This unusual study, written by an engineer with expertise in industrial research and pyrotechnology, combines archaeological investigation with technical instruction to examine the scientific and chemical processes which resulted in the ancient furnace. The scope of the book is comprehensive and includes the successes and failures of over 10,000 years of history. Subjects include the use of fuels according to the products made, temperature control, deforestation and the smelting and use of copper and iron. This useful reference work contains varying amounts of technical language, with most jargon confined to the more detailed appendices, in order to make the subject matter more available to a wider readership.
Offering a unique perspective on an overlooked subject – the relationship between time, change, and lawmaking – this edited collection brings together world-leading experts to consider how time considerations and social, political and technological change affect the legislative process, the interpretation of laws, the definition of the powers of the government and the ability of legal orders to promote innovation. Divided into four parts, each part considers a different form of interaction between time and law, and change. The first part offers legal, theoretical and historical perspectives on the relationship between time and law, and how time shaped law and influences legal interpretation and constitutional change. The second part offers the reader an analysis of the different ways in which courts approach the impact of time on law, as well as theoretical and empirical reflections upon the meaning of the principle of legal certainty, legitimate expectations and the influence of law over time. The third part of the book analyses how legislation and the legislative process addresses time and change, and the various challenges they create to the legal order. The fourth and final part addresses the complex relationship between fast-paced technological change and the regulation of innovations.
This book is an introduction to the study of artefacts, setting them in a social context rather than using a purely scientific approach. Drawing on a range of different cultures and extensively illustrated, Archaeological Artefacts and Material Culture covers everything from recovery strategies and recording procedures to interpretation through typology, ethnography and experiment, and every type of material including wood, fibers, bones, hides and adhesives, stone, clay, and metals. With over seventy illustrations with almost fifty in full colour, this book not only provides the tools an archaeologist will need to interpret past societies from their artefacts, but also a keen appreciation of the beauty and tactility involved in working with these fascinating objects. This is a book no archaeologist should be without, but it will also appeal to anybody interested in the interaction between people and objects.
The Production of Glass, Vitreous Materials and Pottery at Amarna Site O45.1
Author: Paul T. Nicholson
This book examines the coming of glass to Egypt and its relationship to the production of faience and pottery, particularly at Amarna site O45.1. The text combines excavated evidence with experimental archaeology and laboratory analyses to give a reconstruction of the production of glass and other materials at Amarna, both in terms of technology and social context. The excavations carried out by Flinders Petrie at Amarna (18912) are reassessed in the light of the new work and finds from that time put into a broader perspective.
Publisher: Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies Institute of Arc
Category: Jewish metal-work
A Metallurgical Gemara is the first in-depth exploration of evidence of the use of metals and related technologies within the classic Jewish literary sources. Levene's expertise in Semitic languages and Jewish studies and Rothenberg's unique understanding and knowledge of the history of metallurgy combine to produce this unique interdisciplinary research. Their work brings to light the extent to which metal work was part of the lives of the Israelites of antiquity and the Jews of the late antique and medieval worlds. But this book is more than just an analysis of technical aspects; it traces the place of the metallurgical motif in these people's lives and folklore, and explores the ancient concepts regarding the nature of matter as expressed through the prism of their religious world view.
The west-central African Iron Age archaeological studies focused on the acquiring and using new technology for subsistence economies. The inception of this technology, some argued, hastened the reclamation of arable lands from the Congo/Zaire basin rainforests for land cultivation and made warfare against enemies more easier than the Neolithic tools it replaced. While these were known to be significant outcomes, Barros (1995) contended that they have not really been tested in field studies. The benefits were emphasized, but the environmental effects were ignored. Certainly, if the benefits are archaeologically and ethnographically analyzed, the subregion was better off without the technological change. The dissertation argues for and against the "so-called" benefits of the iron technology by analyzing the human condition in Neolithic sites and comparing them with the human condition in Iron Age sites from an ecological perspective. Ecologically, the position the paper takes is that iron technology did more harm than good to west-central African landscapes and biotas. Although iron tools alone hardly caused the landscape transformation, their addition to the natural factors fostered environmental degradation. The paper contends that natural environment depletion was not new in the subregion, but strongly suggests the depletion rate quadrupled with Iron Age humans, who replaced Stone Age humans around 1000 BC or earlier and exploited the environment until the post-colonial era. Lacking natural resource conservation ideas, they cleared rainforests for many purposes. They herded livestock, increased population, expanded village settlements, demanded more ore and charcoal for iron implement production. The Neolithic cultures had used wooden and stone tools, plus fires for clearing the forest; foraged, and fished; and they dwelt in waterside sites. Current west-central African environments are worsening due to the global economic exploitation of the remaining natural resources. Besides, large tracts of land are owned by multinational companies for growing food and cash crops, thus contributing to environmental degradation. Local farmers using no environmental protection methods are encouraged by national and foreign governments to replace food crops with cash crop farms. The disease epidemics and famine in the subregion leave evidence for wrongful applications of the Iron Age technology.
Surveys the history of human interactions with fire, from prehistoric times when controlling it made the difference between being predator or prey, to the present, and discusses its use in industry, communications, war, and other fields.
Symposium Held November 26-30, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Author: Materials Research Society. Meeting
Category: Technology & Engineering
This volume, the sixth in a continuing series, presents cutting edge multidisciplinary work on the characterization of ancient materials; the technologies of selection, production and usage by which materials are transformed into objects and artifacts; the science underlying their deterioration, preservation and conservation; and sociocultural interpretation derived from an empirical methodology of observation, measurement and experimentation. Preserving cultural heritage extends beyond artifact preservation to developing a critical understanding of how ancient people used technology and craft to solve problems of survival and organization and to make symbols or representations of what was important in their world, especially for its maintenance, longevity and beautification. Of particular interest in this volume are contributions which explore the interface and overlap among traditional materials science, the history of technology and the archaeological and conservation sciences, or that investigate new methods and applications of materials science in art and archaeology. Topics include: conservation and preservation science; preservation-design, characterization and assessment; characterization-new methods and improved techniques; archaeological science and archaeometry; site formation, site analysis, resource survey and organization of technology; weathering, dating, technology and authentication; archaeomaterials, technology and society; replicative experiments, synthesis of materials and model systems; historic technologies; and ancient technology and modern craft.
Against a recent tendency to exaggerate Shakespeare's classical learning, this study examines how the playwright used his relatively restricted knowledge to create an unusually convincing picture of Rome.
The Sutton Hoo whetstone sceptre is the most enigmatic and mysterious emblem of kingship of the Early Middle Ages. Produced c.600 AD and long held to be Anglo-Saxon, the author of the present work argued in 1983 that it was actually made by Celtic craftsmen who deployed Celtic iconographic themes in its carving. That thesis is now accepted by many scholars but continues to be a matter of debate. Here the thesis is re-examined with a wealth of evidence never before discussed. Enright establishes that the sceptre is undoubtedly a British artefact, one that reflects a long history of Celtic king ship theory. It is the end of a tradition that begins with the Iron Age Pfalzfeld pillar. Because the sceptre's design reflects that of the pillar, a comparison of their creator's ideas is possible. The results are important and surprising. It is safe to say that this book casts a wholly new light on a number of significant topics in the field and that its findings will be of considerable interest to scholars in a variety of areas.