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The Primate Visual System

Author: Jon H. Kaas

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 440

View: 380

The last 20 years of research have been marked by exceptional progress in understanding the organization and functions of the primate visual system. This understanding has been based on the wide application of traditional and newly emerging methods for identifying the functionally significant subdivisions of the system, their interconnections, the

The Primate Visual System

A Comparative Approach

Author: Jan Kremers

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 925

Many recent developments in the field in recording, staining, genetic and stimulation techniques, in vivo, and in vitro have significantly increased the amount of available data on the primate visual system. Written with contributions from key neurobiologists in the field, The Primate Visual System will provide the reader with the latest developments, examining the structure, function and evolution of the primate visual system. The book takes a comparative approach as a basis for studying the physiological properties of primate vision and examines the phylogenetic relationship between the visual systems of different primate species. Taken from a neurobiologist’s perspective this book provides a unique approach to the study of primate vision as a basis for further study into the human visual system. Altogether an important overview of the structure, function and evolution of the primate visual system from a neurobiologist’s perspective, written specifically for higher level undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in neuroscience, physiology, optics/ visual science, as well as a valuable read to researchers new to the field.

Segmentation of Moving Images by the Primate Visual System

Author: Gene R. Stoner

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 338

View: 322

Pattern and Color Vision in the Primate Visual System

Author: Daniel C. Kiper

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 276

View: 212

Evolution of the Primate Visual System

Author: E. Christopher Kirk

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Eye

Page: 680

View: 571

Chromatic Influences on Motion Processing in the Primate Visual System

A Psychophysical and Neurophysiological Investigation

Author: Karen R. Dobkins

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 484

View: 216

The Primate Visual System

Author: Jon H. Kaas

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 440

View: 294

The last 20 years of research have been marked by exceptional progress in understanding the organization and functions of the primate visual system. This understanding has been based on the wide application of traditional and newly emerging methods for identifying the functionally significant subdivisions of the system, their interconnections, the

The Role of Input Nonlinearities in the Primate Visual System

Author: James Tsui

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 215

"When an observer views a moving object, the projection of the motion onto the retina is first converted into information about velocity in the primary visual cortex (V1). These motion signals are then sent to numerous visual cortical structures, known collectively as the extrastriate cortex. One such area is the middle temporal area (MT), which contains neurons that are highly selective for velocity. The outputs of MT are then sent to even higher cortical areas that are responsible for generating conscious motion perception. Many studies have devised sophisticated models to explain the process by which velocity selectivity arises in MT. In most of these models, complex computations are carried out on the inputs reaching MT from V1, which are typically modeled as linear filters of visual inputs. The outputs of such MT model are then used to infer perceptual behavior. While these models are often quite successful in capturing the relationship between MT neuronal responses and visual stimuli, they are often built on abstract mathematical assumptions about V1 processing. In particular the assumption that V1 neurons have responses that are linearly related to the visual stimulus is contradicted by the demonstration of multiple nonlinearities at this stage. Similarly, MT outputs presumably go through several nonlinear processing stages before affecting perception. Thus, in order to facilitate the development of biologically plausible models, it is important to first understand the relevant input nonlinearities. The present thesis explores this issue by analyzing electrophysiological data collected from awake-behaving macaques and through the development of novel computational models. In particular, this thesis shows how many of the seemingly complicated functions of MT can be explained largely on the basis of a realistic account of nonlinearities in the V1 inputs. The thesis also provides a new formulation of the individual contributions of the center and surround of MT neuron receptive fields, in the process revealing important nonlinear inhibitory inputs that had not previously been observed. Finally, this thesis shows how many of the perceptual phenomena that are thought to depend on center-surround antagonism in MT could actually arise from of the accumulation of nonlinearities along the visual pathway." --

Representation of Natural Image Sequences in the Primate Visual System

Author: Yoon Ho Bai

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 206

View: 748

A fundamental goal of sensory processing is predicting the future state of the environment. Visual prediction is difficult because the stream of images on the retina evolves according to irregular, curved trajectories. We posit that the visual system seeks to transform natural inputs such that neural representations follow straighter and more predictable trajectories. Previous work has provided psychophysical evidence for this hypothesis by showing that the human visual system selectively straightens the temporal trajectories of natural movies, thus facilitating their extrapolation. In this thesis, I investigate the neural basis of perceptual straightening. We hypothesize that perceptual straightening is achieved through a series of cascaded transformations and found supporting evidence from psychophysical and neurophysiological measurements. We estimated the curvature of internal trajectories from human perceptual judgements across distinct sub-regions of the visual field. Perceptual results suggest that computations that underlie object recognition overlap with those that straighten natural movies, thereby revealing deficits in both processes--crowding and absence of straightening in the periphery. We posit that straightening occurs at multiple stages in the ventral stream as it is linked to recognizing objects. Next, we investigated if straightening occurs as early as the primary visual cortex (V1). We developed a novel computational tool to infer trajectories from neural populations and found robust straightening in V1 recordings from anesthetized macaques. Next, we explored the computational basis of V1 results with an image-computable model. We built a model to describe well-known computations of V1 cells and tested the model with the same movie stimuli. Model-predictions reveal that these computations only partially engage the mechanisms for straightening, revealing the involvement of more complex visual mechanisms. To further test our hypothesis, we asked if additional straightening occurs across the V1-V2 cascade. We recorded populations in areas V1 and V2 from awake fixating monkeys. Consistent with our hypothesis, we find incremental straightening between V1 and V2 elicited by the same natural movies. Together, we find collective evidence of neural straightening as an emergent property that contributes to perceptual straightening in a progressive manner starting from the early stages of vision

The Primate Visual System

A Comparative Approach

Author: Jan Kremers

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 480

Many recent developments in the field in recording, staining, genetic and stimulation techniques, in vivo, and in vitro have significantly increased the amount of available data on the primate visual system. Written with contributions from key neurobiologists in the field, The Primate Visual System will provide the reader with the latest developments, examining the structure, function and evolution of the primate visual system. The book takes a comparative approach as a basis for studying the physiological properties of primate vision and examines the phylogenetic relationship between the visual systems of different primate species. Taken from a neurobiologist’s perspective this book provides a unique approach to the study of primate vision as a basis for further study into the human visual system. Altogether an important overview of the structure, function and evolution of the primate visual system from a neurobiologist’s perspective, written specifically for higher level undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in neuroscience, physiology, optics/ visual science, as well as a valuable read to researchers new to the field.

Chromatic Properties of Higher-order Mechanisms in the Primate Visual System

Author: Kristen Sophia Cardinal

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 132

View: 711

Chromatic Properties of Higher-order Mechamisms in the Primate Visual System

Author: Kristen Sophia Cardinal

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 197

Hierarchical Object Representations in the Visual Cortex and Computer Vision

Author: Antonio Rodríguez-Sánchez

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 254

Over the past 40 years, neurobiology and computational neuroscience has proved that deeper understanding of visual processes in humans and non-human primates can lead to important advancements in computational perception theories and systems. One of the main difficulties that arises when designing automatic vision systems is developing a mechanism that can recognize - or simply find - an object when faced with all the possible variations that may occur in a natural scene, with the ease of the primate visual system. The area of the brain in primates that is dedicated at analyzing visual information is the visual cortex. The visual cortex performs a wide variety of complex tasks by means of simple operations. These seemingly simple operations are applied to several layers of neurons organized into a hierarchy, the layers representing increasingly complex, abstract intermediate processing stages. In this Research Topic we propose to bring together current efforts in neurophysiology and computer vision in order 1) To understand how the visual cortex encodes an object from a starting point where neurons respond to lines, bars or edges to the representation of an object at the top of the hierarchy that is invariant to illumination, size, location, viewpoint, rotation and robust to occlusions and clutter; and 2) How the design of automatic vision systems benefit from that knowledge to get closer to human accuracy, efficiency and robustness to variations.

Representation of Three-dimensional Objects in the Primate Visual System

Author: Jon Michael Pauls

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Visual pathways

Page: 324

View: 268

Visual Topography and Perceptual Learning in the Primate Visual System

Author: Kimmy Tang-Wright

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 521

Functional Organisation of the Human Visual Cortex

Author: Balázs Gulyás

Publisher: Pergamon

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 391

View: 739

As vision is one of the most important sensory modalities present in almost all animal species, the systematic exploration of the visual system has been a major target of neurobiological research in recent years. This research activity has led to increased understanding of the functional, anatomical and biochemical organisation of the primate visual system. This book gives a comprehensive overview of key discoveries relating to the human visual cortex, made possible by new methodologies, such as brain imaging techniques, which have enabled scientists to map the human visual cortex with respect to its functional organisation. Providing a platform for discussion of developments, uncertainties and future exploration in this multidisciplinary field, the book summarises our state-of-the-art knowledge, and gives impetus to comparative studies on the visual systems of humans and other primates.

An Introduction to the Visual System

Author: Martin J. Tovée

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 202

View: 544

In recent years there has been a host of new advances in our understanding of how we see. From molecular genetics come details of the photopigments and the molecular causes of disorders like colour blindness. In-depth analysis has shown how a cell converts light into a neural signal using the photopigments. Traditional techniques of microelectrode recording along with new techniques of functional imaging - such as PET scans - have made it possible to understand how visual information is processed in the brain. This processing results in the single coherent perception of the world we see in our 'mind's eye'. An Introduction to the Visual System provides a concise, but detailed, overview of this field. It is clearly written, and each chapter ends with a helpful 'key points' section. It is ideal for anyone studying visual perception, from the second year of an undergraduate course onwards.

Chromatic and Spatial Transformations in the Primate Visual System

Author: Maziar Hashemi-Nezhad

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Color vision

Page: 292

View: 392

Encoding Surfaces from Motion in the Primate Visual System

Author: Stefan Treue

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 241

View: 355

The Primate Nervous System

Author: T. Hokfelt

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 845

This volume is the second in the planned coverage of the neurochemical circuitry of the primate central nervous system. While this volume contains only two chapters, their topics and the extraordinarily comprehensive coverage with which the authors have dealt with their topics, will nevertheless contribute equal amounts of knowledge, wisdom, and opportunities for future research extensions as have every volume in this unique series. As such, these chapters extend the goals of this primate series to develop a broad coverage of human and non-human primate chemical neuroanatomic details in a volume which makes clear the known and desirable appreciation for differences between and among subsets of primate brains. The first chapter covers the primate thalamus with equal emphases on new world, old world, pro-simian and human anatomic details and their differences. The second undertakes a comparably comprehensive examination of one of the most intensively studied regions of the primate brain, namely the primate visual cortex. While much has been studied, both chapters also reveal how much remains for future efforts in these enormously important regions which are the archetypes of primate sub-cortical and cortical function.