world war by 1941.

Counterterrorism Between the Wars

An International History, 1919-1937

Author: Mary S. Barton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 626

Mary S. Barton explores counterterrorism in the years between World War I and World War II, starting with the attempted assassination of French Prime Minister George Clemenceau in 1919, and taking the story up to and beyond the double assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Jean Louis Barthou in 1934. In telling the story of counterterrorism over this period, Barton gives particular emphasis to Britain's attempts to quell revolutionary nationalist movements in India and throughout its empire, and to the Great Powers' combined efforts to counter the activities of the Communist International. Further to this, Barton discusses the establishment of the tools and infrastructure of modern intelligence, including the cooperation between the United Kingdom and United States which would evolve into the Five Eyes intelligence alliance. She gives weight to forgotten terrorism and arms traffic conventions, and explores the facilitating role which the Paris Peace Conference and the League of Nations played in this context. The stories told in Counterterrorism Between the Wars play out across the world, from the remains of the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Russian empires, to the Northwest Frontier and the Bengal Province of British India. A century after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Counterterrorism Between the Wars is the first comprehensive study to fit together the mass production of weapons during the Great War with the diplomacy of the interwar era and the rise of state-sponsored terrorism during the 1920s and 1930s.

Iran and a French Empire of Trade, 1700-1808

The Other Persian Letters

Author: Junko Thérèse Takeda

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 292

View: 663

Iran and a French Empire of Trade examines the understudied topic of Franco-Persian relations in the long eighteenth century to highlight how rising tensions among Eurasian empires and revolutions in the Atlantic world were profoundly intertwined. Conflicts between Persia, Turkey, India and Russia, and European weapons-dealing with these empires occurred against a backdrop of climate change and food insecurities that destabilized markets. Takeda shows how the French state relied on "entrepreneurial imperialism" to extend commercial activities eastwards beyond the Mediterranean during this time, from Louis XIV's reign to Napoleon Bonaparte's First Empire. Organized as a collection of microhistories, her study showcases a colourful set of characters--rogue merchants from Marseille, a gambling house madam, a naturalized Greek-French drogman, and a bi-cultural Genevan-Persian consul, among others--to demonstrate how individuals on the fringes of French society spearheaded projects to foster ties between France and Persia. Considering the Enlightenment as a product of a connected world, Takeda investigates how trans-imperial adventurers, merchants, consuls, and informants negotiated treaties, traded commodities and arms, transferred knowledge, and introduced industrial practices from Asia to Europe. And she shows the surprising ways in which Enlightenment debates about regime changes from the Safavid to Qajar dynasties and Persia's borderland wars shaped French ideas about revolution andpolicies related to empire-building.

Britain and the Seventy Years War, 1744-1815

Enlightenment, Revolution and Empire

Author: Anthony Page

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 300

View: 858

Eighteenth-century Britons were frequently anxious about the threat of invasion, military weakness, possible financial collapse and potential revolution. Anthony Page argues that between 1744 and 1815, Britain fought a 'Seventy Years War' with France. This invaluable study: - argues for a new periodization of eighteenth-century British history, and explains the politics and course of Anglo-French war - explores Britain's 'fiscal-naval' state and its role in the expansion of empire and industrial revolution - highlights links between war, Enlightenment and the evolution of modern British culture and politics. Synthesizing recent research on political, military, economic, social and cultural history, Page demonstrates how Anglo-French war influenced the revolutionary era and helped to shape the first age of global imperialism.

A Giant in the Age of Steel

The Story of General de Gaulle

Author: Alfred A. Hessenstein (count.)

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: World War, 1939-1945

Page: 164

View: 833

Chronology of Native North American History

From Pre-Columbian Times to the Present

Author: Duane Champagne

Publisher: Detroit : Gale Research

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 574

View: 124

Outlines important people, places, and events in Native American history, covering such topics as art, activism, education, literature, religion, and sports

The French Empire at War, 1940-45

Author: Martin Thomas

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 298

View: 572

Draws on original research to look at the history of the divided French Empire - the Vichy and Free French Empires - during World War II. The text argues that, although the Vichy and Free French colonial authorities were only rarely masters of their own destiny during the war, preservation of some imperial control helped them both in different ways. The Vichy government used the empire to withstand German-Italian pressure for concessions in metropolitan France and it was key to their claim to be more than the mouthpiece of a defeated nation.

The French Seaboard Empire and Louisbourg, 1713-1758

Author: Joy Varkey

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: France

Page: 366

View: 577

The World Book Encyclopedia

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Page:

View: 425

An encyclopedia designed especially to meet the needs of elementary, junior high, and senior high school students.

History of France

Author: Alain Rousseau

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 950

The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. What is now France made up the bulk of the region known to the Romans as Gaul. Roman writers noted the presence of three main ethno-linguistic groups in the area: the Gauls, the Aquitani, and the Belgae. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks, Romans, and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. The Roman Republic annexed southern Gaul as the province of Gallia Narbonensis in the late 2nd century BC, and Roman forces under Julius Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul in the Gallic Wars of 58-51 BC. Afterwards a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire. In the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. The Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, setting the stage for Frankish dominance in the region for hundreds of years. Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The medieval Kingdom of France emerged from the western part of Charlemagne's Carolingian Empire, known as West Francia, and achieved increasing prominence under the rule of the House of Capet, founded by Hugh Capet in 987. A succession crisis following the death of the last direct Capetian monarch in 1328 led to the series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet. The war formally began in 1337 following Philip VI's attempt to seize the Duchy of Aquitaine from its hereditary holder, Edward III of England, the Plantagenet claimant to the French throne. Despite early Plantagenet victories, including the capture and ransom of John II of France, fortunes turned in favor of the Valois later in the war. Among the notable figures of the war was Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl who led French forces against the English, establishing herself as a national heroine. The war ended with a Valois victory in 1453. Victory in the Hundred Years' War had the effect of strengthening French nationalism and vastly increasing the power and reach of the French monarchy. During the period known as the Ancien Regime, France transformed into a centralized absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation. At the height of the French Wars of Religion, France became embroiled in another succession crisis, as the last Valois king, Henry III, fought against rival factions the House of Bourbon and the House of Guise. Henry, King of Navarre, scion of the Bourbon family, would be victorious in the conflict and establish the French Bourbon dynasty. A burgeoning worldwide colonial empire was established in the 16th century. French political power reached a zenith under the rule of Louis XIV, "The Sun King," builder of Versailles Palace. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution. The country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte. Following Napoleon's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, France went through several further regime changes, being ruled as a monarchy, then briefly as a Second Republic, and then as a Second Empire, until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, the United States and smaller allies against Germany and the Central Powers."

A History of World Societies: From the French revolution to the present

Author: John P. McKay

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin College Division

ISBN:

Category: History

Page: 3

View: 513