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Examines basic concepts and the First Law, Second Law, equilibria, Nernst's Heat Theorem, and the kinetic theory of gases. Includes an index and a wealth of figures. An important resource for students and physicists, it can be read independently by those who wish to focus on individual topics. 1973 edition.

This book introduces physics students and teachers to the historical development of the kinetic theory of gases, by providing a collection of the most important contributions by Clausius, Maxwell and Boltzmann, with introductory surveys explaining their significance. In addition, extracts from the works of Boyle, Newton, Mayer, Joule, Helmholtz, Kelvin and others show the historical context of ideas about gases, energy and irreversibility. In addition to five thematic essays connecting the classical kinetic theory with 20th century topics such as indeterminism and interatomic forces, there is an extensive international bibliography of historical commentaries on kinetic theory, thermodynamics, etc. published in the past four decades. The book will be useful to historians of science who need primary and secondary sources to be conveniently available for their own research and interpretation, along with the bibliography which makes it easier to learn what other historians have already done on this subject. Contents:The Nature of Gases and of Heat (Boyle, Newton, Bernoulli, Gregory, Mayer, Joule, von Helmholtz, Clausius, Maxwell)Irreversible Processes (Maxwell, Boltzmann, Thomson, Poincaré, Zermelo)Historical Discussions by Stephen G BrushA Guide to Historical Commentaries: Kinetic Theory of Gases, Thermodynamics, and Related Topics Readership: Graduate and research students, teachers, lecturers and historians of physics. Keywords:Kinetic Theory;Gases;Boyle's Law;Gas Laws;Viscosity;Diffusion;Forces between Atoms and Molecules;Interatomic Forces;Ergodic Theorem;Ergodicity;Heat Conduction;Irreversibility;Indeterminism;Thermodynamics;First Law of Thermodynamics;Second Law of Thermodynamics;Third Law of Thermodynamics;Law of Conservation of Energy;Maxwell Velocity Distribution;Boltzmann's H Theorem;Boltzmann's (Transport) Equation;Reversibility Paradox;Recurrence Paradox;Statistical MechanicsReviews:“One of the most important contributions of this volume is the bibliography in Part IV … This is a useful book and should be on the shelves of all kinetic theorists and statistical mechanics.” Journal of Statistical Physics “This book will be useful both for historical research and for students studying the history of physics.”Notes and Records of the Royal Society “It is valuable to have the work in print again, since some of the originals are not always easily accessible and all who have struggled, for example, with Boltzmann's German will welcome accurate translations … The whole book is to be welcomed as an aid to those undertaking research or otherwise interested in exploring these fields.”AMBIX

Monograph and text supplement for first-year students of physical chemistry focuses chiefly on the molecular basis of important thermodynamic properties of gases, including pressure, temperature, and thermal energy. 1966 edition.

Imparts the similarities and differences between ratified and condensed matter, classical and quantum systems as well as real and ideal gases. Presents the quasi-thermodynamic theory of gas-liquid interface and its application for density profile calculation within the van der Waals theory of surface tension. Uses inductive logic to lead readers from observation and facts to personal interpretation and from specific conclusions to general ones.

A masterpiece of theoretical physics, this classic contains a comprehensive exposition of the kinetic theory of gases. It combines rigorous mathematic analysis with a pragmatic treatment of physical and chemical applications.

James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) is generally considered the most importantmathematical physicist in the period between Newton and Einstein. His work, like theirs, exhibitsrange as well as depth and extends from his grand synthesis of electrical, magnetic, and opticalphenomena in the theory of electromagnetic fields to his contributions to the kinetic theory ofgases and its generalization into statistical mechanics.Maxwell on Saturn's Rings (The MIT Press,1983) focused on the early work that confirmed Maxwell's scientific promise. The present volumedeals with the evolution of Maxwell's overview of atomic and statistical physics and with his workon the kinetic theory of transport phenomena in gases. It includes 92 documents and papers spanningthe years 1859-1879. Among these are previously unpublished notes, drafts, and calculations andcorrespondence with Peter Guthrie Tait, William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Herbert Spencer, GeorgeGabbriel Stokes, Simon Newcomb, and others.The reader can trace Maxwell's insights from theirinception to their fruition in the fully worked-out formal papers and shorter communications toNature that are also included. The documents reveal the stages through which key concepts passed -such as the idea that diffusion, viscosity, and heat conduction in gases are parallel dynamicalprocesses expressed in terms of the transfer of mass, momentum, and energy - and show Maxwell'sskill in balancing abstract philosophical generalization with concrete practical detail.The editorshave provided a comprehensive introduction that places the material in historical context. Aforthcoming volume on thermodynamics and statistical mechanics will conclude their presentation ofMaxwell's scientific development.Elizabeth Garber and Stephen G. Brush are historians of scienceaffiliated with the State University of New York at Stony Brook and the University of Maryland,respectively. C. W. F. Everitt is a physicist and historian of science associated with StanfordUniversity.

Molecular Physics: Kinetic Theory and Thermodynamics discusses the kinetic theory of ideal gases, transport phenomenon and behaviour of real of gases in detail. Thermodynamics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics are clearly formulated and their applications in various branches of physics (phase transitions, low temperature physics, thermal conduction and radiation) are also discussed.

David Hilbert (1862-1943) was the most influential mathematician of the early twentieth century and, together with Henri Poincaré, the last mathematical universalist. His main known areas of research and influence were in pure mathematics (algebra, number theory, geometry, integral equations and analysis, logic and foundations), but he was also known to have some interest in physical topics. The latter, however, was traditionally conceived as comprising only sporadic incursions into a scientific domain which was essentially foreign to his mainstream of activity and in which he only made scattered, if important, contributions. Based on an extensive use of mainly unpublished archival sources, the present book presents a totally fresh and comprehensive picture of Hilbert’s intense, original, well-informed, and highly influential involvement with physics, that spanned his entire career and that constituted a truly main focus of interest in his scientific horizon. His program for axiomatizing physical theories provides the connecting link with his research in more purely mathematical fields, especially geometry, and a unifying point of view from which to understand his physical activities in general. In particular, the now famous dialogue and interaction between Hilbert and Einstein, leading to the formulation in 1915 of the generally covariant field-equations of gravitation, is adequately explored here within the natural context of Hilbert’s overall scientific world-view. This book will be of interest to historians of physics and of mathematics, to historically-minded physicists and mathematicians, and to philosophers of science.