At the beginning of the eighteenth century Prussia was but one in a mosaic of German states, but it rose to be the unchallenged leader of German-speaking Europe after the fall of Napoleon. The book goes beyond the political, military and diplomatic concerns of the Prussian elite, whose record of events is the one upon which most histories of Prussia are based, and explains its rise in relation to Prussian society as a whole. Political analysis is integrated with material on such areas as agrarian society, urban life and religion, which are not fully examined in existing histories.
A History of Eastern Europe 1740-1918: Empires, Nations and Modernisation provides a comprehensive, authoritative account of the region during a troubled period that finished with the First World War. Ian Armour focuses on the three major themes that have defined Eastern Europe in the modern period - empire, nationhood and modernisation - whilst chronologically tracing the emergence of Eastern Europe as a distinct concept and place. Detailed coverage is given to the Habsburg, Ottoman, German and Russian Empires that struggled for dominance during this time. In this exciting new edition, Ian Armour incorporates findings from new research into the nature and origins of nationalism and the attempts of supranational states to generate dynastic loyalties as well as concepts of empire. Armour's insightful guide to early Eastern Europe considers the important figures and governments, analyses the significant events and discusses the socio-economic and cultural developments that are crucial to a rounded understanding of the region in that era. Features of this new edition include: * A fully updated and enlarged bibliography and notes * Eight useful maps * Updated content throughout the text A History of Eastern Europe 1740-1918 is the ideal textbook for students studying Eastern European history.
The Wilhelmstrasse And the Formulation Of Foreign Policy
Author: William Young
The continuity issue has been a theme in German historiography for half a century. Historians have examined the foreign policy of Wilhelmine and Nazi Germany that led to two world wars. Dr. William Young examines the continuity of German Foreign Office influence in the formulation of foreign policy under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck (1862-1890), Kaiser William II (1888-1918), the Weimar Republic (1919-1933), and Adolf Hitler (1933-1945). He stresses the role and influence of strong German leaders in the making of policy and the conduct of foreign relations. German Diplomatic Relations 1871-1945 will be of value to individuals interested in the history of Germany, Modern Europe, and International Relations.
This collection explores different approaches to contextualizing and conceptualizing the history of Pietism, particularly German-speaking Pietistic groups who migrated to the British colonies in North America during the long eighteenth century. Emerging in the seventeenth century, Pietism was closely related to Puritanism, sharing similar evangelical and heterogeneous characteristics. The importance of Pietism in shaping Protestant society and culture in Europe and North America has long been recognized, but as a topic of scholarly inquiry, it has until now received little interdisciplinary attention. Offering essays by leading scholars from a range of fields this volume provides the first overview of the subject, helping to situate Pietism in the broader Atlantic context, and making an important contribution to understanding religious life in Europe and colonial North America during the eighteenth century.
Is theology possible within a Christian university? Beneath the emphasis of contextual, philosophical, and ecclesial pluralism, what is its academic nature? Further, who can participate in it? Recent debates and discussions by theologians that touch upon these questions seem to run in circles: theology is an academic specialty enjoying academic freedom; theology must bolster ecclesial identity, become more catechetical, and serve the church; theology must contribute to and shape public policy. Though such positions recur, they overlook latent but interrelated characteristics embedded within the nature and place of theology within the Christian university that affect them all. Upon analysis of four major theologians, Friedrich Schleiermacher, John Henry Newman, Avery Cardinal Dulles, S.J., and Edward Farley, I argue that there are two major patterns at work. First, theology is more a sapientia or wisdom than a traditional academic discipline. Second, all descriptions of theology in the university possess an inclusive or exclusive soteriological character. These patterns pervade diverse topics: the relationship of theology to the church authority, a theologian's ecclesial and academic commitments, the preconditions of faith for theological understanding, participation in a religious symbol system, theology as wisdom, and the difference between religion and theology. How one implicitly defines Christian salvation regarding the place of theology in the Christian university opens or closes the practice of theology to those who teach and learn it.
Examining the history of nationalism's pervasive influence on modern politics and cultural identities, Lloyd Kramer discusses how nationalist ideas gained emotional and cultural power after the revolutionary upheavals in the late eighteenth-century Atlantic world. Nationalism in Europe and America analyzes the multiple historical contexts and intellectual themes that have shaped modern nationalist cultures, including the political claims for national sovereignty, the emergence of nationalist narratives in historical writing and literature, the fusion of nationalism and religion, and the overlapping conceptions of gender, families, race, and national identities. Kramer emphasizes the similarities in American and European nationalist thought, showing how European ideas about land, history, and national destiny flourished in the United States while American ideas about national independence and political rights reappeared among European nationalists and also influenced the rise of anticolonial nationalisms in twentieth-century Asia and Africa. By placing nationalist ideas and conflicts within the specific, cross-cultural framework of Atlantic history and extending his analysis to the twentieth-century world wars, Kramer offers readers a thoughtful perspective on nationalism's enduring political and cultural importance throughout the modern world.
Patronage, Fictionalism [sic], and State-building in the Early Eighteenth-century Prussian Army Chaplaincy
Author: Benjamin Marschke
Category: Chaplains, Military
The Prussian army chaplaincy was transformed from a disorganized, unofficial apparatus into a bureaucratized, centralized, and hierarchical state organ as part of the collaboration between August Hermann Francke (1663-1727) and King Friedrich Wilhelm I (1688-1740), but it was the Pietists who were the driving force behind institutionalization, not the monarchy. Francke and his allies created a state organ as a new power base and means of accessing Friedrich Wilhelm in order to check their various opponents at court, to further expand their own patronage system in Prussia, and even to sabotage the Soldier King's own religious policies.
Why did German states for so long make it extraordinarily difficult for foreigners who were not ethnic Germans to become citizens? In a study that begins in the early 19th century and reaches the Nazi period, the author challenges the traditional interpretation of the role of ethnicity.
Nation, Religion, and Family in the Prussian East, 1772-1880
Author: Mark Jantzen
Mennonite German Soldiers traces the efforts of a small, pacifist, Christian religious minority in eastern Prussia--the Mennonite communities of the Vistula River basin--to preserve their exemption from military service, which was based on their religious confession of faith. Conscription was mandatory for nearly all male Prussian citizens, and the willingness to fight and die for country was essential to the ideals of a developing German national identity. In this engaging historical narrative, Mark Jantzen describes the policies of the Prussian federal and regional governments toward the Mennonites over a hundred-year period and the legal, economic, and social pressures brought to bear on the Mennonites to conform. Mennonite leaders defended the exemptions of their communities' sons through a long history of petitions and legal pleas, and sought alternative ways, such as charitable donations, to support the state and prove their loyalty. Faced with increasingly punitive legal and financial restrictions, as well as widespread social disapproval, many Mennonites ultimately emigrated, and many others chose to join the German nation at the cost of their religious tradition. Jantzen tells the history of the Mennonite experience in Prussian territories against the backdrop of larger themes of Prussian state-building and the growth of German nationalism. The Mennonites, who lived on the margins of German society, were also active agents in the long struggle of the state to integrate them. The public debates over their place in Prussian society shed light on a multi-confessional German past and on the dissemination of nationalist values. "What happens when a state acquires a population that is economically valuable but religiously undesirable? Mark Jantzen has opened up new territory with his absorbing study of a classic case, the Mennonites of the Vistula Delta in the century between the partition of Poland and the first decade of Bismarck's Reich. Mennonite German Soldiers undermines more than one Sonderweg and joins the pioneering work of Benjamin Nathans and Robert Crews (Russia), Selim Deringil and Fikret Adanir (Ottoman Empire), and Mack Walker and Helmut Walser Smith (Germany) in transforming our understanding of minority-majority relations in a multi-religious environment. Crisply written and deeply researched, it should be required reading for graduate seminars in Europe's long nineteenth century, and offers surprises to scholars working in German, Polish, Russian, and Jewish history." --Margaret Lavinia Anderson, University of California, Berkeley "Mennonite German Soldiers engages several fundamental themes in Prussian/German history through the transition from early modern to the modern era. This regional study of eastern Prussia focuses on the Mennonites, a fairly small religious minority, and the author clearly intends the story to be a microcosm for engaging more basic themes, such as the rise of German nationalism; the intersection of church/state in modern Europe; the role of the gender/family in state formation; the conflicted emergence of liberal politics. Similar variations of this story have been told before--focusing on the Jewish Catholic experience--but this is the first book-length study that focuses on a Christian minority group with the debate over military service central to its argument." --John D. Roth, Goshen College "Based on extensive and exacting research, Jantzen shows in intricate detail how Mennonite attitudes toward the military draft changed over time, and how these changing attitudes reshaped the fundamental fabric of the Mennonite community. Through this prism, Jantzen also illuminates fundamental questions of modern nationalism and the connections between nationalism, religion, and everyday life." --Helmut Walser Smith, Vanderbilt University
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Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
The European seventeenth century saw the seeming resolution of two great conflicts. Through the nightmares of the Thirty Years War and the British civil wars, the murderous religious hatreds that had dominated the previous period finally burnt themselves out. Extreme Protestants were defeated, expelled, contained or subordinated, and Catholicism successfully re-established itself through much of Europe as the dominant religion. Dr. Spellman studies all the great political theorists of the century (dominated inevitably by Hobbes). This book will be invaluable for anyone studying seventeenth century European history - it allows those studying the thought of the period to understand the historical context, and those studying the military and political events to understand their intellectual underpinning.
Napoleon's conquests were spectacular, but behind his wars, is an enduring legacy. A new generation of historians have re-evaluated the Napoleonic era and found that his real achievement was the creation of modern Europe as we know it.